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A Theory of Feelings Anger and Forgiveness"My Madness Saved Me"10 Good Questions about Life and Death12 Modern Philosophers50 Reasons People Give for Believing in a GodA Cabinet of Philosophical CuriositiesA Case for IronyA Companion to BioethicsA Companion to Buddhist PhilosophyA Companion to FoucaultA Companion to GenethicsA Companion to GenethicsA Companion to HumeA Companion to KantA Companion to Phenomenology and ExistentialismA Companion to PragmatismA Companion to the Philosophy of ActionA Companion to the Philosophy of BiologyA Companion to the Philosophy of LiteratureA Conceptual History of PsychologyA Critical Overview of Biological FunctionsA Critique of Naturalistic Philosophies of MindA Cursing Brain?A Delicate BalanceA Farewell to AlmsA Frightening LoveA Future for PresentismA Guide to the Good LifeA History of PsychiatryA History of the MindA Life Worth LivingA Manual of Experimental PhilosophyA Map of the MindA Metaphysics of PsychopathologyA Mind So RareA Natural History of Human MoralityA Natural History of Human ThinkingA Natural History of VisionA Parliament of MindsA Philosopher Looks at The Sense of HumorA Philosophical DiseaseA Philosophy of BoredomA Philosophy of Cinematic ArtA Philosophy of CultureA Philosophy of EmptinessA Philosophy of FearA Philosophy of PainA Physicalist ManifestoA Place for ConsciousnessA Question of TrustA Research Agenda for DSM-VA Revolution of the MindA Sentimentalist Theory of the MindA Stroll With William JamesA Tear is an Intellectual ThingA Theory of FreedomA Thousand MachinesA Universe of ConsciousnessA Very Bad WizardA Virtue EpistemologyA World Full of GodsA World Without ValuesAbout FaceAbout the Beginning of the Hermeneutics of the SelfAction and ResponsibilityAction in ContextAction Theory, Rationality and CompulsionAction, Contemplation, and HappinessAction, Emotion and WillAdam SmithAdaptive DynamicsAddictionAddictionAddiction and ResponsibilityAddiction Is a ChoiceAdvances in Identity Theory and ResearchAftermathAfterwarAgainst AdaptationAgainst AutonomyAgainst BioethicsAgainst HappinessAgainst HealthAgency and ActionAgency and AnswerabilityAgency and EmbodimentAgency and ResponsibilityAgency, Freedom, and Moral ResponsibilityAl-JununAlain BadiouAlain BadiouAlasdair MacIntyreAlien Landscapes?Altered EgosAn Anthology of Psychiatric EthicsAn Ethics for TodayAn Intellectual History of CannibalismAn Interpretation of DesireAn Introduction to EthicsAn Introduction to Kant's Moral Philosophy An Introduction to Philosophy of EducationAn Introduction to the Philosophy of MindAn Introduction to the Philosophy of MindAn Introduction to the Philosophy of PsychologyAn Introductory Philosophy of MedicineAn Odd Kind of FameAnalytic FreudAnalytic Philosophy in AmericaAncient AngerAncient Models of MindAncient Philosophy of the SelfAngerAnimal LessonsAnimal MindsAnimals Like UsAnnihilationAnother PlanetAnswers for AristotleAnti-ExternalismAnti-Individualism and KnowledgeAntigone’s ClaimAntipsychiatryAre We Hardwired?Are Women Human?Arguing about DisabilityArguing About Human NatureAristotle and the Philosophy of FriendshipAristotle on Practical WisdomAristotle's ChildrenAristotle's Ethics and Moral ResponsibilityAristotle, Emotions, and EducationArt & MoralityArt After Conceptual ArtArt in Three DimensionsArt, Self and KnowledgeArtificial ConsciousnessArtificial HappinessAspects of PsychologismAsylum to ActionAtonement and ForgivenessAttention is Cognitive UnisonAutobiography as PhilosophyAutonomyAutonomy and Mental DisorderAutonomy and the Challenges to LiberalismBabies by DesignBackslidingBadiouBadiou's DeleuzeBadiou, Balibar, Ranciere: Rethinking EmancipationBare Facts And Naked TruthsBasic Desert, Reactive Attitudes and Free WillBattlestar Galactica and PhilosophyBeautyBecoming a SubjectBecoming HumanBehavingBehavioral Genetics in the Postgenomic EraBeing AmoralBeing HumanBeing Mentally Ill: A Sociological Theory Being No OneBeing Realistic about ReasonsBeing ReducedBeing YourselfBelief's Own EthicsBending Over BackwardsBerlin Childhood around 1900Bernard WilliamsBertrand RussellBetter than BothBetter Than WellBetween Two WorldsBeyond HealthBeyond Hegel and NietzscheBeyond KuhnBeyond LossBeyond Moral JudgmentBeyond PostmodernismBeyond ReductionBeyond the DSM StoryBioethicsBioethics and the BrainBioethics in the ClinicBiological Complexity and Integrative PluralismBiology Is TechnologyBiosBipolar ExpeditionsBlackwell Companion to the Philosophy of EducationBlindsight & The Nature of ConsciousnessBlues - Philosophy for EveryoneBlushBob Dylan and PhilosophyBody ConsciousnessBody Image And Body SchemaBody ImagesBody LanguageBody MattersBody WorkBody-Subjects and Disordered MindsBoundBoundaries of the MindBoyleBrain Evolution and CognitionBrain FictionBrain, Mind, and Human Behavior in Contemporary Cognitive ScienceBrain-WiseBrainchildrenBrains, Buddhas, and BelievingBrainstormingBrave New WorldsBreakdown of WillBrief Child Therapy Homework PlannerBrief Inquiry into the Meaning of Sin and FaithBrief Therapy Homework PlannerBritain on the CouchBrute RationalityBuffy the Vampire Slayer and PhilosophyBut Is It Art?Camus and SartreCartesian LinguisticsCartographies of the MindCarving Nature at Its JointsCase Studies in Biomedical Research EthicsCassandra's DaughterCato's TearsCausation and CounterfactualsCauses, Laws, and Free WillChanging Conceptions of the Child from the Renaissance to Post-ModernityChanging the SubjectChaosophyCharacter and Moral Psychology Character as Moral FictionCharles DarwinCherishmentChildhood and the Philosophy of EducationChildrenChildren, Families, and Health Care Decision MakingChoices and ConflictChoosing Not to ChooseChristmas - Philosophy for EveryoneCinema, Philosophy, BergmanCinematic MythmakingCity and Soul in Plato's RepublicClassifying MadnessClear and Queer ThinkingClinical EthicsClinical Psychiatry in Imperial GermanyCodependent ForevermoreCoffee - Philosophy for EveryoneCognition and the BrainCognition of Value in Aristotle's EthicsCognition Through Understanding: Self-Knowledge, Interlocution, Reasoning, ReflectionCognitive BiologyCognitive FictionsCognitive Neuroscience of EmotionCognitive Systems and the Extended MindCognitive Systems and the Extended Mind Cognitive Theories of Mental IllnessCoherence in Thought and ActionCollected Papers, Volume 1Collected Papers, Volume 2College SexComedy IncarnateCommitmentCommunicative Action and Rational ChoiceCompetence, Condemnation, and CommitmentConcealment And ExposureConceptual Analysis and Philosophical NaturalismConceptual Art and PaintingConceptual Issues in Evolutionary BiologyConfessionsConfucianismConnected, or What It Means to Live in the Network SocietyConquest of AbundanceConscience and ConvenienceConsciousnessConsciousnessConsciousnessConsciousness ConsciousnessConsciousness and Its Place in NatureConsciousness and LanguageConsciousness and Mental LifeConsciousness and MindConsciousness and the NovelConsciousness and the SelfConsciousness EmergingConsciousness EvolvingConsciousness ExplainedConsciousness in ActionConsciousness RecoveredConsciousness RevisitedConsciousness, Color, and ContentConsole and ClassifyConstructing the WorldConstructive AnalysisContemporary Debates In Applied EthicsContemporary Debates in Moral TheoryContemporary Debates in Philosophy of BiologyContemporary Debates in Philosophy of MindContemporary Debates in Political PhilosophyContemporary Debates in Social PhilosophyContemporary Perspectives on Natural LawContested Knowledge: Social Theory TodayContesting PsychiatryContext and the AttitudesContinental Philosophy of ScienceControlControlling Our DestiniesConversations About Psychology and Sexual OrientationCopernicus, Darwin and FreudCrazy for YouCreating a Life of Meaning and CompassionCreating ConsilienceCreating HysteriaCreating Mental IllnessCreating Scientific ConceptsCreating the American JunkieCreation, Rationality and AutonomyCreatures Like Us?Crime and CulpabilityCrime, Punishment, and Mental IllnessCrimes of ReasonCritical New Perspectives on Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity DisorderCritical PsychiatryCritical PsychologyCritical ResistanceCritical Thinking About PsychologyCritical VisionsCross and KhoraCruel CompassionCTRL [SPACE]Cultural Psychology of the SelfCultural Theory: An IntroductionCulture and Psychiatric DiagnosisCulture and Subjective Well-BeingCulture of DeathCultures of NeurastheniaCurious EmotionsCurrent Controversies in Experimental PhilosophyCustom and Reason in HumeCustomers and Patrons of the Mad-TradeCutting God in Half - And Putting the Pieces Together