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A Theory of Feelings Anger and Forgiveness"My Madness Saved Me"10 Good Questions about Life and Death12 Modern Philosophers50 Reasons People Give for Believing in a GodA Cabinet of Philosophical CuriositiesA Case for IronyA Companion to BioethicsA Companion to Buddhist PhilosophyA Companion to FoucaultA Companion to GenethicsA Companion to GenethicsA Companion to HumeA Companion to KantA Companion to Phenomenology and ExistentialismA Companion to PragmatismA Companion to the Philosophy of ActionA Companion to the Philosophy of BiologyA Companion to the Philosophy of LiteratureA Conceptual History of PsychologyA Critical Overview of Biological FunctionsA Critique of Naturalistic Philosophies of MindA Cursing Brain?A Delicate BalanceA Farewell to AlmsA Frightening LoveA Future for PresentismA Guide to the Good LifeA History of PsychiatryA History of the MindA Life Worth LivingA Manual of Experimental PhilosophyA Map of the MindA Metaphysics of PsychopathologyA Mind So RareA Natural History of Human MoralityA Natural History of Human ThinkingA Natural History of VisionA Parliament of MindsA Philosopher Looks at The Sense of HumorA Philosophical DiseaseA Philosophy of BoredomA Philosophy of Cinematic ArtA Philosophy of CultureA Philosophy of EmptinessA Philosophy of FearA Philosophy of PainA Physicalist ManifestoA Place for ConsciousnessA Question of TrustA Research Agenda for DSM-VA Revolution of the MindA Sentimentalist Theory of the MindA Stroll With William JamesA Tapestry of ValuesA Tear is an Intellectual ThingA Theory of FreedomA Thousand MachinesA Universe of ConsciousnessA Very Bad WizardA Very Bad Wizard: Morality Behind the CurtainA Virtue EpistemologyA World Full of GodsA World Without ValuesAbout FaceAbout the Beginning of the Hermeneutics of the SelfAction and ResponsibilityAction in ContextAction Theory, Rationality and CompulsionAction, Contemplation, and HappinessAction, Emotion and WillAdam SmithAdaptive DynamicsAddictionAddictionAddiction and ResponsibilityAddiction Is a ChoiceAdvances in Identity Theory and ResearchAftermathAfterwarAgainst AdaptationAgainst AutonomyAgainst BioethicsAgainst HappinessAgainst HealthAgency and ActionAgency and AnswerabilityAgency and EmbodimentAgency and ResponsibilityAgency, Freedom, and Moral ResponsibilityAl-JununAlain BadiouAlain BadiouAlasdair MacIntyreAlien Landscapes?Altered EgosAn Anthology of Psychiatric EthicsAn Ethics for TodayAn Intellectual History of CannibalismAn Interpretation of DesireAn Introduction to EthicsAn Introduction to Kant's Moral Philosophy An Introduction to Philosophy of EducationAn Introduction to the Philosophy of MindAn Introduction to the Philosophy of MindAn Introduction to the Philosophy of PsychologyAn Introductory Philosophy of MedicineAn Odd Kind of FameAnalytic FreudAnalytic Philosophy in AmericaAncient AngerAncient Models of MindAncient Philosophy of the SelfAngerAnimal LessonsAnimal MindsAnimals Like UsAnnihilationAnother PlanetAnswers for AristotleAnti-ExternalismAnti-Individualism and KnowledgeAntigone’s ClaimAntipsychiatryAre We Hardwired?Are Women Human?Arguing about DisabilityArguing About Human NatureAristotle and the Philosophy of FriendshipAristotle on Practical WisdomAristotle's ChildrenAristotle's Ethics and Moral ResponsibilityAristotle, Emotions, and EducationArt & MoralityArt After Conceptual ArtArt in Three DimensionsArt, Self and KnowledgeArtificial ConsciousnessArtificial HappinessAspects of PsychologismAsylum to ActionAtonement and ForgivenessAttention is Cognitive UnisonAutobiography as PhilosophyAutonomyAutonomy and Mental DisorderAutonomy and the Challenges to LiberalismBabies by DesignBackslidingBadiouBadiou's DeleuzeBadiou, Balibar, Ranciere: Rethinking EmancipationBare Facts And Naked TruthsBasic Desert, Reactive Attitudes and Free WillBattlestar Galactica and PhilosophyBe Like the FoxBeautyBecoming a SubjectBecoming HumanBehavingBehavioral Genetics in the Postgenomic EraBeing AmoralBeing HumanBeing Mentally Ill: A Sociological Theory Being No OneBeing Realistic about ReasonsBeing ReducedBeing YourselfBelief's Own EthicsBending Over BackwardsBerlin Childhood around 1900Bernard WilliamsBertrand RussellBetter than BothBetter Than WellBetween Two WorldsBeyond HealthBeyond Hegel and NietzscheBeyond KuhnBeyond LossBeyond Moral JudgmentBeyond PostmodernismBeyond ReductionBeyond SchizophreniaBeyond the DSM StoryBioethicsBioethics and the BrainBioethics in the ClinicBiological Complexity and Integrative PluralismBiology Is TechnologyBiosBipolar ExpeditionsBlackwell Companion to the Philosophy of EducationBlindsight & The Nature of ConsciousnessBlues - Philosophy for EveryoneBlushBob Dylan and PhilosophyBody ConsciousnessBody Image And Body SchemaBody ImagesBody LanguageBody MattersBody WorkBody-Subjects and Disordered MindsBoundBoundaries of the MindBoyleBrain Evolution and CognitionBrain FictionBrain, Mind, and Human Behavior in Contemporary Cognitive ScienceBrain-WiseBrainchildrenBrains, Buddhas, and BelievingBrainstormingBrave New WorldsBreakdown of WillBrief Child Therapy Homework PlannerBrief Inquiry into the Meaning of Sin and FaithBrief Therapy Homework PlannerBritain on the CouchBritish Idealism and the Concept of the SelfBrute RationalityBuffy the Vampire Slayer and PhilosophyBut Is It Art?Camus and SartreCartesian LinguisticsCartographies of the MindCarving Nature at Its JointsCase Studies in Biomedical Research EthicsCassandra's DaughterCato's TearsCausation and CounterfactualsCauses, Laws, and Free WillChanging Conceptions of the Child from the Renaissance to Post-ModernityChanging the SubjectChaosophyCharacter and Moral Psychology Character as Moral FictionCharles DarwinCherishmentChildhood and the Philosophy of EducationChildrenChildren, Families, and Health Care Decision MakingChoices and ConflictChoosing Not to ChooseChristmas - Philosophy for EveryoneCinema, Philosophy, BergmanCinematic MythmakingCity and Soul in Plato's RepublicClassifying MadnessClear and Queer ThinkingClinical EthicsClinical Psychiatry in Imperial GermanyCodependent ForevermoreCoffee - Philosophy for EveryoneCognition and the BrainCognition of Value in Aristotle's EthicsCognition Through Understanding: Self-Knowledge, Interlocution, Reasoning, ReflectionCognitive BiologyCognitive FictionsCognitive Neuroscience of EmotionCognitive Systems and the Extended MindCognitive Systems and the Extended Mind Cognitive Theories of Mental IllnessCoherence in Thought and ActionCollected Papers, Volume 1Collected Papers, Volume 2College SexComedy IncarnateCommitmentCommunicative Action and Rational ChoiceCompetence, Condemnation, and CommitmentConcealment And ExposureConceptual Analysis and Philosophical NaturalismConceptual Art and PaintingConceptual Issues in Evolutionary BiologyConfessionsConfucianismConnected, or What It Means to Live in the Network SocietyConquest of AbundanceConscience and ConvenienceConsciousnessConsciousnessConsciousnessConsciousness ConsciousnessConsciousness and Its Place in NatureConsciousness and LanguageConsciousness and Mental LifeConsciousness and MindConsciousness and the NovelConsciousness and the SelfConsciousness EmergingConsciousness EvolvingConsciousness ExplainedConsciousness in ActionConsciousness RecoveredConsciousness RevisitedConsciousness, Color, and ContentConsole and ClassifyConstructing the WorldConstructive AnalysisContemporary Debates In Applied EthicsContemporary Debates in Moral TheoryContemporary Debates in Philosophy of BiologyContemporary Debates in Philosophy of MindContemporary Debates in Political PhilosophyContemporary Debates in Social PhilosophyContemporary Perspectives on Natural LawContested Knowledge: Social Theory TodayContesting PsychiatryContext and the AttitudesContinental Philosophy of ScienceControlControlling Our DestiniesConversations About Psychology and Sexual OrientationCopernicus, Darwin and FreudCrazy for YouCreating a Life of Meaning and CompassionCreating ConsilienceCreating HysteriaCreating Mental IllnessCreating Scientific ConceptsCreating the American JunkieCreation, Rationality and AutonomyCreatures Like Us?Crime and CulpabilityCrime, Punishment, and Mental IllnessCrimes of ReasonCritical New Perspectives on Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity DisorderCritical PsychiatryCritical PsychologyCritical ResistanceCritical Thinking About PsychologyCritical VisionsCross and KhoraCruel CompassionCTRL [SPACE]Cultural Psychology of the SelfCultural Theory: An IntroductionCulture and Psychiatric DiagnosisCulture and Subjective Well-BeingCulture of DeathCultures of NeurastheniaCurious EmotionsCurrent Controversies in Experimental PhilosophyCustom and Reason in HumeCustomers and Patrons of the Mad-TradeCutting God in Half - And Putting the Pieces Together AgainCylons in AmericaDamaged IdentitiesDamasio's Error and Descartes' TruthDangerous EmotionsDaniel DennettDaniel DennettDark AgesDarwin and DesignDarwin's Dangerous IdeaDarwin's LegacyDarwin, God and the Meaning of LifeDarwinian PsychiatryDarwinian ReductionismDarwinizing CultureDating: Philosophy for EveryoneDeathDeathDeath and CharacterDeath and CompassionDeath and the AfterlifeDebating DesignDebating HumanismDecision Making, Personhood and DementiaDecomposing the WillDeconstructing PsychotherapyDeconstruction and DemocracyDeeper Than DarwinDeeper than ReasonDefending Science - within ReasonDefining Psychopathology in the 21st CenturyDegrees of BeliefDelusion and Self-DeceptionDelusions and Other Irrational BeliefsDelusions and the Madness of the MassesDementiaDemons, Dreamers, and MadmenDennett and Ricoeur on the Narrative SelfDennett’s PhilosophyDepression Is a ChoiceDepression, Emotion and the SelfDepthDerrida, Deleuze, PsychoanalysisDescartesDescartes and the Passionate MindDescartes' CogitoDescartes's Changing MindDescartes's Concept of MindDescribing Inner Experience?Descriptions and PrescriptionsDesembodied Spirits and Deanimated Bodies Desert Islands and Other Texts (1953-1974)Desire and AffectDesire, Love, and IdentityDesire, Practical Reason, and the GoodDeveloping the VirtuesDiagnosing the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental DisordersDialectics of the SelfDid My Neurons Make Me Do It?Difference and IdentityDigital SoulDimensional Models of Personality DisordersDisability, Difference, DiscriminationDisjunctivismDisorders of VolitionDisorientation and Moral LifeDispatches from the Freud WarsDisrupted LivesDistractionDisturbed ConsciousnessDivided Minds and Successive SelvesDo Apes Read Minds?Do Fish Feel Pain?Do We Still Need Doctors?Does Consciousness Cause Behavior?Does the Woman Exist?Doing without ConceptsDon't Believe Everything You ThinkDonald DavidsonDonald Davidson on Truth, Meaning, and the MentalDoubting Darwin?Dreaming and Other Involuntary MentationDSM-IV SourcebookDSM-IV SourcebookDSM-IV-TR CasebookDworkin and His CriticsDying to KnowDynamics in ActionDysthymia and the Spectrum of Chronic DepressionsEccentricsEducational