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Maximizing Effectiveness in Dynamic Psychotherapy Self-Compassion in Psychotherapy101 Healing StoriesA Clinician's Guide to Legal Issues in PsychotherapyA Map of the MindA Primer for Beginning PsychotherapyACT With LoveActive Treatment of DepressionAffect Regulation, Mentalization, and the Development of SelfAlready FreeBad TherapyBecoming an Effective PsychotherapistBefore ForgivingBeing a Brain-Wise TherapistBetrayed as BoysBeyond Evidence-Based PsychotherapyBeyond MadnessBeyond PostmodernismBinge No MoreBiofeedback for the BrainBipolar DisorderBody PsychotherapyBoundaries and Boundary Violations in PsychoanalysisBrain Change TherapyBrain Science and Psychological DisordersBrain-Based Therapy with AdultsBrain-Based Therapy with Children and AdolescentsBrief Adolescent Therapy Homework PlannerBrief Child Therapy Homework PlannerBrief Therapy Homework PlannerBuffy the Vampire Slayer and PhilosophyBuilding on BionCare of the PsycheCase Studies in DepressionCaught in the NetChild and Adolescent Treatment for Social Work PracticeChoosing an Online TherapistChronic DepressionClinical Dilemmas in PsychotherapyClinical Handbook of Psychological DisordersClinical Intuition in PsychotherapyClinical Pearls of WisdomCo-Creating ChangeCognitive Therapy for Challenging ProblemsCompassionConfessions of a Former ChildConfidential RelationshipsConfidentiality and Mental HealthConfidingContemplative Psychotherapy EssentialsControlConversations About Psychology and Sexual OrientationCoping with BPDCouch FictionCounseling in GenderlandCounseling with Choice TheoryCouple SkillsCrazy for YouCreating a Life of Meaning and CompassionCreating HysteriaCritical Issues in PsychotherapyCrucial Choices, Crucial ChangesDeafness In MindDecoding the Ethics CodeDeconstructing PsychotherapyDeep Brain StimulationDemystifying TherapyDepression 101Depression in ContextDialogues on DifferenceDissociative ChildrenDo-It-Yourself Eye Movement Techniques for Emotional HealingDoing CBTE-TherapyEarly WarningEncountering the Sacred in PsychotherapyEnergy Psychology InteractiveErrant SelvesEssays on Philosophical CounselingEssentials of Wais-III AssessmentEthically Challenged ProfessionsEthics and Values in PsychotherapyEthics in Plain EnglishEthics in Psychotherapy and CounselingExpectationExploring the Self through PhotographyExpressing EmotionFacing Human SufferingFairbairn's Object Relations Theory in the Clinical SettingFamily TherapyFavorite Counseling and Therapy Homework AssignmentsFear of IntimacyFlourishingFolie a DeuxForms of Intersubjectivity in Infant Reasearch and Adult TreatmentFoundations of Ethical Practice, Research, and Teaching in PsychologyFreud and the Question of PseudoscienceFrom Morality to Mental HealthFundamentals of Psychoanalytic TechniqueGenes on the CouchGod & TherapyHalf Empty, Half FullHandbook of Clinical Psychopharmacology for TherapistsHandbook of Counseling and Psychotherapy with Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual ClientsHandbook of Evidence-Based Therapies for Children and AdolescentsHealing the Heart and Mind with MindfulnessHeinz KohutHelping Children Cope With Disasters and TerrorismHigh RiskHistory of PsychotherapyHow and Why Are Some Therapists Better Than Others?How Clients Make Therapy WorkHow People ChangeHow Psychotherapists DevelopHow to Fail As a TherapistHow to Go to TherapyHypnosis for Inner Conflict ResolutionHypnosis for Smoking CessationI Never Promised You a Rose GardenIf Only I Had KnownIn Others' EyesIn SessionIn Therapy We TrustIn Treatment: Season 1Incorporating Spirituality in Counseling and PsychotherapyInside the SessionInside TherapyIs Long-Term Therapy Unethical?Issues in Philosophical CounselingIt's Not as Bad as It SeemsItís Your HourLearning from Our MistakesLearning Supportive