email page print pageAll Topic Reviews
A Theory of Feelings Addictions Memory and the Self"Intimate" Violence against Women1001 Solution-Focused Questions101 Healing Stories101 Things I Wish I'd Known When I Started Using Hypnosis50 Great Myths of Popular Psychology50 Reasons People Give for Believing in a God8 Keys to Body Brain BalanceA Brief History of Modern PsychologyA Conceptual History of PsychologyA Conceptual History of Psychology: Exploring the Tangled Web A Cooperative SpeciesA Guide to Teaching Introductory PsychologyA History of Modern Experimental PsychologyA History of Psychology in AutobiographyA History of Social PsychologyA History of the BrainA History of the MindA Hole in the HeadA Matter of SecurityA Mind of Its OwnA Natural History of Human ThinkingA Place for ConsciousnessA Short Introduction to Promoting Resilience in ChildrenA Social History of PsychologyA Stroll With William JamesA System Architecture Approach to the BrainA Theory of FreedomA Very Bad WizardAbductedAbout FacesAccounts of InnocenceAction, Emotion and WillAdapting MindsADHD & MeADHD in AdultsAdieu to GodAdolescence and Body ImageAdult Bipolar DisordersAdvances in Culture and PsychologyAdvances in Identity Theory and ResearchAffect Regulation, Mentalization, and the Development of SelfAffective MappingAgainst EmpathyAgainst HappinessAges and StagesAll Joy and No FunAll Out!All We Have to FearAlterations of ConsciousnessAmerican Psychiatric Publishing Textbook of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical NeurosciencesAn Argument for MindAncient Bodies, Modern LivesAnd BreatheAnimal MadnessAnimal Tool BehaviorAnimals in TranslationAnomalous CognitionAping MankindArtificial ConsciousnessAspects of PsychologismAsperger Syndrome and Your ChildAsperger Syndrome, Adolescence, and IdentityAssessment and Treatment of Childhood Problems, Second EditionAssisted Suicide and the Right to DieAttachedAttention is Cognitive UnisonAutism and the Myth of the Person AloneAutopsy of a Suicidal MindBecoming an Effective PsychotherapistBehavingBehavioral Genetics in the Postgenomic EraBeing No OneBelievingBetween Two WorldsBeyond AppearanceBeyond BlueBeyond BullyingBeyond MadnessBeyond MelancholyBeyond the BrainBeyond the DSM StoryBig DreamsBiofeedback for the BrainBipolar ChildrenBipolar DisorderBipolar KidsBlackwell Handbook of Childhood Cognitive DevelopmentBlind SpotsBlindsight & The Nature of ConsciousnessBlubberlandBlushBodiesBody ConsciousnessBody Image, Eating Disorders, and Obesity in YouthBody SenseBody WorkBorderline Personality DisorderBorderline Personality Disorder and the Conversational ModelBorn DigitalBorn to Be GoodBorn Together - Reared ApartBounceBoundaries in Human RelationshipsBounded RationalityBozo SapiensBrain and CultureBrain and the GazeBrain Arousal and Information TheoryBrain BugsBrain Change TherapyBrain Circuitry and Signaling in PsychiatryBrain FictionBrain, Mind, and Human Behavior in Contemporary Cognitive ScienceBrain-Based Therapy with AdultsBrain-WiseBrainstormBrainstormingBraintrustBrainwashingBrandedBreaking Murphy's LawBright-SidedBuddha's BrainBullying and TeasingBuyologyCan't You Hear Them?CaptureCare of the PsycheCartesian LinguisticsCartographies of the MindCerebrum 2007Cerebrum 2010Cerebrum 2015Cerebrum Anthology 2013Changing the SubjectCharacter Strengths and VirtuesCheating LessonsChild and Adolescent Psychological DisordersChildren’s Dreaming and the Development of Consciousness Chomsky NotebookClinical Psychiatry in Imperial GermanyClinical Psychology in Practice ClosureCognition and PerceptionCognition and the BrainCognitive BiologyCognitive DissonanceCognitive FictionsCognitive Mechanisms of Belief ChangeCognitive PragmaticsCognitive ScienceCognitive ScienceCognitive Systems and the Extended MindCognitive Therapy of Anxiety DisordersCognitive Unconscious and Human RationalityCold-Blooded KindnessComing of Age in Second LifeCommunication Issues In Autism And Asperger SyndromeCompassion and Healing in Medicine and SocietyComplementary and Alternative Therapies ResearchComprehending ColumbineConfessions of a SociopathConquering Shame and CodependencyConsciousnessConsciousnessConsciousnessConsciousnessConsciousnessConsciousness ConsciousnessConsciousness and Its Place in NatureConsciousness and LanguageConsciousness and Mental LifeConsciousness and MindConsciousness and the NovelConsciousness and the Social BrainConsciousness EmergingConsciousness RecoveredConsciousness RevisitedConsciousness, Self-Consciousness, and the Science of Being HumanConstructing PainContemporary Debates in Cognitive ScienceConversations on ConsciousnessConviction of the InnocentCooperation and Its EvolutionCreating a Life of Meaning and CompassionCredit and BlameCritical New Perspectives on Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity DisorderCritical PsychologyCritical Thinking About PsychologyCross-Cultural PsychologyCrowdsourcingCrueltyCultural Assessment in Clinical PsychiatryCuriousDamasio's Error and Descartes' TruthDangerous and Severe Personality DisorderDaniel DennettDaughters of MadnessDeafness In MindDeath and ConsciousnessDeath of a ParentDecomposing the WillDeep Brain StimulationDeep ChinaDefining DifferenceDefining Psychopathology