MetamorphosesEffective IntentionsElbow Room: The Varieties of Free Will Worth WantingEmbodied Minds in ActionEmbodied RhetoricsEmbodied Selves and Divided MindsEmbryos under the MicroscopeEmergencies in Mental Health PracticeEmerging Conceptual, Ethical and Policy Issues in BionanotechnologyEmotionEmotion and ConsciousnessEmotion and PsycheEmotion ExperienceEmotion RegulationEmotion, Evolution, And RationalityEmotional IntelligenceEmotional ReasonEmotional ReasonEmotional TruthEmotions in Humans and ArtifactsEmotions in the Moral LifeEmotions in the Moral LifeEmotions, Value, and AgencyEmpathyEmpathy and AgencyEmpathy and Moral DevelopmentEmpathy and MoralityEmpathy in the Context of PhilosophyEmpirical Ethics in PsychiatryEnchanted LoomsEngaging BuddhismEngineering the Human GermlineEnjoymentEnvyEpicureanismEpistemic LuckEpistemologyEpistemology and EmotionsEpistemology and the Psychology of Human JudgmentEros and the GoodErotic MoralityEssays in Social NeuroscienceEssays in the Metaphysics of Mind Essays on Derek Parfit's On What MattersEssays on Free Will and Moral ResponsibilityEssays on Nonconceptual ContentEssays on Philosophical CounselingEssays on Reference, Language, and MindEssays on the Concept of Mind in Early-Modern PhilosophyEssential Sources in the Scientific Study of ConsciousnessEsssential Philosophy of PsychiatryEternal Sunshine of the Spotless MindEthical Conflicts in PsychologyEthical Issues in Forensic Mental Health ResearchEthical Issues in Human CloningEthical TheoryEthicsEthicsEthics and the A PrioriEthics and the Metaphysics of MedicineEthics and Values in PsychotherapyEthics Done RightEthics ExpertiseEthics in Plain EnglishEthics in PracticeEthics in Psychiatric ResearchEthics of PsychiatryEthics without OntologyEuropean Review of Philosophy. Vol. 5Everyday IrrationalityEvil in Modern ThoughtEvolutionEvolution and the Human MindEvolution's RainbowEvolutionary Origins of MoralityEvolutionary PsychologyExamined LifeExamined LivesExistential AmericaExistentialismExistentialism and Romantic LoveExperimental PhilosophyExperimental PhilosophyExperimental PhilosophyExperimental Philosophy, Rationalism, and NaturalismExperiments in EthicsExplaining ConsciousnessExplaining the BrainExplaining the Computational MindExplanatory PluralismExploding the Gene MythExploring HappinessExploring the SelfExpression and the InnerExpressions of JudgmentFaces of IntentionFact and ValueFact and Value in EmotionFacts, Values, and NormsFads and Fallacies in the Social SciencesFaith and Wisdom in ScienceFatherhoodFear of KnowledgeFearless SpeechFeeling Pain and Being in PainFeelings and EmotionsFeelings of BeingFellow-Feeling and the Moral LifeFeminism and Its DiscontentsFeminism and Philosophy of ScienceFeminist Ethics and Social and Political PhilosophyFeminist Interpretations of Rene DescartesFeminist TheoryField Notes from ElsewhereFinding Consciousness in the BrainFingerprints of GodFlesh in the Age of ReasonFolk Psychological NarrativesFolk Psychology Re-AssessedForces of HabitForgivenessForgiveness and LoveForgiveness and RetributionFoucault 2.0Foucault and PhilosophyFoucault NowFoucault, Psychology and the Analytics of PowerFoundational Issues in Human Brain MappingFoundations of Ethical Practice, Research, and Teaching in PsychologyFour Views on Free WillFrank Ramsey (1903-1930)Free WillFree WillFree WillFree WillFree Will and Action ExplanationFree Will and LuckFree Will And Moral ResponsibilityFree Will as an Open Scientific ProblemFree Will, Agency, and Meaning in LifeFree: Why Science Hasn't Disproved Free WillFreedomFreedom and DeterminismFreedom And NeurobiologyFreedom and ResponsibiltyFreedom and ValueFreedom EvolvesFreedom RegainedFreedom vs. InterventionFreedom, Fame, Lying, and BetrayalFreudFreud and the Question of PseudoscienceFreud As PhilosopherFreud's AnswerFreud, the Reluctant PhilosopherFriedrich NietzscheFrom Chance to ChoiceFrom Clinic to ClassroomFrom Complexity to LifeFrom Enlightenment to ReceptivityFrom Knowledge to Wisdom: A Revolution for Science and the HumanitiesFrom Morality to Mental HealthFrom Passions to EmotionsFrom Philosophy to PsychotherapyFrom Valuing to ValueFrontiers of ConsciousnessFrontiers of JusticeFurnishing the MindGalileo in PittsburghGenderGender and Mental HealthGender in the MirrorGender TroubleGenesGenes, Women, EqualityGenetic Nature/CultureGenetic ProspectsGenetic ProspectsGenetic SecretsGenocide's AftermathGenomes and What to Make of ThemGerman Idealism and the JewGerman PhilosophyGetting HookedGilles DeleuzeGlobal PhilosophyGluttonyGod and Phenomenal ConsciousnessGoffman's LegacyGoing Amiss in Experimental ResearchGoodness & AdviceGrassroots SpiritualityGrave MattersGrave MattersGreedGreek Models of Mind and SelfGut ReactionsHabilitation, Health, and AgencyHabits of MindHallucinationHandbook of BioethicsHandbook of EmotionsHappinessHappinessHappinessHappinessHappiness and EducationHappiness and the Good LifeHappiness Is OverratedHappiness, Death, and the Remainder of LifeHard LuckHarmful ThoughtsHaving the World in ViewHealing PsychiatryHealing the Soul in the Age of the BrainHealth, Illness and DiseaseHealth, Science, and Ordinary LanguageHegelHeidegger and a Metaphysics of FeelingHeidegger, Metaphysics and the Univocity of BeingHermann von Helmholtz's MechanismHermeneutics As PoliticsHeterophobiaHeterosyncraciesHeuristics and BiasesHeuristics and the LawHidden ResourcesHidden SelvesHiding from HumanityHigh Art LiteHistorical OntologyHistory of Psychiatry and Medical PsychologyHistory, Historicity And ScienceHobbesHomosexualitiesHope and Dread in PsychoanalysisHot ThoughtHow Can I Be Trusted?How Can the Human Mind Occur in the Physical Universe?How Children Learn the Meanings of WordsHow Could Conscious Experiences Affect Brains?How Do We Know Who We Are?How Emotions WorkHow Emotions WorkHow History Made the MindHow Images ThinkHow is Nature Possible?How Propaganda WorksHow Science WorksHow Scientific Practices MatterHow Scientists Explain DiseaseHow The Body Shapes The MindHow the Body Shapes the Way We ThinkHow the Mind Explains BehaviorHow the Mind Uses the BrainHow to Make Opportunity EqualHow to Solve the Mind-Body Problemhow to stop timeHow to Think More About SexHow We HopeHow We ReasonHuman CloningHuman Development, Language and the Future of MankindHuman EnhancementHuman Evolution, Reproduction, and MoralityHuman GoodnessHuman Identity and BioethicsHuman NatureHuman NatureHuman Nature and the Limits of ScienceHuman-Built WorldHumanismHumanism, What's That?HumanityHumans, Animals, MachinesHumeHumeHume on Motivation and VirtueHusserlHystoriesI of the VortexI Was WrongIdeas that MatterIdentifying the MindIdentity and Agency in Cultural WorldsIgnorance and ImaginationIllnessImagination and Its PathologiesImagination and the Meaningful BrainImagining NumbersImmortal RemainsImproving Nature?In Defense of an Evolutionary Concept of HealthIn Defense of SentimentalityIn Love With LifeIn Praise of Athletic BeautyIn Praise of Natural PhilosophyIn Praise of the WhipIn Pursuit of HappinessIn Search of HappinessIn the Name of GodIn the Name of IdentityIn the Space of ReasonsIn the SwarmIn Two MindsIncompatibilism's AllureIndividual Differences in Conscious ExperienceInfinity and PerspectiveInformation ArtsInformed Consent in Medical ResearchIngmar Bergman, Cinematic PhilosopherInhuman ThoughtsInner PresenceInsanityIntegrating Psychotherapy and PharmacotherapyIntegrity and the Fragile SelfIntelligent VirtueIntentionIntentionality, Deliberation and AutonomyIntentions and IntentionalityIntentions and IntentionalityInterpreting MindsInterpreting NietzscheIntroducing Greek PhilosophyIntrospection and ConsciousnessIntrospection VindicatedIntuition, Imagination, and Philosophical MethodologyIntuitionismInvestigating the Psychological WorldIrrationalityIrrationalityIs Academic Feminism Dead?Is It Me or My Meds?Is Long-Term Therapy Unethical?Is Oedipus Online?Is Science Neurotic?Is Science Value Free?Is the Visual World a Grand Illusion?Is There a Duty to Die?Issues in Philosophical CounselingJacques LacanJacques RancièreJacques RanciereJean-Paul SartreJohn McDowellJohn SearleJohn Searle's Ideas About Social RealityJohn Stuart MillJohn Stuart Mill and the Writing of CharacterJoint AttentionJokesJonathan EdwardsJudging and UnderstandingJustice for ChildrenJustice in RobesJustice, Luck, and KnowledgeKantKant and MiltonKant and the Fate of AutonomyKant and the Limits of AutonomyKant and the Role of Pleasure in Moral ActionKant on Freedom, Law, and HappinessKant on Moral AutonomyKant's Anatomy of EvilKant's Anatomy of the Intelligent MindKant's Theory of VirtueKarl JaspersKarl PopperKey Concepts in PhilosophyKierkegaardKierkegaard as PhenomenologistKierkegaard's Concept of DespairKierkegaard's MuseKinds of MindsKinds, Things, and StuffKnowing, Knowledge and BeliefsKnowledge MonopoliesKnowledge, Belief, and CharacterKnowledge, Possibility, and ConsciousnessLacanLack of CharacterLack of CharacterLanguageLanguage in ContextLanguage, Consciousness, CultureLanguage, Culture, and MindLanguage, Vision, and MusicLaw and the BrainLaw, Liberty, and PsychiatryLaws, Mind, and Free WillLeaving YouLectures on the History of Political PhilosophyLevelling the Playing FieldLiberal Education in a Knowledge SocietyLiberatory PsychiatryLife and ActionLife at the Texas State Lunatic Asylum, 1857-1997Life Is Not a Game of PerfectLife of the MindLife's FormLife, Death, & MeaningLife, Death, and Meaning: Key Philosophical Readings on the Big Questions Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of UtilityLife, Sex, and IdeasLight in the Dark RoomLike a Splinter in Your MindLiving and Dying WellLiving NarrativeLiving Outside Mental IllnessLiving with DarwinLiving With One’s PastLockeLocke LockeLogic and the Art of Memory Loneliness in Philosophy, Psychology, and LiteratureLooking for SpinozaLooking for The StrangerLost SoulsLOT 2LoveLoveLove's ConfusionsLove's VisionLove, Friendship, and the SelfLove, Sex & TragedyLuckyLudwig WittgensteinLustLyingMachine ConsciousnessMad for FoucaultMad TravelersMade with WordsMadness And Death In PhilosophyMadness and DemocracyMadness at HomeMadness Is CivilizationMaking Natural KnowledgeMaking Sense of EvolutionMaking Sense of Freedom and ResponsibilityMaking the DSM-5Making the Social WorldMaking TruthMale Female EmailMan, Beast, and ZombieMandated Reporting of Suspected Child AbuseManiaManic Depression and CreativityMapping the Edges and the In-betweenMapping the Future of BiologyMarcus AureliusMaster PassionsMatters of the MindMe++Meaning and Moral OrderMeaning and Value in a Secular AgeMeaning in LifeMeaning in Life and Why It MattersMeaning, Basic Self-Knowledge, and MindMeasuring HappinessMeasuring PsychopathologyMedia MadnessMedical Enhancement and PosthumanityMedicine and Philosophy in Classical AntiquityMedicine of the PersonMedicine, Mental Health, Religion, Science and Well-BeingMelancholy And the Care of the SoulMelancholy and the Otherness of GodMementoMemory and