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A Theory of Feelings Anger and Forgiveness"My Madness Saved Me"10 Good Questions about Life and Death12 Modern Philosophers50 Reasons People Give for Believing in a GodA Cabinet of Philosophical CuriositiesA Case for IronyA Companion to BioethicsA Companion to Buddhist PhilosophyA Companion to FoucaultA Companion to GenethicsA Companion to GenethicsA Companion to HumeA Companion to KantA Companion to Phenomenology and ExistentialismA Companion to PragmatismA Companion to the Philosophy of ActionA Companion to the Philosophy of BiologyA Companion to the Philosophy of LiteratureA Conceptual History of PsychologyA Critical Overview of Biological FunctionsA Critique of Naturalistic Philosophies of MindA Cursing Brain?A Delicate BalanceA Farewell to AlmsA Frightening LoveA Future for PresentismA Guide to the Good LifeA History of PsychiatryA History of the MindA Life Worth LivingA Manual of Experimental PhilosophyA Map of the MindA Metaphysics of PsychopathologyA Mind So RareA Natural History of Human MoralityA Natural History of Human ThinkingA Natural History of VisionA Parliament of MindsA Philosopher Looks at The Sense of HumorA Philosophical DiseaseA Philosophy of BoredomA Philosophy of Cinematic ArtA Philosophy of CultureA Philosophy of EmptinessA Philosophy of FearA Philosophy of PainA Physicalist ManifestoA Place for ConsciousnessA Question of TrustA Research Agenda for DSM-VA Revolution of the MindA Sentimentalist Theory of the MindA Stroll With William JamesA Tear is an Intellectual ThingA Theory of FreedomA Thousand MachinesA Universe of ConsciousnessA Very Bad WizardA Very Bad Wizard: Morality Behind the CurtainA Virtue EpistemologyA World Full of GodsA World Without ValuesAbout FaceAbout the Beginning of the Hermeneutics of the SelfAction and ResponsibilityAction in ContextAction Theory, Rationality and CompulsionAction, Contemplation, and HappinessAction, Emotion and WillAdam SmithAdaptive DynamicsAddictionAddictionAddiction and ResponsibilityAddiction Is a ChoiceAdvances in Identity Theory and ResearchAftermathAfterwarAgainst AdaptationAgainst AutonomyAgainst BioethicsAgainst HappinessAgainst HealthAgency and ActionAgency and AnswerabilityAgency and EmbodimentAgency and ResponsibilityAgency, Freedom, and Moral ResponsibilityAl-JununAlain BadiouAlain BadiouAlasdair MacIntyreAlien Landscapes?Altered EgosAn Anthology of Psychiatric EthicsAn Ethics for TodayAn Intellectual History of CannibalismAn Interpretation of DesireAn Introduction to EthicsAn Introduction to Kant's Moral Philosophy An Introduction to Philosophy of EducationAn Introduction to the Philosophy of MindAn Introduction to the Philosophy of MindAn Introduction to the Philosophy of PsychologyAn Introductory Philosophy of MedicineAn Odd Kind of FameAnalytic FreudAnalytic Philosophy in AmericaAncient AngerAncient Models of MindAncient Philosophy of the SelfAngerAnimal LessonsAnimal MindsAnimals Like UsAnnihilationAnother PlanetAnswers for AristotleAnti-ExternalismAnti-Individualism and KnowledgeAntigone’s ClaimAntipsychiatryAre We Hardwired?Are Women Human?Arguing about DisabilityArguing About Human NatureAristotle and the Philosophy of FriendshipAristotle on Practical WisdomAristotle's ChildrenAristotle's Ethics and Moral ResponsibilityAristotle, Emotions, and EducationArt & MoralityArt After Conceptual ArtArt in Three DimensionsArt, Self and KnowledgeArtificial ConsciousnessArtificial HappinessAspects of PsychologismAsylum to ActionAtonement and ForgivenessAttention is Cognitive UnisonAutobiography as PhilosophyAutonomyAutonomy and Mental DisorderAutonomy and the Challenges to LiberalismBabies by DesignBackslidingBadiouBadiou's DeleuzeBadiou, Balibar, Ranciere: Rethinking EmancipationBare Facts And Naked TruthsBasic Desert, Reactive Attitudes and Free WillBattlestar Galactica and PhilosophyBe Like the FoxBeautyBecoming a SubjectBecoming HumanBehavingBehavioral Genetics in the Postgenomic EraBeing AmoralBeing HumanBeing Mentally Ill: A Sociological Theory Being No OneBeing Realistic about ReasonsBeing ReducedBeing YourselfBelief's Own EthicsBending Over BackwardsBerlin Childhood around 1900Bernard WilliamsBertrand RussellBetter than BothBetter Than WellBetween Two WorldsBeyond HealthBeyond Hegel and NietzscheBeyond KuhnBeyond LossBeyond Moral JudgmentBeyond PostmodernismBeyond ReductionBeyond SchizophreniaBeyond the DSM StoryBioethicsBioethics and the BrainBioethics in the ClinicBiological Complexity and Integrative PluralismBiology Is TechnologyBiosBipolar ExpeditionsBlackwell Companion to the Philosophy of EducationBlindsight & The Nature of ConsciousnessBlues - Philosophy for EveryoneBlushBob Dylan and PhilosophyBody ConsciousnessBody Image And Body SchemaBody ImagesBody LanguageBody MattersBody WorkBody-Subjects and Disordered MindsBoundBoundaries of the MindBoyleBrain Evolution and CognitionBrain FictionBrain, Mind, and Human Behavior in Contemporary Cognitive ScienceBrain-WiseBrainchildrenBrains, Buddhas, and BelievingBrainstormingBrave New WorldsBreakdown of WillBrief Child Therapy Homework PlannerBrief Inquiry into the Meaning of Sin and FaithBrief Therapy Homework PlannerBritain on the CouchBritish Idealism and the Concept of the SelfBrute RationalityBuffy the Vampire Slayer and PhilosophyBut Is It Art?Camus and SartreCartesian LinguisticsCartographies of the MindCarving Nature at Its JointsCase Studies in Biomedical Research EthicsCassandra's DaughterCato's TearsCausation and CounterfactualsCauses, Laws, and Free WillChanging Conceptions of the Child from the Renaissance to Post-ModernityChanging the SubjectChaosophyCharacter and Moral Psychology Character as Moral FictionCharles DarwinCherishmentChildhood and the Philosophy of EducationChildrenChildren, Families, and Health Care Decision MakingChoices and ConflictChoosing Not to ChooseChristmas - Philosophy for EveryoneCinema, Philosophy, BergmanCinematic MythmakingCity and Soul in Plato's RepublicClassifying MadnessClear and Queer ThinkingClinical EthicsClinical Psychiatry in Imperial GermanyCodependent ForevermoreCoffee - Philosophy for EveryoneCognition and the BrainCognition of Value in Aristotle's EthicsCognition Through Understanding: Self-Knowledge, Interlocution, Reasoning, ReflectionCognitive BiologyCognitive FictionsCognitive Neuroscience of EmotionCognitive Systems and the Extended MindCognitive Systems and the Extended Mind Cognitive Theories of Mental IllnessCoherence in Thought and ActionCollected Papers, Volume 1Collected Papers, Volume 2College SexComedy IncarnateCommitmentCommunicative Action and Rational ChoiceCompetence, Condemnation, and CommitmentConcealment And ExposureConceptual Analysis and Philosophical NaturalismConceptual Art and PaintingConceptual Issues in Evolutionary BiologyConfessionsConfucianismConnected, or What It Means to Live in the Network SocietyConquest of AbundanceConscience and ConvenienceConsciousnessConsciousnessConsciousnessConsciousness ConsciousnessConsciousness and Its Place in NatureConsciousness and LanguageConsciousness and Mental LifeConsciousness and MindConsciousness and the NovelConsciousness and the SelfConsciousness EmergingConsciousness EvolvingConsciousness ExplainedConsciousness in ActionConsciousness RecoveredConsciousness RevisitedConsciousness, Color, and ContentConsole and ClassifyConstructing the WorldConstructive AnalysisContemporary Debates In Applied EthicsContemporary Debates in Moral TheoryContemporary Debates in Philosophy of BiologyContemporary Debates in Philosophy of MindContemporary Debates in Political PhilosophyContemporary Debates in Social PhilosophyContemporary Perspectives on Natural LawContested Knowledge: Social Theory TodayContesting PsychiatryContext and the AttitudesContinental Philosophy of ScienceControlControlling Our DestiniesConversations About Psychology and Sexual OrientationCopernicus, Darwin and FreudCrazy for YouCreating a Life of Meaning and CompassionCreating ConsilienceCreating HysteriaCreating Mental IllnessCreating Scientific ConceptsCreating the American JunkieCreation, Rationality and AutonomyCreatures Like Us?Crime and CulpabilityCrime, Punishment, and Mental IllnessCrimes of ReasonCritical New Perspectives on Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity DisorderCritical PsychiatryCritical PsychologyCritical ResistanceCritical Thinking About PsychologyCritical VisionsCross and KhoraCruel CompassionCTRL [SPACE]Cultural Psychology of the SelfCultural Theory: An IntroductionCulture and Psychiatric DiagnosisCulture and Subjective Well-BeingCulture of DeathCultures of NeurastheniaCurious EmotionsCurrent Controversies in Experimental PhilosophyCustom and Reason in HumeCustomers and Patrons of the Mad-TradeCutting God in Half - And Putting the Pieces Together AgainCylons in AmericaDamaged IdentitiesDamasio's Error and Descartes' TruthDangerous EmotionsDaniel DennettDaniel DennettDark AgesDarwin and DesignDarwin's Dangerous IdeaDarwin's LegacyDarwin, God and the Meaning of LifeDarwinian PsychiatryDarwinian ReductionismDarwinizing CultureDating: Philosophy for EveryoneDeathDeathDeath and CharacterDeath and CompassionDeath and the AfterlifeDebating DesignDebating HumanismDecision Making, Personhood and DementiaDecomposing the WillDeconstructing PsychotherapyDeconstruction and DemocracyDeeper Than DarwinDeeper than ReasonDefending Science - within ReasonDefining Psychopathology in the 21st CenturyDegrees of BeliefDelusion and Self-DeceptionDelusions and Other Irrational BeliefsDelusions and the Madness of the MassesDementiaDemons, Dreamers, and MadmenDennett and Ricoeur on the Narrative SelfDennett’s PhilosophyDepression Is a ChoiceDepression, Emotion and the SelfDepthDerrida, Deleuze, PsychoanalysisDescartesDescartes and the Passionate MindDescartes' CogitoDescartes's Changing MindDescartes's Concept of MindDescribing Inner Experience?Descriptions and PrescriptionsDesembodied Spirits and Deanimated Bodies Desert Islands and Other Texts (1953-1974)Desire and AffectDesire, Love, and IdentityDesire, Practical Reason, and the GoodDeveloping the VirtuesDiagnosing the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental DisordersDialectics of the SelfDid My Neurons Make Me Do It?Difference and IdentityDigital SoulDimensional Models of Personality DisordersDisability, Difference, DiscriminationDisjunctivismDisorders of VolitionDisorientation and Moral LifeDispatches from the Freud WarsDisrupted LivesDistractionDisturbed ConsciousnessDivided Minds and Successive SelvesDo Apes Read Minds?Do Fish Feel Pain?Do We Still Need Doctors?Does Consciousness Cause Behavior?Does the Woman Exist?Doing without ConceptsDon't Believe Everything You ThinkDonald DavidsonDonald Davidson on Truth, Meaning, and the MentalDoubting Darwin?Dreaming and Other Involuntary MentationDSM-IV SourcebookDSM-IV SourcebookDSM-IV-TR CasebookDworkin and His CriticsDying to KnowDynamics in ActionDysthymia and the Spectrum of Chronic DepressionsEccentricsEducational MetamorphosesEffective IntentionsElbow Room: The Varieties of Free Will Worth WantingEmbodied Minds in ActionEmbodied RhetoricsEmbodied Selves and Divided MindsEmbryos under the MicroscopeEmergencies in Mental Health PracticeEmerging Conceptual, Ethical and Policy Issues in BionanotechnologyEmotionEmotion and ConsciousnessEmotion and PsycheEmotion ExperienceEmotion RegulationEmotion, Evolution, And RationalityEmotional IntelligenceEmotional ReasonEmotional ReasonEmotional TruthEmotions in Humans and ArtifactsEmotions in the Moral LifeEmotions in the Moral LifeEmotions, Value, and AgencyEmpathyEmpathy and AgencyEmpathy and Moral DevelopmentEmpathy and MoralityEmpathy in the Context of PhilosophyEmpirical Ethics in PsychiatryEnchanted LoomsEngaging BuddhismEngineering the Human GermlineEnjoymentEnvyEpicureanismEpistemic LuckEpistemologyEpistemology and EmotionsEpistemology and the Psychology of Human JudgmentEros and the GoodErotic MoralityEssays in Social NeuroscienceEssays in the Metaphysics of Mind Essays on Derek Parfit's On What MattersEssays on Free Will and Moral ResponsibilityEssays on Nonconceptual ContentEssays on Philosophical CounselingEssays on Reference, Language, and MindEssays on the Concept of Mind in Early-Modern PhilosophyEssential Sources in the Scientific Study of ConsciousnessEsssential Philosophy of PsychiatryEternal Sunshine of the Spotless MindEthical Conflicts in PsychologyEthical Issues in Forensic Mental Health ResearchEthical Issues in Human CloningEthical TheoryEthicsEthicsEthics and the A PrioriEthics and the Metaphysics of MedicineEthics and Values in PsychotherapyEthics Done RightEthics ExpertiseEthics in Plain EnglishEthics in PracticeEthics in Psychiatric ResearchEthics of PsychiatryEthics without OntologyEuropean Review of Philosophy. Vol. 5Everyday IrrationalityEvil in Modern ThoughtEvolutionEvolution and the Human MindEvolution's RainbowEvolutionary Origins of MoralityEvolutionary PsychologyExamined LifeExamined LivesExistential AmericaExistentialismExistentialism and Romantic LoveExperimental PhilosophyExperimental PhilosophyExperimental PhilosophyExperimental Philosophy, Rationalism, and NaturalismExperiments in EthicsExplaining ConsciousnessExplaining the BrainExplaining the Computational MindExplanatory PluralismExploding the Gene MythExploring HappinessExploring the SelfExpression and the InnerExpressions of JudgmentFaces of IntentionFact and ValueFact and Value in EmotionFacts, Values, and NormsFads and Fallacies in the Social SciencesFaith and Wisdom in ScienceFatherhoodFear of KnowledgeFearless SpeechFeeling Pain and Being in PainFeelings and EmotionsFeelings of BeingFellow-Feeling and the Moral LifeFeminism and Its DiscontentsFeminism and Philosophy of ScienceFeminist Ethics and Social and Political PhilosophyFeminist Interpretations of Rene DescartesFeminist TheoryField Notes from ElsewhereFinding Consciousness in the BrainFingerprints of GodFlesh in the Age of ReasonFolk Psychological NarrativesFolk Psychology Re-AssessedForces of HabitForgivenessForgiveness and LoveForgiveness and RetributionFoucault 2.0Foucault and PhilosophyFoucault NowFoucault, Psychology and the Analytics of PowerFoundational Issues in Human Brain MappingFoundations of Ethical Practice, Research, and Teaching in PsychologyFour Views on Free WillFrank Ramsey (1903-1930)Free WillFree WillFree WillFree WillFree Will and Action ExplanationFree Will and LuckFree Will And Moral ResponsibilityFree Will as an Open Scientific ProblemFree Will, Agency, and Meaning in LifeFree: Why Science Hasn't Disproved Free WillFreedomFreedom and DeterminismFreedom And NeurobiologyFreedom and ResponsibiltyFreedom and ValueFreedom EvolvesFreedom RegainedFreedom vs. InterventionFreedom, Fame, Lying, and BetrayalFreudFreud and the Question of PseudoscienceFreud As PhilosopherFreud's AnswerFreud, the Reluctant PhilosopherFriedrich NietzscheFrom Chance to ChoiceFrom Clinic to ClassroomFrom Complexity to LifeFrom Enlightenment to ReceptivityFrom Knowledge to Wisdom: A Revolution for Science and the HumanitiesFrom Morality to Mental HealthFrom Passions to EmotionsFrom Philosophy to PsychotherapyFrontiers of ConsciousnessFrontiers of JusticeFurnishing the MindGalileo in PittsburghGenderGender and Mental HealthGender in the MirrorGender TroubleGenesGenes, Women, EqualityGenetic Nature/CultureGenetic ProspectsGenetic ProspectsGenetic SecretsGenocide's AftermathGenomes and What to Make of ThemGerman Idealism and the JewGerman PhilosophyGetting HookedGilles DeleuzeGlobal PhilosophyGluttonyGod and Phenomenal ConsciousnessGoffman's LegacyGoing Amiss in Experimental ResearchGoodness & AdviceGrassroots SpiritualityGrave MattersGrave MattersGreedGreek Models of Mind and SelfGut ReactionsHabilitation, Health, and AgencyHabits of MindHallucinationHandbook of BioethicsHandbook of EmotionsHappinessHappinessHappinessHappinessHappiness and EducationHappiness and the Good LifeHappiness Is OverratedHappiness, Death, and the Remainder of LifeHard LuckHarmful ThoughtsHaving the World in ViewHealing PsychiatryHealing the Soul in the Age of the BrainHealth, Illness and DiseaseHealth, Science, and Ordinary LanguageHegelHeidegger and a Metaphysics of FeelingHeidegger, Metaphysics and the Univocity of BeingHermann von Helmholtz's MechanismHermeneutics As PoliticsHeterophobiaHeterosyncraciesHeuristics and BiasesHeuristics and the LawHidden ResourcesHidden SelvesHiding from HumanityHigh Art LiteHistorical