in the 21st CenturyDelusion and Self-DeceptionDelusions of GenderDennett and Ricoeur on the Narrative SelfDeparting from DevianceDescartes' BabyDescartes's Changing MindDescribing Inner Experience?Desert Islands and Other Texts (1953-1974)Destructive EmotionsDevelopment of Geocentric Spatial Language and CognitionDevelopment of PsychopathologyDialogues on DifferenceDid My Neurons Make Me Do It?Digital HemlockDirty MindsDisgust and Its DisordersDisorders of VolitionDo Apes Read Minds?Do Fish Feel Pain?Does Consciousness Cause Behavior?Doing without ConceptsDrunk Tank PinkEducating People to Be Emotionally IntelligentEffective IntentionsEffective Writing in PsychologyEffortless AttentionEmbodied Minds in ActionEmbracing MindEmbracing UncertaintyEmotion and ConsciousnessEmotion ExperienceEmotion RegulationEmotion, Evolution, And RationalityEmotional IntelligenceEmotionally InvolvedEmotionsEmotionsEmotions and LifeEmotions in Humans and ArtifactsEmotions RevealedEmotions, Aggression, and Morality in ChildrenEmotions, Stress, and HealthEmpathyEnjoymentErotic MoralityEscape Your Own PrisonEssays in Social NeuroscienceEssential Sources in the Scientific Study of ConsciousnessEthical Issues in Forensic Mental Health ResearchEthically Challenged ProfessionsEveryday Mind ReadingEvidence for PsiEvidence-Based Mental Health PracticeEvil MenEvolution and Human BehaviorEvolution and LearningEvolution, Games, and GodEvolution, Gender, and RapeEvolutionary Psychology and ViolenceEvolutionary Psychology as Maladapted PsychologyExacting BeautyExperiences of DepressionExperimenterExplaining the BrainExplaining the BrainExplorations in Neuroscience, Psychology and ReligionExploring TranssexualismExpression and the InnerExtending Self-Esteem ResearchExtraordinary BeliefsFact and Value in EmotionFaking ItFatigue as a Window to the BrainFavorite Activities for the Teaching of PsychologyFeeling GoodFeeling Pain and Being in PainFeelings and EmotionsFinding Meaning, Facing FearsFitting In Is OverratedFive Constraints on Predicting BehaviorFlourishingFlow: The Psychology of Optimal ExperienceFolk Psychological NarrativesFooling HoudiniForever YoungFormulation in Psychology and PsychotherapyFoucault, Psychology and the Analytics of PowerFoundational Issues in Human Brain MappingFoundations of Psychological ThoughtFree Will as an Open Scientific ProblemFreedom And NeurobiologyFreedom EvolvesFrom Axons to IdentityFrom Madness to Mental HealthFrom Neurons to Self-ConsciousnessFrom Passions to EmotionsFrom Philosophy to PsychotherapyFrom Symptom to SynapseFrontiers of ConsciousnessGay, Straight, and the Reason WhyGenerosityGenes, Environment, and PsychopathologyGenetic Nature/CultureGeniusGetting Under the SkinGlued to GamesGoing SaneGot Parts?Group GeniusGrowing Up GirlGuilt, Shame, and AnxietyGut ReactionsHallucinationHandbook New Sexuality StudiesHandbook of Closeness and IntimacyHandbook of Critical PsychologyHandbook of Emotion RegulationHandbook of EmotionsHandbook of Personality DisordersHandbook of PsychopathyHandbook of Self and IdentityHandbook of Self and IdentityHandbook of Spatial CognitionHappinessHappinessHappinessHappinessHappiness at WorkHappiness Is.Happy at LastHard to GetHardwired BehaviorHatredHealing the SplitHidden ResourcesHope and DespairHot ThoughtHot ThoughtHouse and PsychologyHow Animals Affect UsHow Animals GrieveHow Can the Human Mind Occur in the Physical Universe?How Doctors ThinkHow Enlightenment Changes Your BrainHow Families Still MatterHow History Made the MindHow Infants Know MindsHow Many Friends Does One Person Need?How People ChangeHow Professors ThinkHow The Body Shapes The MindHow the Body Shapes the Way We ThinkHow the Mind Explains BehaviorHow the Mind Uses the BrainHow to Change Someone You LoveHow We ReasonHow We RememberHughes' Outline of Modern PsychiatryHumanHuman BondingHuman Reasoning and Cognitive ScienceHypnotismHysteriaiBrainIdentifying Hyperactive ChildrenIdentifying the MindiDisorderImagination and the Meaningful BrainImitation and the Social MindImpulse Control DisordersImpulsivityIn an Unspoken VoiceIn Defense of SentimentalityIn DoubtIn Search of HappinessIn the Wake of 9/11Individual and Collective Memory ConsolidationInner Experience and NeuroscienceInner PresenceInside the American CoupleIntegrated Behavioral Health CareIntegrating Evolution and DevelopmentIntegrating Psychotherapy and PharmacotherapyIntegrity and the Fragile SelfIntellectual DisabilityIntelligenceIntelligence, Destiny, and EducationIntentions and IntentionalityInterdependent MindsInterpreting MindsInto the Minds of MadmenIntoxicating MindsIntrospection VindicatedIntuitionInventing PersonalityInvestigating the Psychological WorldIrrationalityIs There Anything Good About Men?Issues for Families, Schools and CommunitiesJane Sexes It UpJoint AttentionJoint AttentionJudgment and Decision MakingJust a DogJust BabiesJuvenile-Onset SchizophreniaKarl JaspersKey Thinkers in PsychologyKidding OurselvesKids of CharacterKilling MonstersLack of CharacterLanguage OriginsLanguage, Consciousness, CultureLanguage, Vision, and MusicLaw, Mind and BrainLess Than HumanLet Kids Be KidsLet's Talk About DeathLiving NarrativeLiving with Mild Cognitive ImpairmentLonelinessLooking for