PsychotherapyLetters to a Young TherapistLife CoachingLogotherapy and Existential AnalysisLove's ExecutionerMadness and DemocracyMaking the Big LeapMan's Search for MeaningMetaphoria: Metaphor and Guided Metaphor for Psychotherapy and HealingMind GamesMindfulness and AcceptanceMindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy for DepressionMindworks: An Introduction to NLPMockingbird YearsMoments of EngagementMomma and the Meaning of LifeMotivational Interviewing: Preparing People For ChangeMulticulturalism and the Therapeutic ProcessMultifamily Groups in the Treatment of Severe Psychiatric DisordersNarrative PracticeOn the CouchOne Nation Under TherapyOur Inner WorldOur Last Great IllusionOutsider ArtOutsider Art and Art TherapyOvercoming Destructive Beliefs, Feelings, and BehaviorsOverexposedPathways to SpiritualityPersonality and PsychotherapyPhilosophical CounselingPhilosophical Counselling and the UnconsciousPhilosophical Issues in Counseling and PsychotherapyPhilosophical PracticePhilosophy and PsychotherapyPhilosophy for Counselling and PsychotherapyPhilosophy PracticePhilosophy's Role in Counseling and PsychotherapyPillar of SaltPlan BPlato, Not Prozac!Polarities of ExperiencesPower GamesPractical Psychoanalysis for Therapists and PatientsPrinciples and Practice of Sex TherapyPsychologists Defying the CrowdPsychology, Psychotherapy, Psychoanalysis, and the Politics of Human RelationshipsPsychosis in the FamilyPsychotherapyPsychotherapyPsychotherapy and ConfidentialityPsychotherapy As PraxisPsychotherapy for Children and AdolescentsPsychotherapy for Personality DisordersPsychotherapy Is Worth ItPsychotherapy Isn't What You ThinkPsychotherapy with Adolescent Girls and Young WomenPsychotherapy with Children and AdolescentsPsychotherapy without the SelfPsychotherapy, American Culture, and Social PolicyRapid Cognitive TherapyRational Emotive Behavior TherapyRational Emotive Behavior TherapyRationality and the Pursuit of HappinessRebuilding Shattered LivesReclaiming Our ChildrenRecovery OptionsRelationalityRent Two Films and Let's Talk in the MorningSaving the Modern SoulScience and Pseudoscience in Clinical PsychologySecond-order Change in PsychotherapySelf-Compassion in PsychotherapySelf-Determination Theory in the ClinicSelf-Disclosure in Psychotherapy and RecoverySerious ShoppingSex, Therapy, and KidsSexual Orientation and Psychodynamic PsychotherapySigns of SafetySoul Murder RevisitedStaring at the SunStraight to JesusStrangers to OurselvesSubjective Experience and the Logic of the OtherTaking America Off DrugsTales of PsychotherapyTales of UnknowingTalk is Not EnoughTalking Cures and Placebo EffectsTelling SecretsThe Behavioral Medicine Treatment PlannerThe Body in PsychotherapyThe Brief Couples Therapy Homework Planner with DiskThe Case Formulation Approach to Cognitive-Behavior TherapyThe Challenge for Psychoanalysis and PsychotherapyThe Child and Adolescent Psychotherapy Treatment PlannerThe Clinical Child Documentation SourcebookThe Clinical Documentation SourcebookThe Complete Adult Psychotherapy Treatment PlannerThe Couch and the TreeThe Couples Psychotherapy Treatment PlannerThe Crucible of ExperienceThe Cure of SoulsThe Death of PsychotherapyThe Education of Mrs. BemisThe Ethical Treatment of DepressionThe Ethics of PsychoanalysisThe Gay and Lesbian Psychotherapy Treatment PlannerThe Gift of TherapyThe Great Psychotherapy Debate: The Evidence for What Makes Psychotherapy Work The Healing JourneyThe Heart & Soul of ChangeThe Heroic ClientThe Husbands and Wives ClubThe Love CureThe Making of a TherapistThe Mindful TherapistThe Mirror Crack'dThe Mummy at the Dining Room TableThe Neuroscience of PsychotherapyThe Neuroscience of Psychotherapy: Healing the Social BrainThe New Rational TherapyThe Older Adult Psychotherapy Treatment PlannerThe Other