OntologyHistory of Psychiatry and Medical PsychologyHistory, Historicity And ScienceHobbesHomosexualitiesHope and Dread in PsychoanalysisHot ThoughtHow Can I Be Trusted?How Can the Human Mind Occur in the Physical Universe?How Children Learn the Meanings of WordsHow Could Conscious Experiences Affect Brains?How Do We Know Who We Are?How Emotions WorkHow Emotions WorkHow History Made the MindHow Images ThinkHow is Nature Possible?How Propaganda WorksHow Science WorksHow Scientific Practices MatterHow Scientists Explain DiseaseHow The Body Shapes The MindHow the Body Shapes the Way We ThinkHow the Mind Explains BehaviorHow the Mind Uses the BrainHow to Make Opportunity EqualHow to Solve the Mind-Body Problemhow to stop timeHow to Think More About SexHow We HopeHow We ReasonHuman CloningHuman Development, Language and the Future of MankindHuman EnhancementHuman Evolution, Reproduction, and MoralityHuman GoodnessHuman Identity and BioethicsHuman NatureHuman NatureHuman Nature and the Limits of ScienceHuman-Built WorldHumanismHumanism, What's That?HumanityHumans, Animals, MachinesHumeHumeHume on Motivation and VirtueHusserlHystoriesI of the VortexI Was WrongIdeas that MatterIdentifying the MindIdentity and Agency in Cultural WorldsIgnorance and ImaginationIllnessImagination and Its PathologiesImagination and the Meaningful BrainImagining NumbersImmortal RemainsImproving Nature?In Defense of an Evolutionary Concept of HealthIn Defense of SentimentalityIn Love With LifeIn Praise of Athletic BeautyIn Praise of the WhipIn Pursuit of HappinessIn Search of HappinessIn the Name of GodIn the Name of IdentityIn the Space of ReasonsIn Two MindsIncompatibilism's AllureIndividual Differences in Conscious ExperienceInfinity and PerspectiveInformation ArtsInformed Consent in Medical ResearchIngmar Bergman, Cinematic PhilosopherInhuman ThoughtsInner PresenceInsanityIntegrating Psychotherapy and PharmacotherapyIntegrity and the Fragile SelfIntelligent VirtueIntentionIntentionality, Deliberation and AutonomyIntentions and IntentionalityIntentions and IntentionalityInterpreting MindsInterpreting NietzscheIntroducing Greek PhilosophyIntrospection and ConsciousnessIntrospection VindicatedIntuition, Imagination, and Philosophical MethodologyIntuitionismInvestigating the Psychological WorldIrrationalityIrrationalityIs Academic Feminism Dead?Is It Me or My Meds?Is Long-Term Therapy Unethical?Is Oedipus Online?Is Science Neurotic?Is Science Value Free?Is the Visual World a Grand Illusion?Is There a Duty to Die?Issues in Philosophical CounselingJacques LacanJacques RancièreJacques RanciereJean-Paul SartreJohn McDowellJohn SearleJohn Searle's Ideas About Social RealityJohn Stuart MillJohn Stuart Mill and the Writing of CharacterJoint AttentionJokesJonathan EdwardsJudging and UnderstandingJustice for ChildrenJustice in RobesJustice, Luck, and KnowledgeKantKant and MiltonKant and the Fate of AutonomyKant and the Limits of AutonomyKant and the Role of Pleasure in Moral ActionKant on Freedom, Law, and HappinessKant on Moral AutonomyKant's Anatomy of EvilKant's Anatomy of the Intelligent MindKant's Theory of VirtueKarl JaspersKarl PopperKey Concepts in PhilosophyKierkegaardKierkegaard as PhenomenologistKierkegaard's Concept of DespairKierkegaard's MuseKinds of MindsKinds, Things, and StuffKnowing, Knowledge and BeliefsKnowledge MonopoliesKnowledge, Belief, and CharacterKnowledge, Possibility, and ConsciousnessLacanLack of CharacterLack of CharacterLanguageLanguage in ContextLanguage, Consciousness, CultureLanguage, Culture, and MindLanguage, Vision, and MusicLaw and the BrainLaw, Liberty, and PsychiatryLaws, Mind, and Free WillLeaving YouLectures on the History of Political PhilosophyLevelling the Playing FieldLiberal Education in a Knowledge SocietyLiberatory PsychiatryLife and ActionLife at the Texas State Lunatic Asylum, 1857-1997Life Is Not a Game of PerfectLife of the MindLife's FormLife, Death, & MeaningLife, Death, and Meaning: Key Philosophical Readings on the Big Questions Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of UtilityLife, Sex, and IdeasLight in the Dark RoomLike a Splinter in Your MindLiving and Dying WellLiving NarrativeLiving Outside Mental IllnessLiving with DarwinLiving With One’s PastLockeLocke LockeLogic and the Art of Memory Loneliness in Philosophy, Psychology, and LiteratureLooking for SpinozaLooking for The StrangerLost SoulsLOT 2LoveLoveLove's ConfusionsLove's VisionLove, Friendship, and the SelfLove, Sex & TragedyLuckyLudwig WittgensteinLustLyingMachine ConsciousnessMad for FoucaultMad TravelersMade with WordsMadness And Death In PhilosophyMadness and DemocracyMadness at HomeMadness Is CivilizationMaking Natural KnowledgeMaking Sense of EvolutionMaking Sense of Freedom and ResponsibilityMaking the DSM-5Making the Social WorldMaking TruthMale Female EmailMan, Beast, and ZombieMandated Reporting of Suspected Child AbuseManiaManic Depression and CreativityMapping the Edges and the In-betweenMapping the Future of BiologyMarcus AureliusMaster PassionsMatters of the MindMe++Meaning and Moral OrderMeaning and Value in a Secular AgeMeaning in LifeMeaning in Life and Why It MattersMeaning, Basic Self-Knowledge, and MindMeasuring HappinessMeasuring PsychopathologyMedia MadnessMedical Enhancement and PosthumanityMedicine and Philosophy in Classical AntiquityMedicine of the PersonMedicine, Mental Health, Religion, Science and Well-BeingMelancholy And the Care of the SoulMelancholy and the Otherness of GodMementoMemory and NarrativeMental ActionsMental CausationMental Causation and OntologyMental HealthMental Health At The CrossroadsMental Health Policy in BritainMerit, Meaning, and Human BondageMerleau-PontyMerleau-Ponty and the Possibilities of PhilosophyMetacognition and Theory of MindMetacreationMetaethical SubjectivismMetaethicsMetal and FleshMetaphors of MemoryMetapoliticsMethods in MindMichel FoucaultMill's UtilitarianismMindMindMind and ConsciousnessMind and CosmosMind and MechanismMind GamesMind in a Physical WorldMind in Everyday Life and Cognitive ScienceMind in LifeMind TimeMind's LandscapeMind, Brain and the Elusive SoulMind, Brain, and Free WillMind, Reason and ImaginationMinding MindsMindreadersMindreading AnimalsMinds and PersonsMinds, Brains, and LawMinds, Ethics, and ConditionalsMindshapingMindsightMindworldsMirror, MirrorMixed FeelingsMockingbird YearsModels of the SelfModern Social ImaginariesModern Theories of JusticeModernity and SubjectivityModernity and TechnologyMoody Minds DistemperedMoral BrainsMoral DimensionsMoral FailureMoral ImaginationMoral LiteracyMoral MachinesMoral ParticularismMoral PsychologyMoral Psychology and Human AgencyMoral Psychology, Volume 1Moral Psychology, Volume 2Moral Psychology, Volume 3Moral Psychology: Volume IVMoral RepairMoral Responsibility and Alternative PossibilitiesMoral TribesMoral Value and Human DiversityMorality and Self-InterestMorality in a Natural WorldMorality, Moral Luck and ResponsibilityMotherhoodMotive and RightnessMoving Beyond Prozac, DSM, and the New PsychiatryMultiple Analogies in Science and PhilosophyMultiple Identities & False MemoriesMusic, Madness, and the Unworking of LanguageMy Brain Made Me Do ItMy Double UnveiledMy WayNarrativeNarrative and IdentityNarrative MedicineNarrative PsychiatryNarrative Theory and the Cognitive SciencesNatural Ethical FactsNatural Kinds and Conceptual ChangeNatural MindsNatural-Born CybogsNaturalism and the First-Person PerspectiveNaturalism and the Human ConditionNaturalism in the Philosophy of HealthNaturalism in the Philosophy of HealthNaturalized BioethicsNaturalizing the MindNatureNature and NarrativeNear Death ExperienceNeither Bad nor MadNeither Victim nor SurvivorNeuro-Philosophy and the Healthy MindNeuroethicsNeuroethicsNeurological Foundations of Cognitive Neuroscience Neurophilosophy at WorkNeurophilosophy of Free WillNeuropoliticsNeuropsychoanalysis in PracticeNeuroscience and PhilosophyNew Essays on the Explanation of ActionNew Philosophy for a New MediaNew Versions of VictimsNew Waves in Philosophy of ActionNietzscheNietzsche and Buddhist PhilosophyNietzsche on Ethics and PoliticsNietzsche's TherapyNietzsche, Culture and EducationNietzsche: The Man and His PhilosophyNihil