SpinozaLossLOT 2Love at Goon ParkMachine ConsciousnessMacrocognitionMade for Each OtherMadnessMaking a Good Brain GreatMaking Habits, Breaking HabitsMaking Minds and MadnessMaking Up the MindMale SexualityMan and WomanMan's Search for MeaningMan, Beast, and ZombieManic MindsManlinessMapping the MindMarking the MindMarvelous Learning AnimalMasculinity Studies and Feminist TheoryMeaningMeaning, Mortality, and ChoiceMedical MusesMeditating SelflesslyMeetings with a Remarkable ManMemoryMemory and DreamsMemory and EmotionMemory And UnderstandingMental BiologyMental IllnessMental Time TravelMetacognitionMetacognition and Theory of MindMethods in MindMindMindMind and BrainMind and ConsciousnessMind Games:Mind in LifeMind TimeMind to MindMind, Brain and the Elusive SoulMindful AngerMindfulnessMindfulnessMindfulness and AcceptanceMindfulness-Based Treatment Approaches: Clinician's Guide to Evidence Base and ApplicationsMinding AnimalsMinding MindsMindreadersMindreading AnimalsMinds, Brains, and LawMindsightMindworldsMirrors in the BrainMistakes Were Made (But Not by Me)Models of MadnessMoodMoral Development and RealityMoral MindsMoral Psychology, Volume 1Moral Psychology, Volume 2Moral Psychology, Volume 3Mothers and OthersMotivation and Cognitive ControlMotivational Interviewing: Preparing People For ChangeMovies and the MindMulticulturalism and the Therapeutic ProcessMultiplicityMuses, Madmen, and ProphetsMy Family AlbumMyths about SuicideNarrative IdentitiesNarrative PsychiatryNarratives in PsychiatryNaturalizing Intention in ActionNature and NarrativeNature Via NurtureNeither Bad nor MadNerveNeurobiology and the Development of Human MoralityNeurochemistry of ConsciousnessNeurodiversityNeuroethicsNeuroLogicNeurological Foundations of Cognitive Neuroscience Neuroscience and PhilosophyNo Child Left DifferentNo Two AlikeNot By Genes AloneNot Much Just Chillin'Not So Abnormal PsychologyNurturing the Older Brain and MindOn AnxietyOn Being HumanOn Being MovedOn Deep History and the BrainOn DesireOn KillingOn Nature and LanguageOn PaedophiliaOn PersonalityOn the Frontier of AdulthoodOn the Origins of Cognitive ScienceOn The Stigma Of Mental IllnessOnflowOpen MindsOpening Skinner's BoxOrigin of MindOrigins of PsychopathologyOther MindsOut of Our HeadsOut of the WoodsOvercoming Depersonalization DisorderPanpsychism and the Religious AttitudePanpsychism in the WestParenting and the Child's WorldPassionate EnginesPathologies of the WestPatient-Based Approaches to Cognitive NeurosciencePediatric PsychopharmacologyPeople Types and Tiger StripesPerception & CognitionPerception beyond InferencePerception, Hallucination, and IllusionPersonal Development and Clinical PsychologyPerspectives on ImitationPhantoms in the BrainPhenomenal Concepts and Phenomenal KnowledgePhenomenology and Philosophy of MindPhilosophical Foundations of NeurosciencePhilosophical MidwiferyPhilosophy and HappinessPhilosophy of PsychologyPhilosophy, Neuroscience and ConsciousnessPhrenologyPhysical RealizationPhysics in MindPieces of LightPlaying with FirePositive PsychologyPositive PsychologyPostcards from the Brain MuseumPostpsychiatryPosttraumatic Stress DisorderPoverty and Brain Development During ChildhoodPractical Ethics for PsychologistsPractical Management of Personality DisorderPractical Management of Personality DisorderPredicative MindsPredictably IrrationalPreference, Belief, and SimilarityPrenatal Testosterone in MindPrivileged AccessProcrastinationProust Was a NeuroscientistPsychiatric SlaveryPsychiatry as Cognitive NeurosciencePsychiatry, Psychoanalysis, And The New Biology Of MindPsychological AgencyPsychological Concepts and Biological PsychiatryPsychological Dimensions of the SelfPsychologists Defying the CrowdPsychologyPsychologyPsychology and Consumer CulturePsychology and LawPsychology and the Question of AgencyPsychology for ScreenwritersPsychology of Women: A Handbook of Issues and TheoriesPsychology's GhostsPsychology's Interpretive TurnPsychology's TerritoriesPsychopathologyPsychopathyPsychosis and EmotionPsychotherapy, American Culture, and Social PolicyPutnam CampPutting a Name to ItQuantum Memory PowerQuietRadical DistortionRadical Embodied Cognitive ScienceRadical ExternalismRadical GraceRapeRe-Visioning PsychiatryReal MaterialismReality CheckReconstructing Reason and RepresentationReconstructing the Cognitive WorldRecovery in Mental IllnessRecreative MindsRedirectReducing Adolescent RiskRegulating EmotionsRelational BeingRelational Mental HealthRelational Suicide AssessmentReliability in Cognitive NeuroscienceRemembering HomeRemembering Our ChildhoodResearch Advances in Genetics and GenomicsResearching Children's ExperienceResilience in ChildrenRestoring ResilienceRethinking ADHDRethinking Learning DisabilitiesRethinking Middle YearsRethinking the Western Understanding of the SelfRevolution in PsychologyRoadmap to ResilienceRomance and Sex in Adolescence and Emerging AdulthoodSchizophrenia RevealedSchizophrenia, Culture, and SubjectivityScience and Pseudoscience in Clinical PsychologyScience and Pseudoscience in Clinical PsychologySecond NatureSecond NatureSecond That EmotionSecond-order Change in PsychotherapySecrets of the MindSee What I'm SayingSee What I'm SayingSeeing and VisualizingSeeing