Side of DesireThe Pastoral Counseling Treatment PlannerThe Philosopher's Autobiography The Pornographer's GriefThe Portable CoachThe Portable Ethicist for Mental Health Professionals The Present Moment in Psychotherapy and Everyday LifeThe Problem of EvilThe Problem with Cognitive Behavioural TherapyThe Psychodynamics of Gender and Gender RoleThe Psychotherapy Documentation PrimerThe Psychotherapy Documentation PrimerThe Psychotherapy of HopeThe Real World Guide to Psychotherapy PracticeThe Schopenhauer CureThe Sex Lives of TeenagersThe Talking CureThe Therapeutic "Aha!"The Therapist's Guide to PsychopharmacologyThe Therapist's Guide to Psychopharmacology, Revised EditionThe Therapist's Ultimate Solution BookThe Trauma of Everyday LifeThe Trouble with IllnessThe UnsayableThe Way of the JournalTheory and Practice of Brief TherapyTherapy with ChildrenTherapy's DelusionsTheraScribe 3.0 for WindowsTheraScribe 4.0Thinking about ThinkingThinking for CliniciansThinking for CliniciansThoughts Without a ThinkerThriveToward a Psychology of AwakeningTracking Mental Health OutcomesTrauma, Truth and ReconciliationTreating Attachment DisordersTreatment for Chronic DepressionTreatment Plans and Interventions for Depression and Anxiety DisordersUnderstanding Child MolestersUnspeakable Truths and Happy EndingsWhat the Buddha FeltWhat Works for Whom?What Works for Whom? Second EditionWhen the Body SpeaksWhispers from the EastWise TherapyWittgenstein and PsychotherapyWorking MindsWoulda, Coulda, ShouldaWriting About PatientsYoga Skills for Therapists:Yoga Therapy
This is an important book on an important topic. Recently, courts and legislatures have been carving out new areas of law in regard to confidentiality between psychotherapists and patients. As this is being written, the United States Supreme Court has granted certiorari to a case involving the related issue of medical confidentiality (Ferguson v. Charleston).
Slovenko, a Professor of Law and Psychiatry, demonstrates his considerable expertise and helps the reader through dense material while providing occasional humorous asides. It seems laypeople believe what they say to their psychotherapist will remain confidential. Exceptions made in the patients interest are understandable. However, what if the psychotherapist is required to testify in a patients divorce proceeding or when the patient is accused of violating the law? What information should psychotherapists give to third party payers? What should the psychotherapist do if he thinks his patient may harm someone else, and the authorities believe they cannot involuntarily admit the patient to a hospital? Slovenko does a masterful job of exposing general presumptions and many legally-mandated exceptions to confidentiality. By the end of the book, he leaves us with a rather distressing conclusion summarized in the following statements: "[The confidentiality privilege] offers a shield that looks more like a sieve,
virtually nothing that is relevant about a patient in litigation is shielded by the shield." (p. 550).
One is left with the impression there may be so many exceptions to confidentiality that rule and exceptions have traded places. Actually, as Slovenko shows, there are layers of rules and exceptions. The basic rule, especially in law, is that the public has a right to every mans evidence. From there, exceptions are made. Beyond the psychotherapist exception, are, for example, spousal, clergy, physician, and, of course, lawyer exceptions. The only exception that has not been significantly eroded in recent years seems to be the last cited. By the time Slovenko shows us the exceptions to psychotherapist confidentiality, one might suggest we have come full circle and patients should be told as a general rule they should presume what they say may not be held in confidence.