AgainCylons in AmericaDamaged IdentitiesDamasio's Error and Descartes' TruthDangerous EmotionsDaniel DennettDaniel DennettDark AgesDarwin and DesignDarwin's Dangerous IdeaDarwin's LegacyDarwin, God and the Meaning of LifeDarwinian PsychiatryDarwinian ReductionismDarwinizing CultureDating: Philosophy for EveryoneDeathDeathDeath and CharacterDeath and CompassionDeath and the AfterlifeDebating DesignDebating HumanismDecision Making, Personhood and DementiaDecomposing the WillDeconstructing PsychotherapyDeconstruction and DemocracyDeeper Than DarwinDeeper than ReasonDefending Science - within ReasonDefining Psychopathology in the 21st CenturyDegrees of BeliefDelusion and Self-DeceptionDelusions and Other Irrational BeliefsDelusions and the Madness of the MassesDementiaDemons, Dreamers, and MadmenDennett and Ricoeur on the Narrative SelfDennett’s PhilosophyDepression Is a ChoiceDepression, Emotion and the SelfDepthDerrida, Deleuze, PsychoanalysisDescartesDescartes and the Passionate MindDescartes' CogitoDescartes's Changing MindDescartes's Concept of MindDescribing Inner Experience?Descriptions and PrescriptionsDesembodied Spirits and Deanimated Bodies Desert Islands and Other Texts (1953-1974)Desire and AffectDesire, Love, and IdentityDesire, Practical Reason, and the GoodDeveloping the VirtuesDiagnosing the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental DisordersDialectics of the SelfDid My Neurons Make Me Do It?Difference and IdentityDigital SoulDimensional Models of Personality DisordersDisability, Difference, DiscriminationDisjunctivismDisorders of VolitionDisorientation and Moral LifeDispatches from the Freud WarsDisrupted LivesDistractionDisturbed ConsciousnessDivided Minds and Successive SelvesDo Apes Read Minds?Do Fish Feel Pain?Do We Still Need Doctors?Does Consciousness Cause Behavior?Does the Woman Exist?Doing without ConceptsDon't Believe Everything You ThinkDonald DavidsonDonald Davidson on Truth, Meaning, and the MentalDoubting Darwin?Dreaming and Other Involuntary MentationDSM-IV SourcebookDSM-IV SourcebookDSM-IV-TR CasebookDworkin and His CriticsDying to KnowDynamics in ActionDysthymia and the Spectrum of Chronic DepressionsEccentricsEducational MetamorphosesEffective IntentionsElbow Room: The Varieties of Free Will Worth WantingEmbodied Minds in ActionEmbodied RhetoricsEmbodied Selves and Divided MindsEmbryos under the MicroscopeEmergencies in Mental Health PracticeEmerging Conceptual, Ethical and Policy Issues in BionanotechnologyEmotionEmotion and ConsciousnessEmotion and PsycheEmotion ExperienceEmotion RegulationEmotion, Evolution, And RationalityEmotional IntelligenceEmotional ReasonEmotional ReasonEmotional TruthEmotions in Humans and ArtifactsEmotions in the Moral LifeEmotions in the Moral LifeEmotions, Value, and AgencyEmpathyEmpathy and AgencyEmpathy and Moral DevelopmentEmpathy and MoralityEmpathy in the Context of PhilosophyEmpirical Ethics in PsychiatryEnchanted LoomsEngaging BuddhismEngineering the Human GermlineEnjoymentEnvyEpicureanismEpistemic LuckEpistemologyEpistemology and EmotionsEpistemology and the Psychology of Human JudgmentEros and the GoodErotic MoralityEssays in Social NeuroscienceEssays in the Metaphysics of Mind Essays on Derek Parfit's On What MattersEssays on Free Will and Moral ResponsibilityEssays on Nonconceptual ContentEssays on Philosophical CounselingEssays on Reference, Language, and MindEssays on the Concept of Mind in Early-Modern PhilosophyEssential Sources in the Scientific Study of ConsciousnessEsssential Philosophy of PsychiatryEternal Sunshine of the Spotless MindEthical Conflicts in PsychologyEthical Issues in Forensic Mental Health ResearchEthical Issues in Human CloningEthical TheoryEthicsEthicsEthics and the A PrioriEthics and the Metaphysics of MedicineEthics and Values in PsychotherapyEthics Done RightEthics ExpertiseEthics in Plain EnglishEthics in PracticeEthics in Psychiatric ResearchEthics of PsychiatryEthics without OntologyEuropean Review of Philosophy. Vol. 5Everyday IrrationalityEvil in Modern ThoughtEvolutionEvolution and the Human MindEvolution's RainbowEvolutionary Origins of MoralityEvolutionary PsychologyExamined LifeExamined LivesExistential AmericaExistentialismExistentialism and Romantic LoveExperimental PhilosophyExperimental PhilosophyExperimental PhilosophyExperimental Philosophy, Rationalism, and NaturalismExperiments in EthicsExplaining ConsciousnessExplaining the BrainExplaining the Computational MindExplanatory PluralismExploding the Gene MythExploring HappinessExploring the SelfExpression and the InnerExpressions of JudgmentFaces of IntentionFact and ValueFact and Value in EmotionFacts, Values, and NormsFads and Fallacies in the Social SciencesFaith and Wisdom in ScienceFatherhoodFear of KnowledgeFearless SpeechFeeling Pain and Being in PainFeelings and EmotionsFeelings of BeingFellow-Feeling and the Moral LifeFeminism and Its DiscontentsFeminism and Philosophy of ScienceFeminist Ethics and Social and Political PhilosophyFeminist Interpretations of Rene DescartesFeminist TheoryField Notes from ElsewhereFinding Consciousness in the BrainFingerprints of GodFlesh in the Age of ReasonFolk Psychological NarrativesFolk Psychology Re-AssessedForces of HabitForgivenessForgiveness and LoveForgiveness and RetributionFoucault 2.0Foucault and PhilosophyFoucault NowFoucault, Psychology and the Analytics of PowerFoundational Issues in Human Brain MappingFoundations of Ethical Practice, Research, and Teaching in PsychologyFour Views on Free WillFrank Ramsey (1903-1930)Free WillFree WillFree WillFree WillFree Will and Action ExplanationFree Will and LuckFree Will And Moral ResponsibilityFree Will as an Open Scientific ProblemFree Will, Agency, and Meaning in LifeFree: Why Science Hasn't Disproved Free WillFreedomFreedom and DeterminismFreedom And NeurobiologyFreedom and ResponsibiltyFreedom and ValueFreedom EvolvesFreedom RegainedFreedom vs. InterventionFreedom, Fame, Lying, and BetrayalFreudFreud and the Question of PseudoscienceFreud As PhilosopherFreud's AnswerFreud, the Reluctant PhilosopherFriedrich NietzscheFrom Chance to ChoiceFrom Clinic to ClassroomFrom Complexity to LifeFrom Enlightenment to ReceptivityFrom Knowledge to Wisdom: A Revolution for Science and the HumanitiesFrom Morality to Mental HealthFrom Passions to EmotionsFrom Philosophy to PsychotherapyFrontiers of ConsciousnessFrontiers of JusticeFurnishing the MindGalileo in PittsburghGenderGender and Mental HealthGender in the MirrorGender TroubleGenesGenes, Women, EqualityGenetic Nature/CultureGenetic ProspectsGenetic ProspectsGenetic SecretsGenocide's AftermathGenomes and What to Make of ThemGerman Idealism and the JewGerman PhilosophyGetting HookedGilles DeleuzeGlobal PhilosophyGluttonyGod and Phenomenal ConsciousnessGoffman's LegacyGoing Amiss in Experimental ResearchGoodness & AdviceGrassroots SpiritualityGrave MattersGrave MattersGreedGreek Models of Mind and SelfGut ReactionsHabilitation, Health, and AgencyHabits of MindHallucinationHandbook of BioethicsHandbook of EmotionsHappinessHappinessHappinessHappinessHappiness and EducationHappiness and the Good LifeHappiness Is OverratedHappiness, Death, and the Remainder of LifeHard LuckHarmful ThoughtsHaving the World in ViewHealing PsychiatryHealing the Soul in the Age of the BrainHealth, Illness and DiseaseHealth, Science, and Ordinary LanguageHegelHeidegger and a Metaphysics of FeelingHeidegger, Metaphysics and the Univocity of BeingHermann von Helmholtz's MechanismHermeneutics As PoliticsHeterophobiaHeterosyncraciesHeuristics and BiasesHeuristics and the LawHidden ResourcesHidden SelvesHiding from HumanityHigh Art LiteHistorical OntologyHistory of Psychiatry and Medical PsychologyHistory, Historicity And ScienceHobbesHomosexualitiesHope and Dread in PsychoanalysisHot ThoughtHow Can I Be Trusted?How Can the Human Mind Occur in the Physical Universe?How Children Learn the Meanings of WordsHow Could Conscious Experiences Affect Brains?How Do We Know Who We Are?How Emotions WorkHow Emotions WorkHow History Made the MindHow Images ThinkHow is Nature Possible?How Propaganda WorksHow Science WorksHow Scientific Practices MatterHow Scientists Explain DiseaseHow The Body Shapes The MindHow the Body Shapes the Way We ThinkHow the Mind Explains BehaviorHow the Mind Uses the BrainHow to Make Opportunity EqualHow to Solve the Mind-Body Problemhow to stop timeHow to Think More About SexHow We HopeHow We ReasonHuman CloningHuman Development, Language and the Future of MankindHuman EnhancementHuman Evolution, Reproduction, and MoralityHuman GoodnessHuman Identity and BioethicsHuman NatureHuman NatureHuman Nature and the Limits of ScienceHuman-Built