RedSelf and SocietySelf Comes to MindSelf Control in Society, Mind, and BrainSelf-Awareness Deficits in Psychiatric PatientsSelf-CompassionSelf-RegulationSelf-Representational Approaches to ConsciousnessSelfless InsightSelvesSerial KillersSex at DawnSex on the BrainSex, Time and PowerSexual Coercion in Primates and HumansSexual DisordersSexual FluiditySexual ReckoningsSexualized BrainsShame and GuiltShatteredSimulating MindsSisyphus's BoulderSNAPSocial NeuroscienceSocial NeuroscienceSocial NeuroscienceSocial Psychology and DiscourseSome We Love, Some We Hate, Some We EatSoul DustSparkSpiral of EntrapmentSplendors and Miseries of the BrainSports Hypnosis in PracticeStanding at Water's EdgeStich and His CriticsStillpowerStop OverreactingStructure and Agency in Everyday LifeStructures of AgencyStuffStumbling on HappinessSubjectivity and SelfhoodSubstance Abuse and EmotionSupersizing the MindSweet DreamsSynaptic SelfTales from Both Sides of the BrainTalking Oneself SoberTalking to BabiesTaming the Troublesome ChildTargeting AutismTeaching Problems and the Problems of TeachingTeleological RealismTen Years of Viewing from WithinTestosterone RexThat's DisgustingThe 5 Elements of Effective ThinkingThe Accidental MindThe Age of EmpathyThe Altruism EquationThe Altruistic BrainThe American Psychiatric Publishing Textbook of Clinical PsychiatryThe Anatomy of BiasThe Anxious BrainThe Archaeology of MindThe Art and Science of MindfulnessThe Art InstinctThe Art of HypnosisThe Asymmetrical BrainThe Bifurcation of the SelfThe Big Book of ConceptsThe Big DisconnectThe Birth of IntersubjectivityThe Birth of the MindThe Blackwell Handbook of Organizational Learning and Knowledge ManagementThe Blank SlateThe Body Has a Mind of Its OwnThe Bounds of CognitionThe Boy Who Was Raised as a DogThe BrainThe BrainThe Brain and the Meaning of LifeThe Brain SupremacyThe Brain That Changes ItselfThe Brain's Way of HealingThe Brain: Big Bangs, Behaviors, and BeliefsThe Cambridge Handbook of Cognitive ScienceThe Cambridge Handbook of Situated CognitionThe Character of ConsciousnessThe Chemistry Between UsThe Choice EffectThe Clinical Science of Suicide PreventionThe Cognitive Approach to Conscious MachinesThe Cognitive Behavioral Workbook for Anxiety: A Step-By-Step ProgramThe Cognitive NeurosciencesThe Cognitive-Emotional BrainThe College Fear FactorThe Commercialization of Intimate LifeThe Compass of PleasureThe Concepts of ConsciousnessThe Conscious BrainThe Conscious SelfThe Consuming InstinctThe Creating BrainThe Creative BrainThe Crucible of ConsciousnessThe Crucible of ExperienceThe Cure WithinThe Dao of NeuroscienceThe Developing MindThe Developing MindThe Development of PsychopathologyThe Disappearance of the Social in American Social PsychologyThe Dissolution of MindThe Duty to ProtectThe Educated ParentThe Ego TunnelThe Elephant in the RoomThe Embodied Mind: Cognitive Science and Human ExperienceThe Emotional Journey of the Alzheimer's FamilyThe Encultured BrainThe Encyclopedia of StupidityThe Enduring Self in People with Alzheimer'sThe Epidemiology of SchizophreniaThe Essential DifferenceThe Ethical BrainThe Evolution of ChildhoodThe Evolution of CooperationThe Evolution of LanguageThe Evolution of MindThe Evolving BrainThe Executive BrainThe Faces of TerrorismThe Feeling BrainThe Feeling of What HappensThe First IdeaThe Folly of FoolsThe Folly of FoolsThe Folly of FoolsThe Foundations of Cognitive ArchaeologyThe Fundamentalist MindsetThe GapThe Gender TrapThe Geography of BlissThe Gift of ShynessThe Good LifeThe Good LifeThe Happiness HypothesisThe Happiness of PursuitThe Health Psychology HandbookThe Healthy Aging BrainThe High Price of MaterialismThe History of PsychologyThe Human FaceThe Human SparkThe Hypomanic EdgeThe Imagery DebateThe Immeasurable MindThe Imprinted BrainThe Incredible Shrinking MindThe Innate MindThe Innate MindThe Integrated SelfThe Intentional BrainThe Language of ThoughtThe Languages of the BrainThe Lexicon of Adlerian PsychologyThe Lie DetectorsThe Lives of the BrainThe Lonely AmericanThe Lust for BloodThe Madness of WomenThe Male BrainThe Man Who Lost His LanguageThe Man Who Shocked the WorldThe Man Who Tasted ShapesThe Man Who Wasn't ThereThe Matter of the MindThe Mature MindThe Mean Girl MotiveThe Meaning of EvilThe Meaning of OthersThe Meaning of the BodyThe Measure of MadnessThe Measure of MindThe Medicalization of Everyday LifeThe Mind and the BrainThe Mind in ContextThe Mind of the ChildThe Mind of the HorseThe Mind's EyeThe Mind, the Body and the WorldThe Mind-Gut ConnectionThe Mindful BrainThe Misleading MindThe Moral MindThe Most Dangerous AnimalThe Most Human HumanThe Mother FactorThe Myth of ChoiceThe Myth of Depression as DiseaseThe Myth of Mirror NeuronsThe Myth of Self HelpThe Myth of Self-EsteemThe Myth of the Spoiled ChildThe Nature of the SelfThe Necessity Of MadnessThe Neuro RevolutionThe Neuron and the MindThe Neuropsychology of the UnconsciousThe Neuroscience of Human RelationshipsThe Neuroscience of PsychotherapyThe Neuroscience of Psychotherapy: Healing the Social BrainThe New BrainThe New Science of DreamingThe New Science of the MindThe New UnconsciousThe Normal PersonalityThe Origins of FairnessThe Overflowing BrainThe