UnboundNoir AnxietyNormative EthicsNormativityNorms of NatureNotebooks 1951-1959Notes Toward a Performative Theory of AssemblyNothing So AbsurdOblivionOn AnxietyOn ApologyOn Being AuthenticOn Being AuthenticOn BeliefOn BetrayalOn BullshitOn DelusionOn DesireOn EmotionsOn HashishOn Human RightsOn Loving Our EnemiesOn Nature and LanguageOn PersonalityOn ReflectionOn Romantic LoveOn the EmotionsOn the Freud WatchOn the Government of the LivingOn the Human ConditionOn the InternetOn the Meaning of LifeOn the Philosophy of LawOn the Pragmatics of CommunicationOn the Punitive SocietyOn TruthOn Virtue EthicsOn What MattersOn What We Owe to Each OtherOne Hundred DaysOnflowOnly a Promise of HappinessOntology of ConsciousnessOpen MindedOpen Your EyesOrgans without BodiesOther MindsOur Last Great IllusionOur Own MindsOur Posthuman FutureOur StoriesOut of Its MindOut of Our HeadsOxford Guide to the MindOxford Handbook of Psychiatric EthicsOxford Textbook of Philosophy of PsychiatryPanic DisorderPanpsychismPanpsychism in the WestPartialityPassionate EnginesPassionate EnginesPathologies of BeliefPathologies of ReasonPatient Autonomy and the Ethics of ResponsibilityPC, M.D.Perceiving the WorldPerception & CognitionPerception and Basic BeliefsPerception, Hallucination, and IllusionPerceptual ExperiencePerfecting VirtuePerplexities of ConsciousnessPersistencePersonal AutonomyPersonal Autonomy in SocietyPersonal IdentityPersonal Identity and EthicsPersonal Identity and Fractured SelvesPersonhood and Health CarePersonsPersons and BodiesPersons, Humanity, and the Definition of DeathPersons, Souls and DeathPerspectives on ImitationPerspectives on PragmatismPessimismPhenomenal Concepts and Phenomenal KnowledgePhenomenal ConsciousnessPhenomenal IntentionalityPhenomenology and ExistentialismPhenomenology and Philosophy of MindPhilosophersPhilosophers on MusicPhilosophers without GodsPhilosophical CounselingPhilosophical Counselling and the UnconsciousPhilosophical DevicesPhilosophical Foundations of NeurosciencePhilosophical History and the Problem of ConsciousnessPhilosophical Issues in PsychiatryPhilosophical Issues in PsychiatryPhilosophical Issues in Psychiatry IIPhilosophical MethodologyPhilosophical MidwiferyPhilosophical Myths of the FallPhilosophical Perspectives on DepictionPhilosophical Perspectives on Technology and PsychiatryPhilosophical PracticePhilosophical Reflections on DisabilityPhilosophizing About Sex Philosophizing the EverydayPhilosophy and HappinessPhilosophy and LivingPhilosophy and PsychiatryPhilosophy and PsychotherapyPhilosophy and Science FictionPhilosophy and the EmotionsPhilosophy and the EmotionsPhilosophy and the Interpretation of Pop CulturePhilosophy and the Moving ImagePhilosophy and the NeurosciencesPhilosophy and This Actual WorldPhilosophy As FictionPhilosophy BitesPhilosophy Bites BackPhilosophy for Counselling and PsychotherapyPhilosophy for LifePhilosophy in a New CenturyPhilosophy in an Age of SciencePhilosophy in Children's LiteraturePhilosophy of ActionPhilosophy of ActionPhilosophy of BiologyPhilosophy of BiologyPhilosophy of BiologyPhilosophy of BiologyPhilosophy of BodyPhilosophy of Film and Motion PicturesPhilosophy of LovePhilosophy of Love, Sex, and MarriagePhilosophy of MindPhilosophy of Mind and CognitionPhilosophy of Personal Identity and Multiple PersonalityPhilosophy of PsychologyPhilosophy of Public HealthPhilosophy of SciencePhilosophy of SciencePhilosophy of Technology: The Technological ConditionPhilosophy of the Social SciencesPhilosophy on TapPhilosophy PracticePhilosophy the Day after TomorrowPhilosophy's Role in Counseling and PsychotherapyPhilosophy, Neuroscience and ConsciousnessPhilosophy, Politics, DemocracyPhotography and PhilosophyPhysical RealizationPhysicalism and Its DiscontentsPhysicalism and Mental CausationPhysicalism, or Something Near EnoughPhysician-Assisted DyingPillar of SaltPin-up GrrrlsPlatoPlatoPlato, Not Prozac!Platonic Ethics, Old and NewPluralistic CasuistryPolarities of ExperiencesPolitical EmotionsPopper, Objectivity and the Growth of KnowledgePornPorn StudiesPornography, Sex, and FeminismPortrait of the Psychiatrist as a Young ManPostcolonial DisordersPostpsychiatryPosttraumatic Stress DisorderPower and the SelfPower SplitPractical Autonomy and BioethicsPractical ConflictsPractical Identity and Narrative AgencyPractical PhilosophyPractical RulesPractical Tortoise RaisingPractically ProfoundPracticing Feminist Ethics in PsychologyPragmatic BioethicsPragmatismPragmatism, Old And NewPraise and BlamePredicative MindsPreferences and Well-BeingPrescriptions for the MindPresocraticsPrimary and Secondary QualitiesPrimates and PhilosophersPrivacyPrivileged AccessProblems in MindProblems of RationalityProzac As a Way of LifeProzac BacklashProzac on the CouchPsyche and SomaPsychiatric Aspects of Justification, Excuse and Mitigation in Anglo-American Criminal Law Psychiatric Cultures ComparedPsychiatric Diagnosis and ClassificationPsychiatric EthicsPsychiatric HegemonyPsychiatric PowerPsychiatric SlaveryPsychiatry and Philosophy of SciencePsychiatry and ReligionPsychiatry as a Human SciencePsychiatry as Cognitive NeurosciencePsychiatry in SocietyPsychiatry in the New MilleniumPsychiatry in the Scientific ImagePsychiatry, Psychoanalysis, And The New Biology Of MindPsycho-Physical Dualism TodayPsychoanalysis and Narrative MedicinePsychoanalysis and the Philosophy of SciencePsychological Concepts and Biological PsychiatryPsychology and PhilosophyPsychology and the Question of AgencyPsychology's Interpretive TurnPsychology, Psychotherapy, Psychoanalysis, and the Politics of Human RelationshipsPsychotherapy and ConfidentialityPsychotherapy As PraxisPublic PhilosophyPunishmentPure ImmanencePurple HazePursuing MeaningQuality of Life and Human DifferenceQueer PhilosophyQuestions for FreudQuestions for FreudQuine and Davidson on Language, Thought and RealityRaceRace in Contemporary MedicineRadiant CoolRadical AlterityRadical ExternalismRadical HopeRational and Social AgencyRational CausationRational Choice in an Uncertain WorldRationality + Consciousness = Free WillRationality and FreedomRationality and the Reflective MindRationality in ActionRawls, Dewey, and ConstructivismRe-creating MedicineRe-EmergenceRe-Engineering Philosophy for Limited BeingsReading AutobiographyReading Bernard WilliamsReading SartreReadings in the Philosophy of TechnologyReal MaterialismReal Natures and Familiar ObjectsReal ScienceRealism in ActionReason & EmancipationReason in ActionReason in PhilosophyReason's GriefReasonably ViciousReasoning About Rational AgentsReasoning in Biological DiscoveriesReasons from WithinReasons without RationalismReclaiming CognitionReclaiming the SoulReconceiving SchizophreniaReconstructing Reason and RepresentationReconstructing the Cognitive WorldRecreative MindsRediscovering EmotionRediscovering EmpathyReference and ExistenceReference and the Rational MindReflections On How We LiveReframing Disease ContextuallyRefusing CareRegulating SexReinventing the SoulRelativism and Human RightsRelativism and the Foundations of PhilosophyRelativism and the Foundations of PhilosophyReliable ReasoningReligion without GodRelying on OthersRemembering HomeResponsibility and PunishmentResponsibility and PunishmentResponsibility from the MarginsRestraining RageRethinking ExpertiseRethinking IntrospectionRethinking Mental Health and DisorderRethinking RapeRethinking the DSMRethinking the Sociology of Mental HealthRethinking the Western Understanding of the SelfReturn to ReasonRevolt, She SaidRichard RortyRichard RortyRichard RortyRichard RortyRichard RortyRichard Rorty's New PragmatismRightsRights, Democracy, and Fulfillment in the Era of Identity PoliticsRise And Fall of Soul And SelfRitalin NationRobert NozickRousseauRousseau and the Dilemmas of Modernity Routledge Philosophy Guidebook to Derrida on DeconstructionRules, Reason, and Self-KnowledgeSaints, Scholars, 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The Present Moment in Psychotherapy and Everyday LifeReview - The Present Moment in Psychotherapy and Everyday Life
by Daniel N. Stern
W.W. Norton, 2004
Review by Marilyn Nissim-Sabat, Ph.D., M.S.W.
Feb 15th 2005 (Volume 9, Issue 7)