WorldHumanismHumanism, What's That?HumanityHumans, Animals, MachinesHumeHumeHume on Motivation and VirtueHusserlHystoriesI of the VortexI Was WrongIdeas that MatterIdentifying the MindIdentity and Agency in Cultural WorldsIgnorance and ImaginationIllnessImagination and Its PathologiesImagination and the Meaningful BrainImagining NumbersImmortal RemainsImproving Nature?In Defense of an Evolutionary Concept of HealthIn Defense of SentimentalityIn Love With LifeIn Praise of Athletic BeautyIn Praise of the WhipIn Pursuit of HappinessIn Search of HappinessIn the Name of GodIn the Name of IdentityIn the Space of ReasonsIn Two MindsIncompatibilism's AllureIndividual Differences in Conscious ExperienceInfinity and PerspectiveInformation ArtsInformed Consent in Medical ResearchIngmar Bergman, Cinematic PhilosopherInhuman ThoughtsInner PresenceInsanityIntegrating Psychotherapy and PharmacotherapyIntegrity and the Fragile SelfIntelligent VirtueIntentionIntentionality, Deliberation and AutonomyIntentions and IntentionalityIntentions and IntentionalityInterpreting MindsInterpreting NietzscheIntroducing Greek PhilosophyIntrospection and ConsciousnessIntrospection VindicatedIntuition, Imagination, and Philosophical MethodologyIntuitionismInvestigating the Psychological WorldIrrationalityIrrationalityIs Academic Feminism Dead?Is It Me or My Meds?Is Long-Term Therapy Unethical?Is Oedipus Online?Is Science Neurotic?Is Science Value Free?Is the Visual World a Grand Illusion?Is There a Duty to Die?Issues in Philosophical CounselingJacques LacanJacques RancièreJacques RanciereJean-Paul SartreJohn McDowellJohn SearleJohn Searle's Ideas About Social RealityJohn Stuart MillJohn Stuart Mill and the Writing of CharacterJoint AttentionJokesJonathan EdwardsJudging and UnderstandingJustice for ChildrenJustice in RobesJustice, Luck, and KnowledgeKantKant and MiltonKant and the Fate of AutonomyKant and the Limits of AutonomyKant and the Role of Pleasure in Moral ActionKant on Freedom, Law, and HappinessKant on Moral AutonomyKant's Anatomy of EvilKant's Anatomy of the Intelligent MindKant's Theory of VirtueKarl JaspersKarl PopperKey Concepts in PhilosophyKierkegaardKierkegaard as PhenomenologistKierkegaard's Concept of DespairKinds of MindsKinds, Things, and StuffKnowing, Knowledge and BeliefsKnowledge MonopoliesKnowledge, Belief, and CharacterKnowledge, Possibility, and ConsciousnessLacanLack of CharacterLack of CharacterLanguageLanguage in ContextLanguage, Consciousness, CultureLanguage, Culture, and MindLanguage, Vision, and MusicLaw and the BrainLaw, Liberty, and PsychiatryLaws, Mind, and Free WillLeaving YouLectures on the History of Political PhilosophyLevelling the Playing FieldLiberal Education in a Knowledge SocietyLiberatory PsychiatryLife and ActionLife at the Texas State Lunatic Asylum, 1857-1997Life Is Not a Game of PerfectLife of the MindLife's FormLife, Death, & MeaningLife, Death, and Meaning: Key Philosophical Readings on the Big Questions Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of UtilityLife, Sex, and IdeasLight in the Dark RoomLike a Splinter in Your MindLiving and Dying WellLiving NarrativeLiving Outside Mental IllnessLiving with DarwinLiving With One’s PastLockeLocke LockeLogic and the Art of Memory Loneliness in Philosophy, Psychology, and LiteratureLooking for SpinozaLooking for The StrangerLost SoulsLOT 2LoveLoveLove's ConfusionsLove's VisionLove, Friendship, and the SelfLove, Sex & TragedyLuckyLudwig WittgensteinLustLyingMachine ConsciousnessMad for FoucaultMad TravelersMade with WordsMadness And Death In PhilosophyMadness and DemocracyMadness at HomeMadness Is CivilizationMaking Natural KnowledgeMaking Sense of EvolutionMaking Sense of Freedom and ResponsibilityMaking the DSM-5Making the Social WorldMaking TruthMale Female EmailMan, Beast, and ZombieMandated Reporting of Suspected Child AbuseManiaManic Depression and CreativityMapping the Edges and the In-betweenMapping the Future of BiologyMarcus AureliusMaster PassionsMatters of the MindMe++Meaning and Moral OrderMeaning and Value in a Secular AgeMeaning in LifeMeaning in Life and Why It MattersMeaning, Basic Self-Knowledge, and MindMeasuring HappinessMeasuring PsychopathologyMedia MadnessMedical Enhancement and PosthumanityMedicine and Philosophy in Classical AntiquityMedicine of the PersonMedicine, Mental Health, Religion, Science and Well-BeingMelancholy And the Care of the SoulMelancholy and the Otherness of GodMementoMemory and NarrativeMental ActionsMental CausationMental Causation and OntologyMental HealthMental Health At The CrossroadsMental Health Policy in BritainMerit, Meaning, and Human BondageMerleau-PontyMerleau-Ponty and the Possibilities of PhilosophyMetacognition and Theory of MindMetacreationMetaethical SubjectivismMetaethicsMetal and FleshMetaphors of MemoryMetapoliticsMethods in MindMichel FoucaultMill's UtilitarianismMindMindMind and ConsciousnessMind and CosmosMind and MechanismMind GamesMind in a Physical WorldMind in Everyday Life and Cognitive ScienceMind in LifeMind TimeMind's LandscapeMind, Brain and the Elusive SoulMind, Brain, and Free WillMind, Reason and ImaginationMinding MindsMindreadersMindreading AnimalsMinds and PersonsMinds, Brains, and LawMinds, Ethics, and ConditionalsMindshapingMindsightMindworldsMirror, MirrorMixed FeelingsMockingbird YearsModels of the SelfModern Social ImaginariesModern Theories of JusticeModernity and SubjectivityModernity and TechnologyMoody Minds DistemperedMoral BrainsMoral DimensionsMoral FailureMoral ImaginationMoral LiteracyMoral MachinesMoral ParticularismMoral PsychologyMoral Psychology and Human AgencyMoral Psychology, Volume 1Moral Psychology, Volume 2Moral Psychology, Volume 3Moral Psychology: Volume IVMoral RepairMoral Responsibility and Alternative PossibilitiesMoral TribesMoral Value and Human DiversityMorality and Self-InterestMorality in a Natural WorldMorality, Moral Luck and ResponsibilityMotherhoodMotive and RightnessMoving Beyond Prozac, DSM, and the New PsychiatryMultiple Analogies in Science and PhilosophyMultiple Identities & False MemoriesMusic, Madness, and the Unworking of LanguageMy Brain Made Me Do ItMy Double UnveiledMy WayNarrativeNarrative and IdentityNarrative MedicineNarrative PsychiatryNarrative Theory and the Cognitive SciencesNatural Ethical FactsNatural Kinds and Conceptual ChangeNatural MindsNatural-Born CybogsNaturalism and the First-Person PerspectiveNaturalism and the Human ConditionNaturalism in the Philosophy of HealthNaturalism in the Philosophy of HealthNaturalized BioethicsNaturalizing the MindNatureNature and NarrativeNear Death ExperienceNeither Bad nor MadNeither Victim nor SurvivorNeuro-Philosophy and the Healthy MindNeuroethicsNeuroethicsNeurological Foundations of Cognitive Neuroscience Neurophilosophy at WorkNeurophilosophy of Free WillNeuropoliticsNeuropsychoanalysis in PracticeNeuroscience and PhilosophyNew Essays on the Explanation of ActionNew Philosophy for a New MediaNew Versions of VictimsNew Waves in Philosophy of ActionNietzscheNietzsche and Buddhist PhilosophyNietzsche on Ethics and PoliticsNietzsche's TherapyNietzsche, Culture and EducationNietzsche: The Man and His PhilosophyNihil UnboundNoir AnxietyNormative EthicsNormativityNorms of NatureNotebooks 1951-1959Notes Toward a Performative Theory of AssemblyNothing So AbsurdOblivionOn AnxietyOn ApologyOn Being AuthenticOn Being AuthenticOn BeliefOn BetrayalOn BullshitOn DelusionOn DesireOn EmotionsOn HashishOn Human RightsOn Loving Our EnemiesOn Nature and LanguageOn PersonalityOn ReflectionOn Romantic LoveOn the EmotionsOn the Freud WatchOn the Government of the LivingOn the Human ConditionOn the InternetOn the Meaning of LifeOn the Philosophy of LawOn the Pragmatics of CommunicationOn the Punitive SocietyOn TruthOn Virtue EthicsOn What MattersOn What We Owe to Each OtherOne Hundred DaysOnflowOnly a Promise of HappinessOntology of ConsciousnessOpen MindedOpen Your EyesOrgans without BodiesOther MindsOur Last Great IllusionOur Own MindsOur Posthuman FutureOur StoriesOut of Its MindOut of Our HeadsOxford Guide to the MindOxford Handbook of Psychiatric EthicsOxford Textbook of Philosophy of PsychiatryPanic DisorderPanpsychism in the WestPartialityPassionate EnginesPassionate EnginesPathologies of BeliefPathologies of ReasonPatient Autonomy and the Ethics of ResponsibilityPC, M.D.Perceiving the WorldPerception & CognitionPerception and Basic BeliefsPerception, Hallucination, and IllusionPerceptual ExperiencePerfecting VirtuePerplexities of ConsciousnessPersistencePersonal AutonomyPersonal Autonomy in SocietyPersonal IdentityPersonal Identity and EthicsPersonal Identity and Fractured SelvesPersonhood and