Oxford Companion to the MindThe Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of MindThe Paradoxical PrimateThe Perfectionist's HandbookThe Peripheral MindThe Phenomenology ReaderThe Philosopher's Secret FireThe Philosophical BabyThe Political MindThe Politics of HappinessThe Positive Side of Negative EmotionsThe Postnational SelfThe Postpartum EffectThe Power of PlayThe Praeger Handbook of TranssexualityThe Present Moment in Psychotherapy and Everyday LifeThe Primate MindThe Prism of GrammarThe Psychobiology of Trauma and Resilience Across the LifespanThe Psychological Construction of EmotionThe Psychology of Good and EvilThe Psychology of Good and EvilThe Psychology of HappinessThe Psychology of LifestyleThe Psychology of Religious FundamentalismThe Psychology of Science and the Origins of the Scientific MindThe Psychology of Science and the Origins of the Scientific MindThe Psychology of SpiritualityThe Psychology of StereotypingThe Psychology of SuperheroesThe Psychophysiology of Self-AwarenessThe Pursuit of PerfectThe Quest for Mental HealthThe Rational ImaginationThe Ravenous BrainThe Reasons of LoveThe Righteous MindThe Routledge Companion to Philosophy of PsychologyThe Routledge Companion to Philosophy of PsychologyThe Science of EvilThe Science of Intimate RelationshipsThe Science of Shame and its Treatment The Second SelfThe Secret History of EmotionThe Secret Lives of BoysThe Self and Its EmotionsThe Self-Sabotage CycleThe Sense of SelfThe Sensitive SelfThe Shape of ThoughtThe Social AnimalThe Social Nature of Mental IllnessThe Social Neuroscience of EmpathyThe Social Psychology of Good and EvilThe Social Psychology of MoralityThe Social Psychology of MoralityThe Story of Intellectual DisabilityThe Structure of ThinkingThe Survivors ClubThe Talking ApeThe Teenage BrainThe Tell-Tale BrainThe Temperamental ThreadThe Tender CutThe Tending InstinctThe Time ParadoxThe Trauma MythThe Trauma of Psychological TortureThe Trauma of Psychological TortureThe Trouble with IllnessThe True PathThe Truth About GriefThe Turing TestThe Uncertain SciencesThe Undoing ProjectThe Unhappy ChildThe Upside of IrrationalityThe War for Children's MindsThe Well-Tuned BrainThe Wild Girl, Natural Man, and the MonsterThe Winner's BrainThe Wisdom in FeelingThe Woman RacketThe World in My Mind, My Mind in the WorldThe Wow ClimaxThe Yipping TigerThemes, Issues and Debates in PsychologyTheoretical Issues in Psychology: An IntroductionTheory of AddictionTheory of MindThings and PlacesThink CatThink Confident, Be ConfidentThinking about AddictionThinking and SeeingThis Emotional Life: In Search of Ourselves...and HappinessThought and LanguageThought in a Hostile WorldTo Have and To Hurt:Toward an Evolutionary Biology of LanguageToward Replacement Parts for the BrainTrauma and Human ExistenceTrauma, Tragedy, TherapyTreating Attachment DisordersTreating Self-InjuryTreating Self-Injury: A Practical GuideTrue to Our FeelingsTrusting the Subject?Understanding and Treating Borderline Personality DisorderUnderstanding ConsciousnessUnderstanding ParanoiaUnderstanding PeopleUnderstanding TerrorismUndoing Perpetual StressUnlock the Genius WithinUnsettled MindsUnstrange MindsUnthinkingUnthoughtUs and ThemViolent PartnersVirtue, Vice, and PersonalityVision and MindVisual AgnosiaWarrior's DishonourWe Who Are DarkWednesday Is Indigo BlueWelcome to Your BrainWhat Do Women Want?What Dying People WantWhat Have We DoneWhat Intelligence Tests MissWhat Is an Emotion: Classic and Contemporary ReadingsWhat Is Emotion?What is Intelligence?What Is Mental Illness?What Is Thought?What Makes Your Brain Happy and Why You Should Do the Opposite What the Best College Students DoWhat the Dog SawWhat We Know about Emotional IntelligenceWhat We Say MattersWhat's Wrong With Morality?When Boys Become BoysWhen Perfect Isn't Good EnoughWhen the Impossible HappensWhen Walls Become DoorwaysWho's Been Sleeping in Your HeadWho's in Charge?Why Humans Like to CryWhy Love MattersWhy Lyrics LastWhy People CooperateWhy People Die by SuicideWhy Sex Matters: A Darwinian Look at Human BehaviorWhy Smart People Can Be So StupidWhy the Mind is Not a ComputerWhy Us?Why We LieWhy We LoveWhy We SleepWider than the SkyWilliam James at the BoundariesWilling, Wanting, WaitingWittgenstein And PsychologyWomen and Child Sexual AbuseWorking MindsYoga and PsychologyYou Are What You RememberYoung Minds in Social WorldsYour Brain on CubsYour Brain on FoodYour Brain on Food: How Chemicals Control Your Thoughts and Feelings,Your Brain on YogaYour Child in the BalanceZombies and Consciousness
Karl Jaspers: The Shipwreck of Existence
"Man is always more than
whatever can be known about him." (p. 194)
I recently visited Heidelberg,
and asked to visit the library of the psychiatric clinic, where Jaspers had
worked on his classic text, General Psychopathology. I was accompanied by the
chairman of the department of psychiatry, a mild-mannered man. As we reached
the entrance to the nineteenth century building, he stopped and began to talk
about Nazi euthanasia. He gestured to a small round monument, with the names
of 17 patients, first names and last initials. "When I became chair in
1989," he said, "I had that sculpture installed in honor of the victims.