Daniel Stern's new book, The Present Moment, has already generated in depth analysis and has been seen as an intervention in the ongoing struggle in psychoanalysis regarding the effort to eliminate remnants of Freudian positivism. I refer to Heward Wilkinson's lengthy review essay in the Nov. 2003 issue of the International Journal of Psychotherapy (pp. 235-254). In his review, which is both highly favorable and highly critical, Wilkinson maintains that Stern's formulations incorporate elements of positivism and atomism that reflect the latter's commitment to the Freud legacy in psychoanalysis. In the present review, I describe what I take to be the most significant aspects of the contents of The Present Moment, and assess its general character and great merit. In addition, I explain the important role of Husserlian phenomenology in Stern's viewpoint, which Wilkinson alludes to twice but does not address at all, except to refer to Husserl disparagingly as one who "is also reductive in his way…" (Wilkinson 248).

While I share with Wilkinson the view that the future of psychoanalysis depends on fully transcending positivism, I reject his view on how to overcome those positivist elements (which as I show below he mistakenly attributes to Stern) while retaining Stern's "breakthrough" (Wilkinson). Unfortunately, however, Wilkinson slights the pervasive presence of elements of Husserlian phenomenology in Stern. Because Wilkinson does not see the value of specifically Husserlian phenomenology, he does not see that the antidote within Stern's thinking is an expanded role for phenomenology rather than, as he proposes, a move towards what I (and others) view as Heideggerean linguistic reductionism… (e.g., see Wilkinson 253).