Health CarePersonsPersons and BodiesPersons, Humanity, and the Definition of DeathPersons, Souls and DeathPerspectives on ImitationPerspectives on PragmatismPessimismPhenomenal Concepts and Phenomenal KnowledgePhenomenal ConsciousnessPhenomenal IntentionalityPhenomenology and ExistentialismPhenomenology and Philosophy of MindPhilosophersPhilosophers on MusicPhilosophers without GodsPhilosophical CounselingPhilosophical Counselling and the UnconsciousPhilosophical DevicesPhilosophical Foundations of NeurosciencePhilosophical History and the Problem of ConsciousnessPhilosophical Issues in PsychiatryPhilosophical Issues in PsychiatryPhilosophical Issues in Psychiatry IIPhilosophical MethodologyPhilosophical MidwiferyPhilosophical Myths of the FallPhilosophical Perspectives on DepictionPhilosophical Perspectives on Technology and PsychiatryPhilosophical PracticePhilosophical Reflections on DisabilityPhilosophizing About Sex Philosophizing the EverydayPhilosophy and HappinessPhilosophy and LivingPhilosophy and PsychiatryPhilosophy and PsychotherapyPhilosophy and Science FictionPhilosophy and the EmotionsPhilosophy and the EmotionsPhilosophy and the Interpretation of Pop CulturePhilosophy and the Moving ImagePhilosophy and the NeurosciencesPhilosophy and This Actual WorldPhilosophy As FictionPhilosophy BitesPhilosophy Bites BackPhilosophy for Counselling and PsychotherapyPhilosophy for LifePhilosophy in a New CenturyPhilosophy in an Age of SciencePhilosophy in Children's LiteraturePhilosophy of ActionPhilosophy of ActionPhilosophy of BiologyPhilosophy of BiologyPhilosophy of BiologyPhilosophy of BiologyPhilosophy of BodyPhilosophy of Film and Motion PicturesPhilosophy of LovePhilosophy of Love, Sex, and MarriagePhilosophy of MindPhilosophy of Mind and CognitionPhilosophy of Personal Identity and Multiple PersonalityPhilosophy of PsychologyPhilosophy of Public HealthPhilosophy of SciencePhilosophy of SciencePhilosophy of Technology: The Technological ConditionPhilosophy of the Social SciencesPhilosophy on TapPhilosophy PracticePhilosophy the Day after TomorrowPhilosophy's Role in Counseling and PsychotherapyPhilosophy, Neuroscience and ConsciousnessPhilosophy, Politics, DemocracyPhotography and PhilosophyPhysical RealizationPhysicalism and Its DiscontentsPhysicalism and Mental CausationPhysicalism, or Something Near EnoughPhysician-Assisted DyingPillar of SaltPin-up GrrrlsPlatoPlatoPlato, Not Prozac!Platonic Ethics, Old and NewPluralistic CasuistryPolarities of ExperiencesPolitical EmotionsPopper, Objectivity and the Growth of KnowledgePornPorn StudiesPornography, Sex, and FeminismPortrait of the Psychiatrist as a Young ManPostcolonial DisordersPostpsychiatryPosttraumatic Stress DisorderPower and the SelfPower SplitPractical Autonomy and BioethicsPractical ConflictsPractical Identity and Narrative AgencyPractical PhilosophyPractical RulesPractical Tortoise RaisingPractically ProfoundPracticing Feminist Ethics in PsychologyPragmatic BioethicsPragmatismPragmatism, Old And NewPraise and BlamePredicative MindsPreferences and Well-BeingPrescriptions for the MindPresocraticsPrimary and Secondary QualitiesPrimates and PhilosophersPrivacyPrivileged AccessProblems in MindProblems of RationalityProzac As a Way of LifeProzac BacklashProzac on the CouchPsyche and SomaPsychiatric Aspects of Justification, Excuse and Mitigation in Anglo-American Criminal Law Psychiatric Cultures ComparedPsychiatric Diagnosis and ClassificationPsychiatric EthicsPsychiatric HegemonyPsychiatric PowerPsychiatric SlaveryPsychiatry and Philosophy of SciencePsychiatry and ReligionPsychiatry as a Human SciencePsychiatry as Cognitive NeurosciencePsychiatry in SocietyPsychiatry in the New MilleniumPsychiatry in the Scientific ImagePsychiatry, Psychoanalysis, And The New Biology Of MindPsycho-Physical Dualism TodayPsychoanalysis and Narrative MedicinePsychoanalysis and the Philosophy of SciencePsychological Concepts and Biological PsychiatryPsychology and PhilosophyPsychology and the Question of AgencyPsychology's Interpretive TurnPsychology, Psychotherapy, Psychoanalysis, and the Politics of Human RelationshipsPsychotherapy and ConfidentialityPsychotherapy As PraxisPublic PhilosophyPunishmentPure ImmanencePurple HazePursuing MeaningQuality of Life and Human DifferenceQueer PhilosophyQuestions for FreudQuestions for FreudQuine and Davidson on Language, Thought and RealityRaceRace in Contemporary MedicineRadiant CoolRadical AlterityRadical ExternalismRadical HopeRational and Social AgencyRational CausationRational Choice in an Uncertain WorldRationality + Consciousness = Free WillRationality and FreedomRationality and the Reflective MindRationality in ActionRawls, Dewey, and ConstructivismRe-creating MedicineRe-EmergenceRe-Engineering Philosophy for Limited BeingsReading AutobiographyReading Bernard WilliamsReading SartreReadings in the Philosophy of TechnologyReal MaterialismReal Natures and Familiar ObjectsReal ScienceRealism in ActionReason & EmancipationReason in ActionReason in PhilosophyReason's GriefReasonably ViciousReasoning About Rational AgentsReasoning in Biological DiscoveriesReasons from WithinReasons without RationalismReclaiming CognitionReclaiming the SoulReconceiving SchizophreniaReconstructing Reason and RepresentationReconstructing the Cognitive WorldRecreative MindsRediscovering EmotionRediscovering EmpathyReference and ExistenceReference and the Rational MindReflections On How We LiveReframing Disease ContextuallyRefusing CareRegulating SexReinventing the SoulRelativism and Human RightsRelativism and the Foundations of PhilosophyRelativism and the Foundations of PhilosophyReliable ReasoningReligion without GodRelying on OthersRemembering HomeResponsibility and PunishmentResponsibility and PunishmentResponsibility from the MarginsRestraining RageRethinking ExpertiseRethinking IntrospectionRethinking Mental Health and DisorderRethinking RapeRethinking the DSMRethinking the Sociology of Mental HealthRethinking the Western Understanding of the SelfReturn to ReasonRevolt, She SaidRichard RortyRichard RortyRichard RortyRichard RortyRichard RortyRichard Rorty's New PragmatismRightsRights, Democracy, and Fulfillment in the Era of Identity PoliticsRise And Fall of Soul And SelfRitalin NationRobert NozickRousseauRousseau and the Dilemmas of Modernity Routledge Philosophy Guidebook to Derrida on DeconstructionRules, Reason, and Self-KnowledgeSaints, Scholars, and Schizophrenics: Mental Illness in Rural IrelandSartreSartreSartreSartre in Search of an EthicsSatisficing and MaximizingSaving GodScandalous KnowledgeSchizophreniaSchizophrenia and the Fate of the SelfSchizophrenia: A Scientific Delusion?SchopenhauerSchopenhauer's TelescopeScienceScience and EthicsScience and Pseudoscience in Clinical PsychologyScience and SpiritualityScience and the Pursuit of WisdomScience Fiction and PhilosophyScience Fiction and PhilosophyScience in Civil SocietyScience in DemocracyScience RulesScience WarsScience, Consciousness and Ultimate RealityScience, Policy, and the Value-Free IdealSciences from BelowScientific EvidenceScientific IrrationalismScientific PerspectivismScientific PluralismScientific Realism and the Rationality of ScienceScratching the Surface of BioethicsSecond NatureSecond OpinionsSecond PhilosophySecrets of the MindSecular Philosophy and the Religious TemperamentSecurity, Territory, PopulationSeeing and VisualizingSeeing DoubleSeeing Fictions in FilmSeeing RedSeeing Wittgenstein AnewSeeing, Doing, And KnowingSelfSelf and OtherSelf and SubjectivitySelf, No Self?Self-ConsciousnessSelf-ConstitutionSelf-ExpressionSelf-FulfillmentSelf-Knowledge and ResentmentSelf-Knowledge and Self-DeceptionSelf-Made MadnessSelf-Reference and Self-AwarenessSelf-Representational Approaches to ConsciousnessSelvesSentimental RulesSexing the BodySexualized BrainsShades of LonelinessShame and GuiltShame and NecessityShame and PhilosophyShop Class as SoulcraftShynessSigns, Mind, And RealitySimone de BeauvoirSimple MindednessSimulating MindsSimulation and SimilaritySinging in the FireSisyphus's BoulderSituating SemanticsSix Questions of SocratesSkeptical FeminismSkepticismSketch for a Theory of the EmotionsSleeping With Extra-TerrestrialsSlothSocial EpistemologySocial PhenomenologySocializing MetaphysicsSociological Perspectives on the New GeneticsSocratesSocrates CafeSocrates in LoveSocratic Moral PsychologySoft SubversionsSoren 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Handbook of EmotionsReview - Handbook of Emotions
Second Edition
by Michael Lewis and Jeanette M. Haviland-Jones (Editors)
Guilford Press, 2000
Review by Sam Brown, M.A. M.Phil.
Jul 10th 2004 (Volume 8, Issue 28)