We were able to retrace the entire lives of 17 of the thousands of victims from
our department; and we put their names there, as long overdue penance."
He paused. "After the war, my predecessors did not want to revisit the
killing. The chairman during the Nazi period arranged it all; he was imposed
by the party on the department in 1933, and he committed suicide in
1945." Not knowing what to say, I remarked, "You must be proud of
what you finally did." The tension seemed to break: "I am!" he
said with a smile, as we entered.
up at the building, the top floor, which is the third, is the library, bounded
by arches all along its front windows. Inside, those arches look out onto the
wonderful mountain vista that is everywhere in Heidelberg. The library as in
the midst of some renovation, but there it was. Not dark and wood-colored as I
had anticipated, but light and small, smaller than your typical American
elementary school library. As a member of what might be considered something
of a Jaspers cult in the world of academia, I stood a moment: here the man
worked, here, with these few books. I picked out a few at random, late
nineteenth century and early twentieth century tracts only known to psychiatric
historians: Greisinger, Wernicke, Kraepelin, Jaspers himself.
left the library, I felt like Hegel's valet, getting to know the man began to
lighten the weight of image.
died in 1969, at age 86, famous in his native Germany. But for the rest of
the world, Karl Jaspers remains only partly known: he was that friend of
Heidegger's, who fell out with him over Nazism, or perhaps that teacher of Arendt,
who encouraged her liberalism.
He is, in the
world of the intelligentsia, of academic philosophy, a vague figure; but there
is another place where he is an equally ambiguous presence. It is an unusual
place; not the clean auditoria of academic lecture halls; rather, the old and
worn hallways of psychiatric hospitals. Jaspers is likely better known among
psychiatrists than among philosophers. Here is the paradox: perhaps the
greatest existential philosopher of our age was not really a philosopher at
all, but a physician, a psychiatrist, a man who, fully trained, turned his back
on his profession so he could understand the nature of Being.
is the last existentialist, the other existentialist -- not Heidegger or Sartre
or their reflections -- dead for a generation, and more unknown than ever.
this breach steps the first full length English biography of Jaspers, written
by Suzanne Kirkbright, a lecturer in German at Aston University in Birmingham, UK, who
conducted this work as Alexander von Humboldt Research Fellow at Heidelberg University. Kirkbright's
fluency in English and German makes this biography especially valuable for
English-speaking audiences. She also obtained the support of Jaspers' last
research assistant and controller of the Jaspers archive in Marburg which
allowed her to access to diaries and correspondence and even some unpublished
manuscript pages that have never before been translated. Her scholarly care is
excellent, with abundant footnotes which provide the original German
translation for quotations or paraphrases in the text, as well as an extensive
appendix providing transcripts of many of Jaspers; original letters in
German. This is both the strength and the limitation of this biography. It
provides access to material about Jaspers heretofore unknown, but it appears to
largely limit itself to such material, thus not providing useful information
that could have been obtained from other sources.
reviewer is always tempted to ask a writer to have written a book other than
the one she wrote. Such criticisms are useless when made after the fact,
though they might have been helpful in the actual process of manuscript
revision. When faced with the life of a great man, like Karl Jaspers, no
biography can be complete or satisfy the special interests of specific
readers. Especially with a mind as encyclopedic as his, and interests as
wide-ranging, readers of Jaspers' biography will approach it from different
perspectives. Perhaps this biography is best approached in Jaspers' own
spirit: "All that we know of a person is always a particular aspect
seen from one point of view and never the whole man." (p. 162) Kirkbright's
point of view is mostly the private Jaspers revealed in family correspondence
and unpublished manuscripts. This is fascinating, but excluded are those
aspects of Jaspers that are more public, and previously expressed either in his
autobiographical material or in his own published works.
that as it may, there are at least three different readerships for this book,
each of which will have a particular point of view.
are first and foremost the philosophers, who will focus on Jaspers as an
exponent of the Continental school in phenomenology and existentialism (mostly
as expressed in his book Philosophy, 1932).
are the psychiatrists, who experience Jaspers through his introduction of
phenomenology into psychiatric thought and practice (as described in General
are the intellectuals of various hues, who are interested in his political
theory (Man in the modern age, 1931), his critique of Nazism (The question of
German guilt), his philosophical faith (Way to Wisdom, 1955), his history of
philosophy (The Great Philosophers), and his relationship to Martin Heidegger
and Hannah Arendt.