NarrativeMental ActionsMental CausationMental Causation and OntologyMental HealthMental Health At The CrossroadsMental Health Policy in BritainMerit, Meaning, and Human BondageMerleau-PontyMerleau-Ponty and the Possibilities of PhilosophyMetacognition and Theory of MindMetacreationMetaethical SubjectivismMetaethicsMetal and FleshMetaphors of MemoryMetapoliticsMethods in MindMichel FoucaultMill's UtilitarianismMindMindMind and ConsciousnessMind and CosmosMind and MechanismMind GamesMind in a Physical WorldMind in Everyday Life and Cognitive ScienceMind in LifeMind TimeMind's LandscapeMind, Brain and the Elusive SoulMind, Brain, and Free WillMind, Reason and ImaginationMinding MindsMindreadersMindreading AnimalsMinds and PersonsMinds, Brains, and LawMinds, Ethics, and ConditionalsMindshapingMindsightMindworldsMirror, MirrorMixed FeelingsMockingbird YearsModels of the SelfModern Social ImaginariesModern Theories of JusticeModernity and SubjectivityModernity and TechnologyMoody Minds DistemperedMoral BrainsMoral DimensionsMoral FailureMoral ImaginationMoral LiteracyMoral MachinesMoral ParticularismMoral PsychologyMoral Psychology and Human AgencyMoral Psychology, Volume 1Moral Psychology, Volume 2Moral Psychology, Volume 3Moral Psychology: Volume IVMoral RepairMoral Responsibility and Alternative PossibilitiesMoral TribesMoral Value and Human DiversityMorality and Self-InterestMorality in a Natural WorldMorality, Moral Luck and ResponsibilityMotherhoodMotive and RightnessMoving Beyond Prozac, DSM, and the New PsychiatryMultiple Analogies in Science and PhilosophyMultiple Identities & False MemoriesMusic, Madness, and the Unworking of LanguageMy Brain Made Me Do ItMy Double UnveiledMy WayNarrativeNarrative and IdentityNarrative MedicineNarrative PsychiatryNarrative Theory and the Cognitive SciencesNatural Ethical FactsNatural Kinds and Conceptual ChangeNatural MindsNatural-Born CybogsNaturalism and the First-Person PerspectiveNaturalism and the Human ConditionNaturalism in the Philosophy of HealthNaturalism in the Philosophy of HealthNaturalized BioethicsNaturalizing the MindNatureNature and NarrativeNear Death ExperienceNeither Bad nor MadNeither Victim nor SurvivorNeuro-Philosophy and the Healthy MindNeuroethicsNeuroethicsNeurological Foundations of Cognitive Neuroscience Neurophilosophy at WorkNeurophilosophy of Free WillNeuropoliticsNeuropsychoanalysis in PracticeNeuroscience and PhilosophyNew Essays on the Explanation of ActionNew Philosophy for a New MediaNew Versions of VictimsNew Waves in Philosophy of ActionNietzscheNietzsche and Buddhist PhilosophyNietzsche on Ethics and PoliticsNietzsche's TherapyNietzsche, Culture and EducationNietzsche: The Man and His PhilosophyNihil UnboundNoir AnxietyNormative EthicsNormativityNorms of NatureNotebooks 1951-1959Notes Toward a Performative Theory of AssemblyNothing So AbsurdOblivionOn AnxietyOn ApologyOn Being AuthenticOn Being AuthenticOn BeliefOn BetrayalOn BullshitOn DelusionOn DesireOn EmotionsOn HashishOn Human RightsOn Loving Our EnemiesOn Nature and LanguageOn PersonalityOn ReflectionOn Romantic LoveOn the EmotionsOn the Freud WatchOn the Government of the LivingOn the Human ConditionOn the InternetOn the Meaning of LifeOn the Philosophy of LawOn the Pragmatics of CommunicationOn the Punitive SocietyOn TruthOn Virtue EthicsOn What MattersOn What We Owe to Each OtherOne Hundred DaysOnflowOnly a Promise of HappinessOntology of ConsciousnessOpen MindedOpen Your EyesOrgans without BodiesOther MindsOur Last Great IllusionOur Own MindsOur Posthuman FutureOur StoriesOut of Its MindOut of Our HeadsOxford Guide to the MindOxford Handbook of Psychiatric EthicsOxford Textbook of Philosophy of PsychiatryPanic DisorderPanpsychismPanpsychism in the WestPartialityPassionate EnginesPassionate EnginesPathologies of BeliefPathologies of ReasonPatient Autonomy and the Ethics of ResponsibilityPC, M.D.Perceiving the WorldPerception & CognitionPerception and Basic BeliefsPerception, Hallucination, and IllusionPerceptual ExperiencePerfecting VirtuePerplexities of ConsciousnessPersistencePersonal AutonomyPersonal Autonomy in SocietyPersonal IdentityPersonal Identity and EthicsPersonal Identity and Fractured SelvesPersonhood and Health CarePersonsPersons and BodiesPersons, Humanity, and the Definition of DeathPersons, Souls and DeathPerspectives on ImitationPerspectives on PragmatismPessimismPhenomenal Concepts and Phenomenal KnowledgePhenomenal ConsciousnessPhenomenal IntentionalityPhenomenology and ExistentialismPhenomenology and Philosophy of MindPhilosophersPhilosophers on MusicPhilosophers without GodsPhilosophical CounselingPhilosophical Counselling and the UnconsciousPhilosophical DevicesPhilosophical Foundations of NeurosciencePhilosophical History and the Problem of ConsciousnessPhilosophical Issues in PsychiatryPhilosophical Issues in PsychiatryPhilosophical Issues in Psychiatry IIPhilosophical MethodologyPhilosophical MidwiferyPhilosophical Myths of the FallPhilosophical Perspectives on DepictionPhilosophical Perspectives on Technology and PsychiatryPhilosophical PracticePhilosophical Reflections on DisabilityPhilosophizing About Sex Philosophizing the EverydayPhilosophy and HappinessPhilosophy and LivingPhilosophy and PsychiatryPhilosophy and PsychotherapyPhilosophy and Science FictionPhilosophy and the EmotionsPhilosophy and the EmotionsPhilosophy and the Interpretation of Pop CulturePhilosophy and the Moving ImagePhilosophy and the NeurosciencesPhilosophy and This Actual WorldPhilosophy As FictionPhilosophy BitesPhilosophy Bites BackPhilosophy for Counselling and PsychotherapyPhilosophy for LifePhilosophy in a New CenturyPhilosophy in an Age of SciencePhilosophy in Children's LiteraturePhilosophy of ActionPhilosophy of ActionPhilosophy of BiologyPhilosophy of BiologyPhilosophy of BiologyPhilosophy of BiologyPhilosophy of BodyPhilosophy of Film and Motion PicturesPhilosophy of LovePhilosophy of Love, Sex, and MarriagePhilosophy of MindPhilosophy of Mind and CognitionPhilosophy of Personal Identity and Multiple PersonalityPhilosophy of PsychologyPhilosophy of Public HealthPhilosophy of SciencePhilosophy of SciencePhilosophy of Technology: The Technological ConditionPhilosophy of the Social SciencesPhilosophy on TapPhilosophy PracticePhilosophy the Day after TomorrowPhilosophy's Role in Counseling and PsychotherapyPhilosophy, Neuroscience and ConsciousnessPhilosophy, Politics, DemocracyPhotography and PhilosophyPhysical RealizationPhysicalism and Its DiscontentsPhysicalism and Mental CausationPhysicalism, or Something Near EnoughPhysician-Assisted DyingPillar of SaltPin-up GrrrlsPlatoPlatoPlato, Not Prozac!Platonic Ethics, Old and NewPluralistic CasuistryPolarities of ExperiencesPolitical EmotionsPopper, Objectivity and the Growth of KnowledgePornPorn StudiesPornography, Sex, and FeminismPortrait of the Psychiatrist as a Young ManPostcolonial DisordersPostpsychiatryPosttraumatic Stress DisorderPower and the SelfPower SplitPractical Autonomy and BioethicsPractical ConflictsPractical Identity and Narrative AgencyPractical PhilosophyPractical RulesPractical Tortoise RaisingPractically ProfoundPracticing Feminist Ethics in PsychologyPragmatic BioethicsPragmatismPragmatism, Old And NewPraise and BlamePredicative MindsPreferences and Well-BeingPrescriptions for the MindPresocraticsPrimary and Secondary QualitiesPrimates and PhilosophersPrivacyPrivileged AccessProblems in MindProblems of RationalityProzac As a Way of LifeProzac BacklashProzac on the CouchPsyche and SomaPsychiatric Aspects of Justification, Excuse and Mitigation in Anglo-American Criminal Law Psychiatric Cultures ComparedPsychiatric Diagnosis and ClassificationPsychiatric EthicsPsychiatric HegemonyPsychiatric PowerPsychiatric SlaveryPsychiatry and Philosophy of SciencePsychiatry and ReligionPsychiatry as a Human SciencePsychiatry as Cognitive NeurosciencePsychiatry in SocietyPsychiatry in the New MilleniumPsychiatry in the Scientific ImagePsychiatry, Psychoanalysis, And The New Biology Of MindPsycho-Physical Dualism TodayPsychoanalysis and Narrative MedicinePsychoanalysis and the Philosophy of SciencePsychological Concepts and Biological PsychiatryPsychology and PhilosophyPsychology and the Question of AgencyPsychology's Interpretive TurnPsychology, Psychotherapy, Psychoanalysis, and the Politics of Human RelationshipsPsychotherapy and ConfidentialityPsychotherapy As PraxisPublic PhilosophyPunishmentPure ImmanencePurple HazePursuing MeaningQuality of Life and Human DifferenceQueer PhilosophyQuestions for FreudQuestions for FreudQuine and Davidson on Language, Thought and RealityRaceRace in Contemporary MedicineRadiant CoolRadical AlterityRadical ExternalismRadical HopeRational and Social AgencyRational CausationRational Choice in an Uncertain WorldRationality + Consciousness = Free WillRationality and FreedomRationality and the Reflective MindRationality in ActionRawls, Dewey, and ConstructivismRe-creating MedicineRe-EmergenceRe-Engineering Philosophy for Limited BeingsReading AutobiographyReading Bernard WilliamsReading SartreReadings in the Philosophy of TechnologyReal MaterialismReal Natures and Familiar ObjectsReal ScienceRealism in ActionReason & EmancipationReason in ActionReason in PhilosophyReason's GriefReasonably ViciousReasoning About Rational AgentsReasoning in Biological DiscoveriesReasons from WithinReasons without RationalismReclaiming CognitionReclaiming the SoulReconceiving SchizophreniaReconstructing Reason and RepresentationReconstructing the Cognitive WorldRecreative MindsRediscovering EmotionRediscovering EmpathyReference and ExistenceReference and the Rational MindReflections On How We LiveReframing Disease ContextuallyRefusing CareRegulating SexReinventing the SoulRelativism and Human RightsRelativism and the Foundations of PhilosophyRelativism and the Foundations of PhilosophyReliable ReasoningReligion without GodRelying on OthersRemembering HomeResponsibility and PunishmentResponsibility and PunishmentResponsibility from the MarginsRestraining RageRethinking ExpertiseRethinking IntrospectionRethinking Mental Health and DisorderRethinking RapeRethinking the DSMRethinking the Sociology of Mental HealthRethinking the Western Understanding of the SelfReturn to ReasonRevolt, She SaidRichard RortyRichard RortyRichard RortyRichard RortyRichard RortyRichard Rorty's New PragmatismRightsRights, Democracy, and Fulfillment in the Era of Identity PoliticsRise And Fall of Soul And SelfRitalin NationRobert NozickRousseauRousseau and the Dilemmas of Modernity Routledge Philosophy Guidebook to Derrida on DeconstructionRules, Reason, and Self-KnowledgeSaints, Scholars, 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Language, Vision, and MusicReview - Language, Vision, and Music
Selected Papers from the 8th International Workshop on the Cognitive Science of Natural Language Processing, Galway, Ireland 1999
by Paul Mc Kevitt, Seán Ó Nualláin and Conn Mulvihill
John Benjamins, 2002
Review by Daniel Mauro
Oct 22nd 2004 (Volume 8, Issue 43)