The Handbook of Emotions is a stimulating and informative resource. As a comprehensive and authoritative guide to the study of emotions, it is in a league without peers.

Running to 720 pages, with 43 contributed chapters, this weighty tome crams in a well-balanced selection of summaries covering some of the most influential theories in emotion research. Introductory synopses are on offer from the fields of philosophy, history, psychology, aesthetics, neuroscience, anthropology, sociology, linguistics, developmental psychology, psychophysiology, and more. Most of the contributions come from eminent figures in each field, who deftly manage to combine comprehensiveness with comprehensibility, introducing their specialist topics to non-specialists before reporting on some of the latest findings. No other book on emotion covers so much breadth with such authority.

This second edition, emerging initially in hardback in 2000, is an extensive revision of the 1993 first edition. Each contribution has been amended to reflect recent developments in their respective fields. There are many new chapters by new authors, retitled updated chapters by retained authors,  and new authors for retained chapters with new titles. It's virtually a new book in its own right.

Lewis & Haviland-Jones had to make some tough editorial choices this time around, and they chose sagely. For example, papers from the illustrious psychologists Paul MacLean and Robert Zajonc have been dropped to make way for recent advances and hot topics. The new developments are authoritatively documented by the chief pioneers or foremost researchers. For example, Salovey, Mayer et al. are the best people to outline the nature of emotional intelligence, a construct they invented in 1990; evolutionary psychology is introduced by Cosmides & Tooby; Paul Rozin explains the character and purpose of disgust; and psychoneuroimmunology is covered by Booth & Pennebaker.