covers all this material to a lesser or greater degree, with more success in
some arenas than others.
came away with a number of impressions.
importantly, until reading this biography, I had not realized how much Jaspers'
medical illness had affected his thinking. Early in his childhood, he was
diagnosed with a lung disease. At the time, such illness was always feared to
be tuberculosis, which for most was a death sentence. Kirkbright conveys quite
well the fear and anxiety engendered in Jaspers the child and in his family
given his medical illness. She brings out the major influence of a family
friend, Dr. Albert Fraenkel, who diagnosed and treated Jaspers and who provided
the psychological support as well that the young man needed to try to go out
into the world despite his illness. This doctor determined that the young Karl
did not have tuberculosis, a great relief for him and his family. But he also
diagnosed a chronic illness, bronchiectasis, that would imped his physical
ability to function throughout his life. Dr. Fraenkel and the family expected
that Karl would not survive beyond the decade of his 30s.
the young Karl Jaspers entered high school and university years with the belief
that he would die young. The seriousness with which Jaspers took his life, and
his focus on the deep existential facts of life, are perhaps more
understandable given this context. Hence perhaps his central metaphor for
life: the concept of shipwreck, and the need to make the best of those
circumstances. ("It is not by enjoying perfection, but only through
suffering in the knowledge of the world's unrelenting nature, and,
unconditionally, by remaining true to the self in communication that possible Existenz
can achieve what may not be planned and what becomes nonsensical as a wish: in
shipwreck to experience Being." p. 235). Indeed, he was always
independent, refusing to join cliques of other boys. His interest in science
and medicine likely stemmed from his admiration for his doctor and for his wish
to understand more about his illness. Yet, from the beginning, he was most
fascinated with philosophy, understood for him as an attempt to
"philosophize", to take life seriously and think about its meaning.
Hence his move from psychiatry to philosophy in later years was not really a
change in direction but the playing out his life-long philosophical seriousness.
we all know Jaspers lived a long life, but he lived it with marked impairment
of physical abilities. He could not take long, strenuous trips frequently;
while he walked daily, he could not exert himself physically beyond a certain
point. He was limited by congestive heart failure secondary to his
restrictive lung disease. An analogy might be to a coal miner with black lung
disease. Jaspers' illness was a central feature of his life, which Kirkbright
brings out nicely.
fact about his life that struck me was the extent of his closeness to his
father, Karl Jaspers Sr. The father was an artist and also quite
philosophically oriented. Jaspers' letters to his parents were not only
personal in content but also often read like his books: extensive discussions
of philosophical concepts were included. Both his father and his mother read
his works and commented on them. Despite the fact that he lived most of his
life away from his parents, Jaspers clearly always remained a loyal and earnest
son to them, never rebelling or apparently even conflicting in any way.
contrast, Jaspers younger brother Enno was a rebel. Enno fought in World War I
with heroism, but was mostly a failure in peacetime, unable to secure stable
successful work in business, and unable to maintain a constant intimate
relationship. Enno was not intellectual, unlike his brother and parents, and
he was also less rationalistic in his attitudes towards life. He was quite
careless with money, which ultimately let to a great deal of conflict with the
somewhat stingy Karl and with his generally generous parents. Ultimately, Karl
and his parents decided to cut him off financially, and Enno committed suicide
in middle age. The death of Enno is perhaps the second greatest tragedy of
Jaspers' life, the first being the suffering he and his wife endured in the
Nazi era. Enno left a suicide note that quite directly laid the blame for his
death on his parents and brother for their financial stinginess: "The man
is dead; the ducats are saved." In reading the biography, I was struck by
apparent signs of psychopathology: Enno had periods of severe depression, and
then periods of hyperactivity when he seemed to be most financially impulsive.
Suicide tends to be uncommon in those without underlying mental illness or drug
abuse. Enno's life and death suggested to me that he may have suffered from a
condition like manic-depressive illness. Kirkbright does not state this, nor
apparently did Jaspers ever suggest it, but the documentation in this book is
relationship with his father was excellent, almost too good to be true, and
with his brother it was quite ambivalent. The third most important personal
relationship, which Kirkbright highlights quite well, is with his wife,
Gertrud. She was Jewish, which led to the strain of trying to get both sets of
parents to agree to a mixed marriage. Jaspers' family was quite liberal and
after some initial hesitation did not object. Gertrud's family was
conservative and part of the Jewish religious leadership in her home region,
but her father soon consented. Jaspers and Gertrud had a very close
intellectual relationship; she apparently was the main interlocutor for Jaspers
as he fleshed out his ideas and wrote his manuscripts. Much like his father,
she served as a constant intellectual as well as personal companion. " We
have spent our lives philosophizing," he would say with satisfaction in
later years. The extent of their intimacy is most clearly expressed during the
Nazi years. During most of that time, she was exempt from being arrested due
to her marriage to a German. Jaspers, on the other hand, was demoted in the
university and eventually dismissed in 1937 due to the same fact. From 1937 to
1945 Jaspers' career was over. He and his wife almost never left their home at
66 in Heidelberg. In their bathroom cabinet, they had a bottle of
poison, and they had agreed to commit suicide together if she was ever arrested
(planning a "Free death" which he distinguished from
day of suicide or arrest seemed near just before the Americans finally
liberated Heidelberg. Suddenly, Jaspers, convinced his career had ended
and on the verge of suicide, became one of the few German leaders who was
viewed as clean of Nazi collaboration. He became a leader in the Heidelberg
community and in Germany at large in trying to orient the nation to the
post-war era. He immediately set about discussing the question of German guilt,
and began a dialogue that is still not finished today.
then in 1948 Jaspers and his wife accepted an invitation to Basel Switzerland
and remained there until his death in 1967. Why did Jaspers leave Germany to go
to Basel, especially at a time when he was at the peak of his university power
and his national prestige? Many Germans apparently resented him for his
"desertion" when he was most needed in the post-war period. This is
perhaps the one question in Jaspers' personal life that I felt Kirkbright
failed to elucidate. Why did he leave? She does not answer this question, and
without that answer, the final decades of his life seem quite anticlimactic.