Language, Vision and Music is a collection of 30 articles selected from the Eighth International Workshop on the Cognitive Science of Natural Language Processing (CSNLP-8). Is rhythm an important property in language, music and vision? How does one model creativity in computers? What is the nature of synaesthesia? Can we improve human computer interface design by integrating the linguistic and visual modalities? These are just a few of the kinds of questions to which one may find interesting answers in this wide-ranging collection of papers. Language, vision and music appear to share a number of fundamental attributes, among them, hierarchical organization, recursivity, ambiguity and systematicity. The existence of such shared properties indicates that language, music and vision - though seemingly distinct as modes of understanding and interacting with the world - could be instantiations of a general purpose cognitive system. In the context of this multimodal theme, researchers from a variety of disciplines were invited to contribute papers that examined interrelationships between language, vision and music and explored the integration of these modalities in intelligent multimedia computer systems.

The resulting collection of papers is divided into three topic sections: Part I: Language & vision; Part II: Language & music; Part III: Creativity. The articles span a variety of themes and approaches in both human (e.g., synaesthesia, semantic priming) and artificial systems (e.g., virtual perception, intellimedia). To give prospective readers a sense of what is presented in this broad array of highly diverse and specialized topics, I have included brief summaries of the general content of each of the three main sections, while providing individual commentaries on (nine) articles that warranted special attention because of their originality, interest or relevance to the field. Readers who would prefer an abbreviated version of this review may forego the article summaries and skip to the last few paragraphs where I provide a general overview of the collection.