The book begins with an introductory section of accessible synopses from its major contributing disciplines - philosophy, history, linguistics, sociology, theoretical psychology, clinical psychology, biology and aesthetics. Together these confer a sense of interdisciplinary harmony while providing a broad pedagogical base for the rest of the book.

It is notable that the first four papers gesture towards social constructivism. The focus on the influence of culture and society suggests that emotions are highly programmable and socially configured. This view contrasts with the biologically-inspired papers that follow soon after. Yet the contrast is enriching and rewarding; there is no dogmatic squabbling between paradigms. Thankfully the contributors have—unusually for a work in this area—refrained from banging a drum or attacking rival projects.

Significantly, the second edition reflects changing trends in the years since the first edition. It includes new sections on Developmental Changes, Cognitive Factors, and Health and Emotions.

There are few obvious omissions in this comprehensive and ambitious book. From a healthcare perspective, the greatest surprise is the neglect of therapeutic theories or practices. Psychoanalytic theory is not discussed in much detail (though Freud is cited frequently in vague support of other arguments), and no effort is made to relate the outlines of cognitive theories to the therapeutic literature. There is hardly any mention of life skills or strategies for improving emotional competencies, and as a result the book conveys an uncomfortably fatalistic impression of emotional destiny.

One might have anticipated a more detailed account of the existentialist theory, with its emphasis on personal choice in emotional reactions, but oddly even Solomon declines to elaborate his own brand here. There is also no sign of the burgeoning subdiscipline of affective computing, which models emotion processing in expert systems and agent architectures, and designs interfaces to co-operate with users' emotions. These developments and applications of emotion theory might be more consonant than some of the eclectic choices in the present collection.

Each chapter is self-contained, complete with its own framework for understanding emotion, and can be read in isolation. Inevitably there are glosses that may rankle specialists, but in the main the loss of detail is tolerable for the sake of brevity. As the theorists each set out their stalls, there is frequent reiteration of arguments about biological functions and evolutionary pressures, the role of cognitive appraisals, and the research bias towards extreme or negative emotions. But this book is not intended to be read like a novel. Some degree of repetition is unavoidable.