What, then, is "the present moment", and what is its significance for psychoanalysis? How has Stern been influenced by Husserl?

 The present moment is understood by Stern to be a moment of intersubjective lived experience (Stern's overriding emphasis is on experience in the consulting room between analyst and patient). Present moments are lived nonconsciously on the level of implicit, rather than explicit, i.e., conscious, verbalized, or verbalizable, experience. Implicit experience is nonconscious rather than unconscious in that it is not repressed and is not subject to psychic resistance. (Stern's book is replete with extensive examples and descriptions of present moments derived from the method, fully conceptualized in the book's appendix, of "microanlysis" of analyst-patient dialogues and patient recording of daily experiences.)

 In focusing on nonconscious, implicit experience, Stern is not rejecting the Freudian unconscious. He does not deny either its existence or its significance for psychoanalytic psychotherapy. Nevertheless, in one of his most revealing metatheoretical statements, he maintains that,

The temporal aspect of the present moment…had to be addressed…After all, the presentness of lived experience is central. This question sent me on an extended learning journey into the realm of phenomenological philosophy…It was there that the hidden but obvious fact that we are psychologically and consciously alive only now became apparent…This is, of course, a radical departure from the path historically taken by most psychologies that put the central emphasis on the past and its influence. It also implies that consciousness, rather than the unconscious is the key mystery, another radical departure…xiv-xv

In thus pointing out in the Preface to The Present Moment that consciousness rather than the unconscious is "the key mystery," Stern might confuse readers subsequently when he focuses, as we have seen, on nonconscious, implicit experience rather than conscious, verbal, explicit experience. The point is, however, that nonconscious, implicit experience is not unconscious dynamically; it is unconscious topographically and, as such, is actually experienced; i.e., it is conscious as a form of experience, though unreflected and nonexplicit. This is consistent (although Stern does not at all discuss this point) with the phenomenological notion of consciousness which is far broader and deeper than the Freudian notion.

Most important for grasping the nature of the present moment is understanding, as Stern points out in the quote above, that present moments have a temporal structure. That structure is such that they bear within them the immediate past and the foreshadowed future. In developing his conception of the temporal structure of experience Stern was profoundly influenced, as he fully acknowledges, by the work of Edmund Husserl, the founder of phenomenology For Husserl, there is no "standing now". The present, the 'now' moment, is a process with retentive (immediate past) and protentive (anticipated future) horizons. The present moment is infused with and structured by these flowing temporal horizons, as well as with their experiential content. This flowing process is what Husserl referred to as "erlebnis", a word usually translated from the German as "lived experience." (In the phenomenological-existential perspective, "lived experience" is referred to as "existence"). (Also, although I cannot elaborate here, Stern fully appreciates and uses the Husserlian notion of the intentionality of consciousness.)

Equally important for understanding Stern's formulations is that for him the mutative effect of psychoanalysis occurs in the therapy session in and through present moments. Oddly, Wilkinson does not even mention, let alone discuss, the mutative effect of psychoanalysis. Yet, understanding the mutative effect has been, and is, the holy grail that analytic theoreticians and practitioners have sought for more and more intensively as psychoanalysis has undergone change since Freud and has abandoned Freud's simplistic "where id was there ego shall be"; and in particular, as theorists have gained deeper understanding of the depth dimension of the imbrication of positivism in psychoanalysis. For, if psychoanalysis is not a positivist, physicalist, reductive science, and if, therefore, the mutative effect does not have a causal structure as positivists maintain, how does analysis bring about change in patients? As mentioned above, Wilkinson in his review does not at all touch upon this all-important issue, even though accounting for it is the cornerstone of Stern's perspective.

For Stern, the mutative effect occurs through the attainment, in and through present moments, of what he calls "intersubjective knowing".

 Intersubjective knowing is implicit and nonconscious. It occurs in the here and now, but as Stern points out, the present moment of intersubjective knowing is quite different from "the here and now" as presently understood in psychoanalysis. The difference is that Stern considers the presentness of the present moment to be absolutely crucial in constituting the mutative effect of psychoanalysis. Thus, this effect does not come about through analytic considerations and interventions regarding the here and now of the patient's narrative or the here and now of the relationship between analyst and patient. Rather, the present moment occurs in the heat atnd intensity of the intersubjective field in the present of that heat and intensity. This is correlated with Stern's view that the present moments in analysis that bring about change are nonconscious (rather than unconscious) and are not matters that are subject to repression either before, after, or during their occurrence. In fact, for Stern, intersubjective, implicit knowing is subject, rather, to repression of any attempt to verbalize it; in this way, its authenticity is retained and protected from objectvation. Stern maintains that there is universally in human beings a motivational system the aim of which is intersubjective knowing, i.e., implicit knowing shared by two people; and, that motivational aim is achieved in present moments. In my view, this is the most important contribution in Stern's book in that it comes closer to an explication of the mutative effect of psychoanalysis than previous theories. 

At this point, we can consider the positivist elements in Stern and how they can be most constructively transcended. For, the elements of transcendence are already implicit in the book.

Wilkinson points to three positivist elements in Stern's formulations:   1. Stern maintains a "strong logical behaviorism." Wilkinson's basis for this claim: Stern states that "We are capable of 'reading' other people's intentions and feeling within our bodies what they are feeling [Stern's grammar MN-S]. Not in any mystical way [Wilkinson's italics], but from watching their face, movements, and posture, etc. etc."[I have truncated Wilkinson's quote from Stern on Wilkinson 246]. Wilkinson maintains that Stern partially recognizes "direct mimetic mutual resonance" and that Stern moves towards the recognition that the social basis of mind is prior to, and the logical presupposition of individual conscious awareness and mentality (246).

2. Wilkinson avers that Stern maintains a very simple experience/neuro-process dualism "so that neuro-processes are treated as functionally equivalent to personal phenomenological processes." For Wilkinson, this dualism should point instead "towards interactionism so thoroughgoing that it begins to relativize the position of neuroscience from a phenomenological position" (247).

3. Wilkinson states: "Third, and for my present purpose most important, (for this one is within the phenomenological field and is still atomistic) there is the central atomistic postulate of basic experiential units conceived of as constituted in 'the present moment' by way of a 'lived story'…." (247).

Contrary to Wilkinson, it seems to me that the second point, the claim of neuro-scientific dualism, is the most plausible claim of positivism against Stern.

Regarding Wilkinson's first point, that Stern fails to see that the social basis of mind is prior to individual consciousness, this is in the first place an assumption that needs a rationale that is not provided by Wilkinson. Secondly, many of the finest psychoanalytic theoreticians reject the view that the 'we' is ontologically prior to the 'I'; for example, Jessica Benjamin shows in her richly argued books that psychoanalysis, to remain psychoanalysis, must recognize both intra- and intersubjective phenomena, where neither precedes the other. Indeed, here psychoanalysis is homologous not with the Heideggerean insistence on the priority of the "we" and on language as the "house of being" and bearer of the "we'; rather, psychoanalysis is homologous with Husserlian phenomenology which is a philosophic stance recognizes the irreducible interplay of individual and socius where neither has priority over the other. As Daniel Stern wrote in his (1985) The Interpersonal World of the Infant (New York: Basic Books, 1985), "While intersubjective relatedness transforms the interpersonal world, however, core-relatedness continues. Intersubjective relatedness does not displace it; nothing ever will. It is the existential bedrock of interpersonal relations" (125). Moreover, core relatedness presupposes the "core self" (pp. 26-27).

Wilkinson's third point is that Stern's conception of basic experiential units constituted in present moments by way of lived stories is atomistic. Stern writes, however, that: "The problem with chronos [objective time, clock time] is that if there is no now long enough that something can unfold in it, there can be no direct experience…Also, life-as-lived is not experienced as a continuous flow. Rather, it is felt to be discontinuous, made up of incidents and events separated in time but also somehow connected" (6). Thus, while on one hand Stern maintains that "life as lived is not experienced as an inexorably continuous flow", on the other hand he urges this against a reductive, objectified time. Clock time flows inexorably continuously precisely because it is objectified and as such senseless and devoid of significance. Thus also, Wilkinson's use of objectified language, "basic experiential units" taken out of the rich context provided by Stern is tendentious--it is itself an objectification of Stern's view of the temporality of lived experience.