Part I is edited by Paul McKevitt and brings together thirteen articles that integrate language and vision. Nine of these papers investigate or are relevant to MultiModal Systems (also known as Intelligent MultiMedia) while the remaining four articles address human topics. The first paper describes how General Systems Theory can be applied to the problem of multimedia integration. The next three articles examine various multimodal language understanding applications. Five more papers investigate computer applications, architectures and models of multimodal integration in human computer interface design, focusing mainly on speech and gesture. One article looks at the relation of speech and vision in aphasic individuals. The final three contributions explore the phenomenon of synaesthesia. I review four articles from this section.

John Connolly examines the problem of multimedia integration from the perspective of General Systems Theory (GST). Multimedia integration is an attempt to combine different communication media (e.g., speech, vision) into a coherent whole while GST is aimed at discovering general properties of different systems, of which multimedia systems is an example. In GST, context and holism turn out to be of paramount importance when designing complex systems: one needs to understand the nature of the subsystems, how the subsystems interact and where to form natural boundaries between those subsystems. In engineering, General Systems Theory can be applied in one of two ways: either as a solid engineering tool, or as a set of ideas that can be used to uncover new aspects of a particular subject. This paper is an example of the second approach. Connolly introduces a railway map as an example of a system whose constituents include both linguistic (names of stations) and non-linguistic components (network of railway lines). Seen as a simple system that is made up of mutually interdependent subsystems, the map helps to illustrate basic GST principles such as 'the whole is more than the sum of the parts' or 'each component of the system has an effect upon the whole.' Throughout the paper, Connolly uses the map example to demonstrate the kinds of design issues that can occur in a multimedia context and how the GST approach would deal with those issues. He provides persuasive arguments that a systems methodology, precisely because it emphasizes understanding how the components of a holistic system interrelate, is particularly relevant to the kinds of issues associated with multimedia integration. As an introduction to both General Systems Theory and the challenges of multimedia integration, the article provides a good backdrop for the other multimedia papers that follow. 