The scientific nature of this collection gives it a strongly reductionist theme which could have been balanced by the inclusion of more holistic views. For example, contributors might have explored the contemporary concept of emotional "closure" with reference to, for example, cycles of experience in Gestalt psychology, or the notion of spiritual harmony in Buddhist thought.

Some of the technical reports of empirical studies seem a little out of place in a handbook, much as they would in a textbook or encyclopedia. One would expect them to be published in an empirical journal and summarized with a citation here.

The book is well indexed, with separate author and subject indices. An individual bibliography is included at the end of each chapter. There has also been a welcome improvement in typescript. The first edition used an antiquated font that made the text appear decades out of date. The modern appearance of this version is more in tune with its contemporary content.

The synopses on offer here are suitable for novices and specialists alike. The Handbook of Emotions would be a worthwhile investment for any psychologist. For professionals specializing in emotion it is equally useful as an authoritative reference work, a foundation text for a graduate course, and a source of inspiration for novel research projects.

 

Contents

I. Interdisciplinary Foundations

Ch.1: The Philosophy of Emotions, Robert Solomon, (pp.3-15)

Ch.2: History of Emotions: Issues of Change and Impact, Peter Stearns, (pp.16-29)

Ch.3: Representing Emotional Meaning: Category, Metaphor, Schema, Discourse, Geoffrey White, (pp.30-44)

Ch.4: Social Models in the Explanation of Emotions, Theodore Kemper, (pp.45-58)

Ch.5: The Psychologist's Point of View, Nico Frijda, (pp.59-74)

Ch.6: Emotion and Clinical Depression: An Environmental View, George Brown, (pp.75-90)

Ch.7: Evolutionary Psychology and the Emotions, Leda Cosmides and John Tooby, (pp.91-115)

Ch.8: Emotion, Art, and the Humanities, Ed Tan, (pp.116-134)

 

II. Biological and Neurophysiological Approaches to Emotion

Ch.9: Emotions as Natural Kinds within the Mammalian Brain, Jaak Panksepp, (pp.137-156)

Ch.10: Emotional Networks in the Brain, Joseph LeDoux and Elizabeth Phelps, (pp.157-172)

Ch.11: The Psychophysiology of Emotion, John T. Cacioppo, Gary G. Berntson, Jeff, T. Larsen, Kirsten M. Poehlmann and Tiffany A. Ito, (pp.173-191)

Ch.12: Emotion and Behavior Genetics, Richard Rende, (pp.192-202)

Ch.13: Multiple-Measure Approaches to the Study of Infant Emotion, Nathan Fox and Susan Calkins, (pp.203-219)

Ch.14: Vocal Communication of Emotion, Tom Johnstone and Klaus Scherer, (pp.220-235)

Ch.15: Facial Expression of Emotion, Dacher Keltner and Paul Ekman, (pp.236-249)

 

III. Developmental Changes

Ch.16: Motivational, Organizational, and Regulatory Functions of Discrete Emotions, Carroll Izard and Brian Ackerman, (pp.253-264)

Ch.17: The Emergence of Human Emotions, Michael Lewis, (pp.265-280)

Ch.18: Understanding Emotion, Paul Harris, (pp.281-292)

Ch.19: Emotion and Identity, Jeannette Haviland-Jones and Patricia Kahlbaugh, (pp.293-305)

Ch.20: The Social Context of Emotional Development, Carolyn Saarni, (pp.306-322)

 

IV. Social/Personality Issues

Ch.21: Subjective Emotional Well-Being, Ed Diener and Richard Lucas, (pp.325-337)

Ch.22: Gender, Emotion, and Expression, Leslie Brody and Judith Hall, (pp.338-349)

Ch.23: The Effects of Mood on Social Judgment and Reasoning, Joseph Forgas and Patrick Vargas, (pp.350-367)

Ch.24: Emotion Expression in Groups, Ursula Hess and Gilles Kirouac, (pp.368-381)

Ch.25: Temperament as an Emotion Construct: Theoretical and Practical Issues, John Bates, (pp.382-396)

Ch.26: The Cultural Psychology of the Emotions: Ancient and New, Richard Shweder and Jonathan Haidt, (pp.397-414)

 

V. Cognitive Factors

Ch.27: Positive Affect and Decision Making, Alice Isen, (pp.417-435)

Ch.28: A Goal Appraisal Theory of Emotional Understanding: Implications for Development and Learning, Nancy Stein, Tom Trabasso and Maria Liwag, (pp.436-457)

Ch.29: Cognitive and Social Construction in Emotion, Philip Johnson-Laird and Keith Oatley, (pp.458-475)

Ch.30: Emotion and Memory, W. Parrott and Matthew Spackman, (pp.476-490)

Ch.31: Emotion Concepts, James Russell and Ghyslaine Lemay, (pp.491-503)

Ch.32: Current Directions in Emotional Intelligence Research, Peter Salovey, Brian Bedell, Jerusha Detweiler and John Mayer, (pp.504-520)

 

VI. Health and Emotions

Ch.33: Emotions and Physical Illness: Causes and Indicators of Vulnerability, Howard Leventhal and Linda Patrick-Miller, (pp.523-537)

Ch.34: When Seeing Is Feeling: A Cognitive-Emotional Approach to Coping with Health Stress, Suzanne Miller and Robert Schnoll, (pp.538-557)

Ch.35: Emotions and Immunity, Roger Booth and James Pennebaker, (pp.558-570)

 

VII. Select Emotions

Ch.36: Fear and Anxiety: Evolutionary, Cognitive, and Clinical Perspectives, Arne Öhman, (pp.573-593)

Ch.37: The Development of Anger and Hostile Interactions, Elizabeth Lemerise and Kenneth Dodge, (pp.594-606)

Ch.38: "Sadness"—Is There Such a Thing?, Carolyn Barr-Zisowitz, (pp.607-622)

Ch.39: Self-Conscious Emotions: Embarrassment, Pride, Shame, and Guilt, Michael Lewis, (pp.623-636)

Ch.40: Disgust, Paul Rozin, Jonathan Haidt and Clark McCauley, (pp.637-653)

Ch.41: Love and Attachment Processes, Elaine Hatfield and Richard Rapson, (pp.654-662)

Ch.42: Happiness, James Averill and Thomas More, (pp.663-676)

Ch.43: Empathy and Sympathy, Nancy Eisenberg, (pp.677-691)

 

Whirlwind Tour of individual chapters

I. Interdisciplinary Foundations

In the first chapter, The Philosophy of Emotion, Robert Solomon traces a history of views on emotion from the ancient Greeks, via the Stoics and the Enlightenment thinkers, to the cognitive and neuroscientific theories of the modern era. His gentle introduction thankfully eschews his trademark cognitivist rhetoric, providing a firm historical context for the contemporary theories that follow.