Finally, in his second point, Wilkinson alleges that Stern posits a simple experience/neuro-process dualism. It is indeed the case that throughout the book Stern cites and explicates neurological correlates of the processes in the phenomenal, i.e., experiential mind. Why does Stern do this? Certainly, that he does strongly suggests a form of mind-brain dualism. The problem of dualism (I add) is that it threatens to devolve, as it did in Cartesianism, into the physicalist reductionism of scientism. Wilkinson advocates "interactionism" as an antidote to dualism.

However, Stern's presentation of the relevant material indicates that he is not a mind-brain dualist. Stern's Husserlian orientation rules out dualism, for, Husserlian phenomenology is a monistic stance such that the person is a psychophysical unity. Stern's lengthiest excursus into neurobiological material is in Chapter Five, "The Intersubjective Matrix" in the sub-section, "Evidence for the Intersubjective Matrix." This sub-section is itself divided into two sections: "Neuroscientific Evidence" and "Support from Phenomenology." "Neuroscientific Evidence" is a lengthy discussion of mirror neurons and their role in intersubjective experience, as well as other recent neuroscientific findings. Stern's view of the relation between these findings and human phenomenal experience is expressed, for example, when, discussing his notion that there are mechanisms available for dyadic coordination between persons, he writes that "There is another finding that may serve as a neural correlate for intersubjectivty." The term "correlate" does not equate with cause in the positivist sense, nor does it necessarily imply dualism. Indeed, throughout the chapter, and the book as a whole, Stern's discussion of these factors is embedded in discussions of complex interactive feedback processes between neurological structures and processes and intersubjective, phenomenal, interactive processes.

In addition, in the section on "Support from Phenomenology," Stern discusses various aspects of Husserlian phenomenology and references writings by Husserl scholars who have themselves engaged the literature and findings of cognitive neuroscience, for example the well-known and much published Husserl scholar Dan Zahavi. These scholars and interpreters of the relation between Husserlian phenomenology and cognitive neurosciences are attempting to bridge the gap non-dualistically and non-reductively between the phenomenality of experience and the neurological structuration that correlates with that phenomenality. [i]

The point that I am progressing towards is as follows: All of these writings and discussions in the literature on neurobiological correlates of phenomenal experience are, from a phenomenological perspective, important and exciting, with one overriding caveat:

In the first chapter of The Present Moment, "The Problem of 'Now'", in presenting "a minimal list of the features of a clinically relevant present moment", Stern writes that the third feature is as follows: "The felt experience of the present moment is whatever is in awareness now, during the moment being lived [Stern's emphasis]. In discussing the problem of objectivating present moments subsequent to experiencing them, Stern writes: "This natural problem is why Husserl insisted that to capture phenomenal experience and examine it for itself, we have to put a bracket (Husserl's epoche) around it to protect it from being "explained away" at another level" (33). This is an accurate presentation of the meaning of the epoche or suspension of ontological commitments that is the inaugural act of phenomenological philosophizing--it prevents a metabasis eis allo genus, i.e., it prevents a positivist, or dualist, reduction of the phenomenal to the naturalistic.

Given this, to make his work internally consistent, Stern needs to make it clear that he as phenomenological philosopher-psychoanalyst stands always within the phenomenological attitude, the epoche. Otherwise, his excursions into neurobiology give the unfortunate impression of being both ad hoc and defensively motivated. For this, the antidote is not less Husserlian phenomenology, but more thoroughgoing and consistent work within the phenomenological epoche.

With this, I leave you to read this marvelous book 

 

           

© 2005 Marilyn Nissim-Sabat

 

Marilyn Nissim-Sabat, Ph.D., M.S.W., Professor Emeritus, Department of Philosophy, Lewis University, Romeoville, IL , Clinical Social Worker, private practice in psychodynamic psychotherapy, Chicago, IL, Member Executive Board, Assoc. for the Advancement of Philosophy and Psychiatry

 



[i]  Naturalizing Phenomenology (1999), edited by J. Petitot, et al (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press) is a recent compilation of essays by leading scholars in the fields of phenomenology and cognitive neuroscience, including Dan Zahavi. I have written a critique of this book, its lengthy introductory theoretical essay in particular, that is forthcoming (along with responses and my counter-response) in the Winter 2005 issue of the Bulletin of the Association for the Advancement of Philosophy and Psychiatry (AAPP).


Heward Wilkinson responds to the review above. Received October 11, 2006

 

I am very grateful to Dr Christian Perring for this unusual opportunity of a creative dialogue.

Dr Nissim-Sabat used my original review article (available on my website below) as her departure for her own review. I think she got me wrong in certain ways;  but even our disagreements are our ways of coming to grips with a great book, one of those rare philosophically sophisticated writings from a psychotherapist, which grips our philosophical curiosity in a first hand way. Thus I am grateful to Nissim-Sabat, whose review has sent me back again with renewed intensity, both to Stern's book, and to Husserl.

I make sense of Nissim-Sabat's response to my view of Stern in terms of her Husserlian perspective, embracing the full sense of Husserl's phenomenological 'epoché', his reduction of (or elucidation of) the world in terms of the transcendental ego. She believes full-bloodedly this is the way to resolve Stern's dilemmas over psycho-physical parallelism:

'Given this, to make his work internally consistent, Stern needs to make it clear that he as phenomenological philosopher-psychoanalyst stands always within the phenomenological attitude, the epoché. Otherwise, his excursions into neurobiology give the unfortunate impression of being both ad hoc and defensively motivated. For this, the antidote is not less Husserlian phenomenology, but more thoroughgoing and consistent work within the phenomenological epoché.'

In this light she accuses me:

'Unfortunately, however, Wilkinson slights the pervasive presence of elements of Husserlian phenomenology in Stern. Because Wilkinson does not see the value of specifically Husserlian phenomenology, he does not see that the antidote within Stern's thinking is an expanded role for phenomenology rather than, as he proposes, a move towards what I (and others) view as Heideggerean linguistic reductionism... (e.g., see Wilkinson 253).'

I think that, whilst Stern has drawn deeply from Husserl's intentionality and temporality analyses, he, like philosophers such as Heidegger, Sartre, Merleau-Ponty, Levinas, and Derrida, restores Husserl's transcendentalism to a moderate realistic basis (I think, in an interactionist form), and therefore, his version of the epoché is a descriptive suspension of belief, not a transcendental one. It is also closer to Freud's episodic-catastrophic concept of temporality than Husserl. At the level of the transcendental ego, I consider Husserl never resolves the tension between his transcendental ego-subjectivism and his transcendental inter-subjectivism, a fault line also at the heart of psychoanalysis, (a link Nissim-Sabat makes, though, from my perspective, uncritically).

I find Stern's descriptive realism particularly evident in his chapter on The Past and the Present Moment where it is clear that his intentionalism is that (familiar in Heidegger and Merleau-Ponty) of the total world whole as realized in the 'now':

'The present remembering context is not only just one of these ongoing experiences;  it is the totality of what is going on now.  It is the complete amalgam of perceptions, sensations, cognitions, affects, feelings, and actions that are currently acting upon us, consciously and unconsciously, implicitly and explicitly. In this sense, past traumas, conflicts, and other basic elements of traditional psychoanalysis that remain partially activated can be a foreground or background part of the present remembering context.' (p198)

I believe a fault-line runs through Stern's whole book between this comprehensive 'totality' vision, and elements of atomism, or foundationalism (the idea that we can identify basic building blocks of experience on which all others are founded), for instance:

'Yet, larger narratives are made of smaller ones that are embedded in them.  The size of the smaller nested life stories is not usually explored in detail.  This leads to the question:  Are there minimal lived stories from which all larger narrative structures are built?  I am going to answer yes, and propose that present moments are the basis building blocks. [my italics] ('Present Moment', p58)'

The aim of my paper was to explore the implications of that fault line, including questions like:

  1. whether his conception of psychotherapy as being, in the light of the 'present moment' analysis, wider than the past-interpretative paradigm of psychoanalysis (including existential, and other related, approaches), which I encapsulated in my shorter title ('The Shadow of Freud: is Daniel Stern still a psychoanalyst'), nevertheless subscribes to an artificial antithesis between present and past, implicit and unconscious, which I called his 'apartheid solution', or whether it transcends it; 

  2. whether his strong element of support for a thoroughgoing social theory of mind (I invoked the work of Julian Jaynes here) implicitly shifts the focus away from his 'present moment' foundationalism; 

  3. whether his 'linguistic/non-linguistic', and 'implicit' versus 'unconscious', and other such antitheses, are artificial in relation to the bulk of experience, and whether he himself accepts this;  and so on. 