John Gurney, Elizabeth Klipple and Robert Winkler describe "A simulated language understanding agent using virtual perception." Their software agent uses virtual perception to perform a number of 'spoken language navigation tasks' in a virtual reality (VR) environment that simulates helicopter movement through realistic looking terrain. The software agent acts as an interface between the virtual world and the human by interpreting spoken commands and implementing them as corresponding flight patterns that can be visually monitored by the user. Getting a computer to perform realistic navigation tasks (like tracking and following moving objects) using only speech based commands is exceedingly difficult with current human computer interfaces (HCIs). Accordingly, the authors motivate their "agent-based approach to HCI" by comparing their agent to a conventional database model. With the traditional approach, following simple navigational commands in a dynamic environment is cumbersome because the individual subtasks often conflict with one another. The difficulty, say Gurney and colleagues, is that the database behaves as though it were an "omniscient wizard" who knows where everything is in the virtual world yet is limited to adjusting dials and buttons in response to various navigational directives (e.g., go south for 5 km) -- in other words, it is too detached from the virtual world. The authors' innovative solution to this problem is to allow the software agent to see that world from the human point of view. They purposefully cripple the agent so that it knows only what a person would know rather than having a perfect, yet unrealistic knowledge of the virtual environment. The result is an interface whose representations match much better with the user's representations. Once the tasks are organized in a way that is consistent with how humans perceive them, a lot of the interference between apparently conflicting actions disappears. In addition to demonstrating a software agent that overcomes the problems of a challenging multimodal domain, Gurney, Klipple and Winkler provide a compelling example of how the perceptual and linguistic nuances of human-human interaction can provide insight into the problems of designing intelligent human computer interfaces.

Named after Douglas Adam's science fiction story, A. L. Cohen-rose and S. B. Christiansen's paper "The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy" describes a simple system called the Guide, which answers natural language queries about places to eat and drink in the form of short stories. A person using the system presents a spoken or typed request to the system. Perhaps they want to know where they can get a good organic meal in town. The guide parses the query and attempts to interpret the intention of the user. Storytelling agents then access relevant 'smarticles' from a knowledge base of previously written reviews about restaurant topics. The smarticles are rated and sorted based on previous usage of the system and then graphically presented to the user. Cohen-rose and Christiansen's contextual approach to intelligent multimedia was motivated by limitations in traditional web-searching facilities. Most of us are familiar with the typical information searching experience: you type in some key words and a list of sites appear; however, you're never quite sure which one might contain the precise information you are searching for and the information is often spread across multiple links. While the authors' research is potentially useful from an engineering or commercial standpoint, it is unlikely to provide any new theoretical insights into the nature of cognition or language. Having said that, Cohen-rose and Christiansen are not focused on developing new cognitive theories here -- their primary aim is to improve on the performance and user-friendliness of conventional search engines. The Guide has some definite advantages over such systems: it is contextually driven and therefore more consistent with how humans process information, it can handle complex full sentence queries relieving the user of inefficient key word searches and it customizes its responses to the user. Although it would be difficult to furnish the Guide with a contextual 'story-oriented' knowledge base that could handle the breadth of topics available on the Internet, the Guide nevertheless has the potential to become a practical information tool within limited domains.