Slovenko thinks it is trust, not confidentiality, that is sought by most patients. That, however, poses a problem he does not address. If trust is based on honesty, it is difficult to know how psychotherapists can be honest with patients. Simplifying this complicated situation by reducing it to a few words invites distrust when people discover the promise is empty. In addition, in a therapy session, words are symbolic and symptomatic, not objective descriptors of reality. It is the job of the psychotherapist to determine their deeper meaning, but she cannot do that if the patient does not talk freely. As Slovenko suggests, one can only agonize about what a litigator-adversary would do in court with statements made in a therapeutic context.
Two court cases loom large in the book. The longest chapter is devoted to the Tarasoff case in which Prosenjit Poddar told his therapist, Dr. Moore, he intended to kill his former girlfriend, Tatiana Tarasoff. Moore attempted to have Poddar committed, but the police concluded there were insufficient grounds and let him go with a warning. Two months later, Poddar killed Tarasoff. A majority of the California Supreme Court concluded Moore had a legal obligation to notify Tarasoff or her parents of Poddars threat. While Slovenko treats the case as an important step in the gradual erosion of the confidentiality privilege, he seems to miss its radical departure. It is one thing to argue that therapists have an obligation to break confidences with other professionals who are under some obligation to maintain professional standards. It is quite another to suggest that therapists should notify people with no such obligations. Slovenko also fails to recognize the decision arises out of a dilemma the court created for itself. In the majority opinion, it cites its related opinion invoking proof beyond a reasonable doubt (People v. Burnick). Given the current state of psychotherapy, no predictions can lie beyond reasonable doubt. Thus, the police were right to let Poddar go. The court transferred its dilemma to psychotherapists by requiring them to break confidence and notify prospective victims directly. In addition, the court engages in dubious logic by arguing that, since Moore had a "special relationship" with Poddar and Poddar had a "special relationship" with Tarasoff, Moore had a "special relationship" with Tarasoff. However, "special relationship" is nontransitive as application beyond three parties would make clear. Slovenkos interpretation of the decision is the conventional one and, either legislatively or through stare decisis, it is now accepted in most states. In an ironic concluding comment about Tarasoff, Slovenko says he wishes it had gone to final trial because he believes the defense would have won. (p. 288)
The second case, Jaffee v. Redmond was decided by the U. S. Supreme Court in 1996. The question was whether a social worker, hired by a town to counsel a police officer, should be required to yield her notes in a suit against him. A seven person majority ruled in favor of the confidentiality privilege. However, Slovenko argues that, while the Court seems to uphold the privilege, it grants so many exceptions that the sieve remains. Slovenko might also have turned his analytic powers to the dissenting opinion by Justice Scalia, for it is little more than an collection of non-sequiturs, and false suppositions.
While Scalia has little use for the psychotherapist-patient privilege, he insists upon sustaining the lawyer-client privilege. There are exceptions there, too, but it still remains more a shield than a sieve. That may provide a solution. Perhaps psychotherapists should become lawyers as well as therapists. In that way, they could ignore the increasingly empty psychotherapist privilege and use, instead, the lawyer privilege. Scalia thinks psychotherapy is a lesser discipline than law. However, one suspects anyone sufficiently smart and dedicated to become a qualified and licensed psychotherapist could make it through law school and pass a bar examination.
WILLARD F. ENTEMAN is presently Professor of Philosophy at Rhode Island College. He has taught at Boston University, Wheaton College (MA), Union College (NY) and Bowdoin College (ME), where he served also as President. He has published widely in higher education and philosophy. His most recent book is: Managerialism: The Emergence of a New Ideology (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1993).
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