I was conjecturing that the deepest implication of his work and fine intelligence would pull him towards the wider-based position in each case.

Nissim-Sabat ignored much of these wider ranging questionings, in particular my basic focus on the issues Stern raises of 'psychotherapy beyond psychoanalysis' (potentially an integrated widening of our understanding of psychoanalysis itself), claiming I overlooked Stern's concern with present moments and moments of meeting as mutative factors in psychoanalysis, whereas I simply took that as not wholly new (I don't think we fundamentally disagree in our analysis of mutative factors!), and raised more embracing issues of the nature of change more than once. E.g: we can grasp that there is the most subtle play between forms of relationship in therapeutic work (Clarkson, 2002), the transferential, the therapeutic alliance, the I-Thou of dialogue, the developmentally corrective, the sacred or alchemical relationship in the context of religious rite or process, in some sense, (of which arguably the psychotherapy relationship is a low-key instance);  in the subtle interplay of all of these the depth of process emerges in the work, and the shifts are manifold and unfathomable.  It seems a gross narrowing of perspective to say this is either primarily conscious (non-conscious, implicit), or primarily unconscious;  both concepts have their place, but so does that of a total communication network, in frame, partly fictitious, partly actual or real -----, of which the overt 'present moment' relationship is but one manifestation, and which remains comprehensively the medium of psychodynamic effects.' (p.251)

We do disagree over Husserl, who I consider great, rightly influential, but also mistaken, in the creative way the greatest philosophers sometimes are, and who offers us a potently captivating transcendental will o' the wisp, on the 'hard problem' of the relation of consciousness to neural activity, a problem also unresolved by Stern, despite the fact that his great book provides us important further data and clarifications from which the solution of such problems will come.

 

http://hewardwilkinson.co.uk

 

© 2005 Heward Wilkinson

 


Marilyn Nissim-Sabbat replies. Received November 11, 2005.

I would like to express my appreciation to Professors Wilkinson and Perring for fostering this dialogue. I intend here to respond to Prof. Wilkinson's substantive critiques of the interpretation of Daniel Stern's perspective in my review of the latter's book, The Present Moment.

1. Prof. Wilkinson points out that I have suggested that Stern incorporate more elements of Husserlian phenomenology into his work, including Husserl's "transcendentalism." Wilkinson is correct--I do advocate this as an advance for Stern. However, Wilkinson goes on to say that, like post-Husserl phenomenologists, Stern "restores Husserl's transcendentalism to a moderate realistic basis..., and therefore, his version of the epoche is a descriptive suspension of belief, not a transcendental one. " Wilkinson then goes on to say that "Stern's descriptive realism" is evident in Chapter 12 of Stern's book, "where it is clear that his intentionalism is that (familiar in Heidegger and Merleau-Ponty) of the total world whole as realized in the 'now' ;..."(Wilkinson's italics). Wilkinson then quotes from Stern to the effect that "The present remembering context...is the complete amalgam of perceptions, sensations, cognitions, affects, feelings and actions that are currently acting upon us. ...etc." (my elisions, MN-S), 

Wilkinson's account here seemingly expresses the distinction he makes between transcendentalism (Husserl) and descriptive realism (Stern). That is, descriptive realism is the view that the present moment is the "totality of what is going on now", whereas transcendentalism is the view that the phenomenological suspension of ontological commitments, i.e., the transcendental phenomenological epoche, rules out an intentionality that is directed toward the "total world whole."

It seems to me that students of Husserlian phenomenology would find Wilkinson's version of it to be extremely baffling. Specifically, the quote that Wilkinson cites as evidence of Stern's non-Husserlian descriptive realism is entirely consistent with what Husserl elaborated in his Cartesian Meditations and The Crisis of European Sciences and Transcendental Phenomenology as genetic phenomenology. It is true that in his early work Husserl spoke of descriptive phenomenology, which, in contrast to genetic phenomenology, Husserl later spoke of as "static" phenomenology. But it was precisely in the period in which Husserl most fully elaborated transcendental phenomenology that he developed genetic phenomenology. For Husserl, all experience is both present experience (never construed by Husserl or Stern as a nunc stans or standing now) of the sedimented layers of encounter with inner and outer "objects", i.e., perceptions, sensations, affects, feelings, and so on. Moreover, "the total world whole" of which Wilkinson speaks can only come into view from a transcendental perspective--i.e., a perspective like that presented by Thomas Nagel  in his famous book The View from Nowhere, a book in which Nagel fails to acknowledge his debt to Husserl.

2.  Prof. Wilkinson then presents his critique of Stern, a critique that would show Stern to be far a field from any phenomenological perspective and at the same time far a field from any psychoanalytic perspective. Wilkinson, (and here I believe that Wilkinson's Heideggerean perspective shows through again) maintains that Stern "subscribes to an artificial antithesis between present and past, implicit and unconscious..."  Wilkinson says that Stern has a "fault line" between his "totality vision" and elements of atomism or foundationalism. He quotes Stern to the effect that present moments are "minimal lived stories from which all larger narrative structures and built" and that "present moments are the basic building blocks" (p. 58). For Wilkinson, this claim by Stern is atomistic and therefore foundationalist.

Pertinent to this aspect of Wilkinson's critique of Stern is the question of whether or not Wilkinson construes psychoanalysis as a theory and practice of developmental processes in human experience. When Heidegger elaborated his notion of ready-to-handedness (zuhandenheit), he provided no notion whatsoever as to the psychosocial process in and through which a tool, for example, becomes ready-to-hand, i.e., not an objectified object, but an extension of the carpenter's body. Indeed, Heidegger's perspective does not provide any ground whatsoever for a developmental psychology, or even one that would account in some way for the actuality of human psychic development. Thus, what Wilkinson refers to as "atomistic" and "foundationalist' in Stern's theory flows from Stern's concern, in all of his work, for providing a meaningful account of the phenomenon of human development. To suggest that Stern's views are "atomistic" because Stern sees that "present moments", which are experiential phenomena that occur from the inception of human existence, and are shot through with temporal flow, are the medium of all developmental processes--to refer to this view as "atomistic" is simply egregious. Atomism is relevant to scientistic empiricist perspectives--a far cry from Stern's phenomenology of human psychosocial, developmental processes. Moreover, the fact that Wilkinson links atomism and foundationalism is egregious as well. The term "foundationalism" is used in contemporary postmodern philosophy as a term of negative critique generally applied to philosophies that include an a priori dimension of subjectivity or existence, i.e., like Husserlian phenomenology. However, atomism is a term that is generally used in empiricist perspectives that deny any a priori dimension Thus, Wilkinson's linkage of the terms is again baffling. Does he mean to suggest that any view that includes differentiations amongst its components is "foundationalist" in the negative critical sense? Are we then, Heidegger like, to just await the advent of Being? Or, as in Stern's developmental psychoanalysis and Husserl's philosophy of development, can we gain insight and wisdom regarding human development that would enable us to facilitate our own growth and maturation? I think that Stern would opt for the latter.


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