Sean Day examines the unusual perceptual phenomenon known as synaesthesia. In synaesthesia, sensory modalities are confounded so that the perception of one modality (e.g., sounds) will be accompanied by another physically nonexistent sensory modality (e.g., colors). In some synaesthetes, for example, the sounds of musical instruments will cause them to see particular colors. For Day, who is himself a synaesthete, the sound of a piano will produce a sky-blue cloud about a yard in front of him while a tenor saxophone is accompanied by an "image of electric purple neon lights" (170). Thus, the synaesthetic sensation is generally added to the primary perception rather than replacing it. Synaesthesia can be broken down into two basic types, what Day refers to as "synaesthesia proper" in which stimuli to a sensory input trigger sensations in other sensory modalities, and the more common "cognitive synaesthesia," whereby culturally determined categorizational systems are associated with arbitrary sensations (e.g., colored letters or numbers). After a review of some basic facts, Day traces the ideas of numerous ancient astronomers, mathematicians and philosophers suggesting that their theories about correspondences between planetary bodies and musical intervals provided "initial cornerstones to later theories on synaesthesia" (173). Day goes on to examine a number of interesting synaesthetic phenomena, including the incidence of rare forms of synaesthesia, the role of synaesthesia in composers, the notion of synaesthetic universals and the nature of drug-induced synaesthesia. All in all, Day's paper provides a good overview of synaesthesia while attempting to address some common misconceptions about the area. The article is particularly useful because it is written by someone who is himself a synaesthete - having first hand knowledge of the phenomena one would expect he has a better idea than theorists about "What synaesthesia is and is not." Regardless of your theoretical predispositions, synaesthesia is one of those appealing topics in cognitive science, the study of which is likely to offer insights into the complex nuances of multimodal integration in humans.

Part II is edited by Seán Ó Nualláin and brings together twelve articles on language and music. This section covers a wide variety of themes including: a metaphoric approach to language and music; a semiotic analysis of music and language; auditory structuring as a basis for musical aptitude and reading abilities; a comparison of priming effects in music and language; the role of conscious and subconscious processes for interpreting language and music; musical fragments (emons) as self-contained emotionally-based information units; the lexicon of the conductor's face; virtual operas that integrate music, text and image; multimedia (language, vision, sounds) compositions that are 'improvised' within a shared virtual environment; tonality in Irish music; the relationship between rhythm and language comprehension in children; and a comparison of contours in speech and European musical traditions. I review four papers from this section.

In "Auditory structuring in explaining dyslexia,"KaiKarma introduces a simple auditory procedure that can serve as both a musical aptitude test and a diagnostic tool for predicting reading performance in dyslexic individuals. As defined by Karma, 'auditory structuring' is an intermediate-level auditory capacity that involves perceiving temporal relationships between tones. She argues that auditory structuring is an ideal measure of musical aptitude because it captures the important relations between auditory elements while being relatively culture neutral. Karma's structurally-based musical aptitude test consists of (nonmusical) sequences of alternating high/low notes and long/short notes. Having established the relevance of auditory structuring within the musical domain, she goes on to suggest that auditory structuring can also serve as a powerful construct for dyslexia. Karma attempts to validate this idea experimentally by testing dyslexics on her custom designed musical aptitude test and a related auditory/visual matching task. In keeping with initial hypotheses, she finds that dyslexics perform significantly worse than control subjects on the structural auditory tests and that combining the results of these tasks increases the ability to predict (based on performance measures) those subjects which are dyslexic. Karma's approach is generally consistent with recent theories suggesting that certain perceptual language disorders are due to auditory temporal processing deficits (see any of Tallal's post 1980 work); however she tends to emphasize the structuring qualities of auditory processes rather than deficits in the rate of temporal processing. In addition to highlighting the auditory temporal bases of dyslexia, Karma's work provides evidence for a putative structural link between the auditory underpinnings of music and language and serves as a nice example of a research paradigm that draws together theory, experiment and application.

Barbara Tillmann and Emmanuel Bigand compare priming phenomena in language and music. Music and language are both examples of systems in which discrete elements are hierarchically organized into complex patterns according to structuring principles. Innate knowledge of these structural patterns allows experienced listeners to develop expectancies that can influence the processing of ongoing musical and linguistic events. Existing semantic priming research shows that target words are more easily identified when following a prime word from a previous context. For example, the target word 'bread' is processed more quickly when it follows the semantically related word 'butter' than when it follows a semantically unrelated word like 'doctor.' Similar priming paradigms have been established in the musical realm in which single chord or multiple chord sequences are found to facilitate the processing of a target chord. Tillmann and Bigand directly compare these harmonic and semantic priming paradigms by organizing results from studies in each domain according to the kind of context used (e.g., local contexts involve a single word/chord, global contexts involve sentences or chord sequences and scrambled global contexts involve interchanging element order). Briefly, general findings reveal that whereas local and global contexts tend to produce similar priming effects in music and language, combined and scrambled global contexts show divergent priming patterns across domains. The authors conclude by discussing two cognitive models that could account for such differences. Tillmann and Bigand are important contributors to the field of music cognition. Their review of the music and semantic priming literature is well organized, concise and provides a comprehensive picture of the subject area without focusing unnecessarily on the details of any particular study. However, the question arises as to whether priming effects can sort out more subtle nuances of musical and linguistic processing. Although expectancies have been purported to reflect syntactic musical principles, it is unclear to what extent the harmonic priming paradigm is able to adequately reflect the essential properties of musical structures, given that those structures make substantially different contributions to 'meaning' compared with linguistic expressions. As noted by Lerdahl and Jackendoff (1983), one must be cautious when imposing a linguistic approach onto a musical domain - the priming paradigm may be a valuable tool for comparing the structural principles of language and music, but it should be appropriately adapted to the peculiarities of those domains.

Paul Nemirovsky and Glorianna Davenport explore the fascinating idea that artistic mediums (e.g., music or video) can be packaged into self-contained units that convey information. They have developed something they refer to as the emon, "a small discrete unit of aesthetic expression" which elicits predictable emotional effects that can guide or direct human behavior in background information channels (255). The authors' emon approach was implemented and tested in their GuideShoes system, a wearable information device that allows a user to navigate in an open space (e.g., streets) by using musical emons as emotional cues. Nemirovsky and Davenport motivate their emon approach to information delivery with a hypothetical travel scenario. They ask you to imagine that you are a traveler in a foreign city with no street names where you cannot speak the language. Luckily you have your GuideShoes and headset. You tell it where you want to go, whereupon GuideShoes connects to the Internet and plugs in your current and target destinations. "As you start walking down the street, your headset starts playing music. . . Musical patterns (emons) provide you with information regarding the correctness of your direction" (256). Can musical structures be used to communicate precise emotional meanings? The relationship between pattern and meaning has long been of central interest to cognitive scientists and musicologists. Because music lacks a precise semantics, theorists are doubtful that music can be used to convey specific meanings, especially given that listeners may derive different meanings from the same musical stimuli. Nemirovsky and Davenport's emon research challenges this widely accepted notion and suggests that using aesthetic forms as self-contained emotionally-based information sources can potentially simplify our perceptual world, particularly in situations when we are faced with multiple cognitive demands. Limited to the realm of theory, this idea might sound implausible. However, by incorporating emons into their GuideShoes system, they have validated their information approach in a real-world setting. Nemirovsky and Davenport's emon research raises some fundamental theoretical issues involving the role of musical structures as emotional information carriers. The paper is timely because both emotion and music are important fields of inquiry that have been traditionally neglected in mainstream cognitive science.