One comes away with the impression that perhaps Jaspers' greatest failure in
his life was his failure to step up as the principal public intellectual of
post-war Germany. He receded into the shadows voluntarily again,
after having initially been forced into them in the Nazi era. He left the
public stage open for Heidegger's later re-emergence, and perhaps it is this
mistake, more than anything else, that diminished Jaspers' impact for modern
philosophy. Perhaps there is no evidence to clarify this problem. Perhaps
another Jasperian dictum applies here: "Absolute truth, and with it, freedom,
is never attained. Truth is on the way."
Kirkbright also addresses
Jaspers' relationships with others, like Heidegger and Hannah Arendt and Max
Weber, with an amount of detail that is informative, though not to a degree
that was as revealing as her descriptions of his family relationships.
to Max Weber is essential to understanding who Jaspers was, especially as a
thinker but also as a man; what William Osler called "the silent influence
of character upon character". After his father, Max Weber appears to be
the strongest influence on Jaspers, both in his personal rectitude and in his
political liberalism, but also in his direct impact on Jaspers' university
career. Kirkbright demonstrates how Weber was the main influence on helping
Jaspers settle into a philosophy appointment despite lack of formal training in
that field. Jaspers further took sides with Weber against the chairman of
philosophy, Karl Rickert, in their intellectual disagreements about what
constitutes philosophy and science. Weber was a constant presence in Jaspers'
psyche. Even in old age, he relates to Hannah Arendt that he dreamt that Max
Weber had visited them upon returning from a world trip. "Shouldn't you
perhaps re-read Max Weber on the archetype (and on other things too)?" the
older Jaspers advised Arendt (p. 233). Such pearls are frequent in this
psychiatrist, I felt ambivalent about the section of the biography that deal
with his clinical years. The details about what he did and who he interacted
with, based on his letters, were informative. But, if I had not previously
studied his General Psychopathology with care, I am not sure I would
have understood the description of its basic ideas that Kirkbright provides. I
read the General Psychopathology as providing three basic ideas to psychiatry:
first, the importance of phenomenology as a basic method, i.e., paying
attention to the subjective experience of patients, and not only their
objective manifestations; second, the concept of the erklaren-verstehen
distinction (the relevance of meaningful understanding in addition to causal
explanation); and third, most importantly, the idea of "methodological
consciousness" which I have relabeled pluralism to emphasize the concept
that no single method is sufficient for all circumstances, but that a single
method should be chosen (based on more strengths and fewer limits) for any
specific problem or condition in psychiatry. Instead, Kirkbright appears to
focus on a good deal on the doctor-patient relationship and the importance of
empathy. I am not certain if her description stems from differences in the
original first edition, which I assume she used in German, compared to the
English translation of a later edition, on which I base my comments. However,
it would seem to me that some of these ideas must have been present in the
original edition, and they do not come out clearly in the biography.
I would have to
suggest the same in relation to many of his other philosophical concepts, such
as limit-situations or the Encompassing. The book sheds some light on the
context in which he wrote about some of those ideas, but the ideas themselves
are not as clearly described. There are also some aspects of Jaspers' life
that Kirkbright leaves out, apparently from on an understandable scholarly wish
to focus on her primary sources. However, some richness of detail might have
been lost in that manner. For instance, in the Great Philosophers essay
on Einstein, Jaspers tells an amusing story about how he had inquired about
possible support from Einstein for asylum in the US during the Nazi era.
Einstein had apparently replied that he could not write a letter of support
because he could not comprehend Jaspers' work. While Kirkbright discussed
other attempts to go overseas during the Nazi era in useful detail, such as the
potential move to Oxford that was eventually rejected by analytic philosophers
in the UK, she left out the Einstein episode. It may be that other such facts
are available in the Jaspers corpus that might have added to the biography.
however, this kind of critique is asking for something other than what the
author intended or was best positioned to provide. Kirkbright provides an
excellent personal biography of Karl Jaspers, the man, based on new primary
sources, which also sheds a great deal of light on Karl Jaspers, the thinker.
For the ideas of the thinker, one has to go to his actual writings. In other
words, as an intellectual biography, an exposition of his ideas, this work is
limited. But as straight biography, a revelation of the man, it is excellent.
For those, like
me, already intrigued by him, the biography is a major advance in the English
literature. For those, like many, who have only a passing familiarity with him,
perhaps it will stimulate enough interest that they will seek out his most
accessible works, like the incomparable Way to Wisdom, to see how this
uncommon man transformed his life's struggles into some amazing thoughts.
© 2005 S. Nassir Ghaemi
S. Nassir Ghaemi MD is Assistant Professor of Psychiatry at
Harvard Medical School, and author of The Concepts of Psychiatry (Baltimore,
MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2003).
Address correspondence to: S. Nassir
Ghaemi, MD, Cambridge Health Alliance, Department of Psychiatry, 1493 Cambridge Street, Cambridge, MA 02139. Phone: 617-591-6108. Fax:
617-591-6008. Email: email@example.com.