Dilys Treharne examines relationships between language comprehension and basic rhythmic abilities in children. According to Treharne, such relationships exist because rhythm is fundamental to language development - a "matrix of communication skills" evolves that includes not only spoken language, but also conceptual development, motor skills and social skills. Treharne argues that rhythm forms a scaffolding upon which this communication matrix rests. In this paper, she explores the link between rhythm and language comprehension within an experimental setting. Treharne's experiments reveal correlations between children's auditory verbal comprehension and their ability to imitate rhythms, to judge the similarity of perceived rhythms and to infer missing words from a sentence frame based on the rhythmic pattern of the word. Children who are good at imitating and recognizing rhythms appear to be better at understanding the meaning of sentences. In keeping with a growing literature on the subject, Treharne's study provides additional support for the idea that basic perceptual rhythmic abilities are an essential ingredient of language comprehension. Combined with the idea of a communication matrix, Treharne's finding that auditory verbal comprehension is correlated with both "non-verbal rhythmic awareness andthe ability to understand incomplete sentences using rhythmic aspects of prosody"provides a theoretical framework for language development that may have important clinical applications (322). For example, children with certain language disorders could be trained to use prosodic cues to facilitate comprehension.

One contribution to the section on language and music, "On tonality in Irish traditional music" seemed a little out of place. Though well written and informative, Ó Nualláin himself describes the paper as dealing with the "political conditions that hampered the full harmonic development of Irish music" (12). Nowhere in this paper are there direct comparisons between music and language and thus it is unclear how the paper fits into the multimodal language processing theme.

Part III on creativity is introduced by Conn Mulvihill. This section includes a summary report of a panel session that explored the question "What is creativity" followed by four papers on creativity. The first paper explores the analogical foundations of creativity in language and the arts, tracing human history to find a decent model of human computation. The second contribution examines the factors involved in creative team performance within an economic context. The third article takes a cultural approach to creativity, focusing on the centrality of humor and metaphor in the Tarahumara Indian religion of Northern Mexico. The final paper, which I review here, offers a computational perspective on creativity.

Conn Mulvihill and Micheál Colhoun take on the challenging question "Is creativity algorithmic." The answer to this question has important implications for computational approaches to cognition, as it would allow us to specify whether creative thinking can, in principle, be programmed into computers. Mulvihill and Colhoun provide an interesting and well thought out approach to the topic of creativity in the context of language. According to the authors, in languages where form (medium) and content (message) mix is where we most often find creativity. They cite examples of this mixing of form and content in the creative arenas of art, philosophy and biology. In the visual arts, for example, the content conveyed in a painting will be influenced by the form (e.g., impressionism). Does this interplay of form and content extend to computers? A number of early artificial intelligence (AI) programs designed with a computer program called Lisp (e.g., Lenat) produced interesting results that were initially taken to be creative, but were ultimately found to be attributable to the richness of the representational medium. In general, Mulvihill and Colhoun find that current computer languages appear not to have the capacity for creativity, at least according to their form/content requirement; algorithms can provide yes/no answers to questions of form (e.g., compilers), but not to questions of content, a limitation which they suggest may be inherent in the properties of logical symbol systems themselves. Despite this apparent drawback, Mulhivill and Colhoun propose that any (computer) language that did support creativity would be marked by two additional properties (ambiguity and reflectivity) and conclude with some thoughts on modeling the creative process.

After reading this short section on creativity, one should certainly not expect to come away with a precise notion of the fundamental nature of creativity. Creativity is a challenging and little understood area of human cognition that has been tackled within many disciplines. Indeed, according to one of the contributors (Rickards) to this section, a universally accepted definition has yet to be found. Notwithstanding the lack of consensus on exactly what creativity is, this final section provides four interesting perspectives on the topic, with Mulvihill and Colhoun's paper on algorithms and Klein's paper on the analogical foundations of creativity offering two particularly promising approaches.

A guiding premise of this book is that an integrative approach to language, vision and music can inform us about the nature of both natural language and artificial communication systems and the complex interrelationships that exist between language, mind and machine. Contained in this volume are exciting examples of several sophisticated multimodal computer systems, architectures and interfaces, original experimental approaches relating language and music and some interesting work on the difficult topic of creativity. Several of the articles, particularly a few in the multimedia subset on vision and language, are presented by leaders in their field. An important question is whether any of these researchers successfully address one of the underlying themes outlined in the 'Call for Papers,' namely, the notion of a modality-independent general purpose cognitive system. Although few of the papers tackle this question directly, a potential answer can be gleaned from an examination of reoccurring themes. Of particular interest, the concept of rhythm (and related notions of timing and temporal processing) appears in several of the articles in this collection, not only in the section on language and music, where one would expect the theme to be addressed, but also in a couple of the multimedia papers. Rhythm, it seems, is not just a ubiquitous property in music and speech (e.g., prosody) but rather finds a wider application in the cognitive realm. As noted by Ipke Wachsmuth, one of the contributors to the section on language and vision, "observations in diverse research areas suggest that human communicational behavior is significantly rhythmic in nature" (118). In face-to-face communication, speech, gesture and movement are highly coordinated across multiple levels of temporal organization. Thus, rhythm may be an important structuring and synchronizing principle underpinning the temporal aspects of cognition and therefore relevant to research linking language, vision and music in both natural and artificial domains.

Some cognitive researchers might question the inclusion of music in this collection as an 'important' cognitive modality having the same status as that of language or vision. The ability to perceive music is certainly not essential for our everyday understanding of the world in the same way that vision and language are. At the same time, there is no culture in recorded human history that has been without music. Despite the apparent centrality of music in human activities, as a field of study, music has traditionally been accorded a less important role in cognitive science relative to other domains. However, a recent upsurge in the cognitive neuroscience of music literature appears to be changing this state of affairs. Increasingly, there is evidence that even passive musical activities require complex underlying processes and dedicated biological substrates and it has been suggested that understanding the intricacies of musical processing may provide insight into general properties of the mind and brain. In light of this possibility, it is commendable that the conference organizers chose to include music as part of their multimodal theme; indeed, it is promising that there were a sufficient number of high quality contributions warranting a whole subsection on language and music.

What I found most appealing about this volume is the number of research projects that successfully blended theory, experiment and application -- an ideal that is strived for, but often not evident in the subdisciplines of cognitive science. As the papers in this collection employ a range of theoretical and methodological approaches for understanding the integrated processing of language, vision and music in both natural and computational contexts, there should be something of interest here for almost everyone (studying cognition). That statement should be qualified, however. As with most reading endeavors, what you get out of this book will depend in part on what you bring to it. While many of the articles are well written, interesting and self-contained, quite a few of them presuppose a basic familiarity with the subject matter. As such, the book is geared primarily to cognitive scientists and those with backgrounds in language, music and computer related or engineering disciplines (particularly intelligent multimedia systems), although individuals with an interest in specific topics (e.g., creativity, synaesthesia) may benefit from a reading of selected papers.

At 433 pages, the book can be a little tough going, especially given that each of its 30 articles are quite packed with information. In taking on this collection of specialized papers, readers new to the subject matter may find themselves at times overwhelmed in a sea of details and potentially challenged in having to constantly shift gears from one conceptual mode of thought to another. However, the effort required to get through these papers will be rewarded with a better appreciation of both the range and difficulty of some central issues in a thriving area of cognitive science. This collection is valuable in that it brings together a wide range of interesting and diverse topics under the common rubric of multimodality, an approach that promises to bear intellectual fruit in the advancement of general-purpose cognitive theories. Human minds have the capacity to effortlessly integrate linguistic, visual and musical stimuli in real time. Consequently, progress in cognitive science can only come about when researchers are able to study these and other perceptual and cognitive modalities in a truly integrated fashion.

 

© 2004 Daniel Mauro

 

Daniel Mauro is a senior PhD student in the cognitive science program at Carleton University (Ottawa) and specializes in auditory temporal processing and musical cognition.


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