The second chapter swerves into an unconventional literature: history. Peter Stearn emphasises how records of emotions have changed over time: perhaps reflecting differences in their social significance, their role in personal identity and even their subjective experience. It is often assumed that the nature of emotions is timeless and only our ideas and theories change. But without the sophisticated stimuli or complex social structures of today, emotional life in preceding generations may have been vastly different. How could our ancestors ever have imagined the spectacular dazzle of a cinematic epic, or the complex media-obsessed trauma of modern teenage life? It is hard to imagine. Yet modern audiences find emotional resonances in historical literature, often based on the eternal themes of desire, loss, loyalty and deception amongst others. So to what extent does the culture and the mood of the times influence our emotions? It is a very interesting question. Stearns reports on the early state of historical research and its connections to other disciplines but he does not venture a conclusion.

Next up is Geoffrey White's comprehensive summary of theories in emotion semantics and comparative linguistics. He touches on theories of semantic structure—including categories, prototypes, metaphors, and schemata—and examines the content of expressions in other cultures, such as the Cheke Holo language from the Solomon Islands. The major researchers in the area are all represented here. There is some overlap with the chapter on emotions concepts by Russell & Lemay.

The sociologist Theodore Kemper examines the communicative function of emotions, their relationship to status, the regulation of social order via pride and shame, and the pressure to control and suppress in social situations.

In The Psychologist's Point of View, Nico Frijda (pronounced Freyda) gives the most central account in the collection with a brief survey of theories of emotion and related questions in psychology. He highlights the widely acknowledged problem that a single universal research definition will be forever elusive due to the multimodal aspects and multifunctional purposes of emotions. In many respects his account echoes Solomon's earlier chapter, revealing parallel and cross-pollinating trends in philosophy and psychology.

George Brown empirical reports some empirical findings on factors influencing clinical depression, construed according to a standard cognitive appraisal theory. The focus is firmly on etiology and risk factors and there is no discussion of therapeutic interventions.

Next, Cosmides and Tooby set out their psychoevolutionary stall with a comprehensive position paper on the functional modularity of emotions. Very fine expositors they are too. This paper could serve as the main text for a reading list on the psychoevolutionary view.

Rounding off the introductory section is a seemingly incongruent paper on emotion and art, which examines the influence of emotions on the creation and evaluation of artworks and how they are represented visually. This is fascinating stuff but one wonders whether it tells us much but the nature of emotion itself.

II. Biological and Neuropsychological Approaches to Emotion

Jaak Panksepp's superbly concise and cogent summary of his position in Affective Neuroscience (1998) is a highly recommended overview of a book which many readers find daunting in its scientific detail.

Joseph LeDoux's summary of his theory of fear conditioning is similar to most of his papers on offer elsewhere, with slightly more detail on the internal structure of the amygdala and the role of the hippocampus in contextual conditioning.

Five further papers in this section examine other biological variables such as psychophysiological measurement, vocal inflection and facial expression. Richard Rende has an intriguing perspective on behaviour genetics, linking genetics with personality research.

III. Developmental Changes

The chapter by Izard and Ackerman is a concise summary of Izard's multi-threaded functional analysis known as Differential Emotions Theory.

It is followed by papers discussing the emergence of emotional capacities, the child's understanding of emotion and the role of emotions in an individual's sense of personal and social identity. Each contribution comes equipped with its own basic framework for understanding emotion.

The final paper comments on the social development of emotional norms and patterns in various cultural groups, showing the influence of social context.

IV. Social/Personality Issues

Diener & Lucas's chapter on Subjective Emotional Wellbeing provides a welcome antidote to the typical academic focus on extreme, complex or negative emotions. In general, people normally report a background of mild and reasonably pleasant emotions on a day to day basis, but these are rarely discussed; the authors aim to redress that imbalance.

A summary chapter on gender differences in emotion follows, relating some useful findings but saying little by way of surprise or controversy. Further empirical chapters examine the higher level constructs of mood and temperament. The paper on social expression suggests that our emotions are more open to influence than we normally assume.

Surprisingly, Parrott & Spackman's chapter on emotion and memory omits mention of the so-called "flashbulb memory" effect that is the mainstay of most other summaries on the same topic. The focus instead is on mood congruent and mood incongruent recall. They finish with a critical tirade against associative network theories of memory, and reductive or mechanistic models of the mind in general.

In Emotion Concepts, Russell & Lemay separate theories of the nature of emotion from theories of the concepts of emotion, arguing that most theorists conflate the two. Anyone attempting to understand emotion via conceptual analysis would do well to take account of the complexities noted in this chapter.

Salovey, Mayer and their colleagues present a succinct overview of work on emotional intelligence. They coined the expression in 1990, but were disenchanted with its portrayal in the popular media. Here they attempt to seize the construct back and restore it to its original scientific status, providing a conceptual framework for it and explaining the techniques used to measure it.

V. Emotions and Health

While this new section is undoubtedly welcome, it is unfortunately scant and incomplete. It consists of only 3 chapters, which scarcely touch on the most obvious topics: clinical depression, the emotional bases of psychosomatic or somatoform disorders, or psychotherapy and palliative care.

Levental & Patrick-Miller examine the relationship of emotions to disease, partly as causes and outcomes, but mostly as indicators of physiological resources. It is an interesting and unusual slant on the information functions of emotions.

Miller & Scholl have developed a psychometric scale to measure the effect of two different types of coping response. Here they apply it to the diagnosis of cancer and explain, by means of a general cognitive-emotional model, how the pathology of the disease is influenced by the way that people construe their illness.

Booth & Pennebaker's chapter on the immune system constitutes a handy primer for psychoneuroimmunology. If you'd like to understand what happens to your cytokine and cortisol levels when you get stressed and why it matters, this is a good starting point. The principle of teleological coherence (harmony of purpose) states that emotions and the immune system share the same ultimate goal - protecting the self - so it is not surprising they are functionally intertwined. The authors cite a range of studies indicating that emotional disclosure confers health benefits. Talking or writing about trauma is good for you, and here's the proof.

VI. Select Emotions

The distinctive emotion types examined here include fear and anxiety, anger, sadness, and happiness, and a discussion of how empathy extends our capacities to respond.

Arne Öhman is principally known for his work on unconscious processes. His chapter on fear and anxiety turns upon the idea that elicitation of emotion is not a conscious step. A simple parallel information processing architecture automatically mobilises resources and orients attention towards the perceived or imagined stimulus, priming the agent for strategic thinking. This occurs, he argues, even in the case of seemingly cognitive emotions.

Lemerise & Dodge explore different aspects of the development of anger in infants, examining how individual differences correlate with performance measures.

In "Sadness-Is there such a thing?", Carol Barr-Zisowitz notes there has been little attention to the phenomenon of sadness in comparison to, for instance, fear or depression. Surveying evidence from other cultures, particularly Lutz's work with Ifaluk islanders, she too becomes a skeptic, convinced that distress is the basic biological reality and "sadness" is a category of convenience. Her argument is interesting, if philosophically weak.

In psychological circles, the basic emotion of disgust is strongly associated with Paul Rozin, and he and his colleagues have plenty to say about it here, covering just about every possible angle from its expressive components, to its biological specificity and function, to interpersonal and moral disgust, to cultural differences and neural underpinnings.

Hatfield & Rapson lift the lid on one of life's eternal mysteries: passionate love. The rewards and costs of romance are laid bare, revealing the underlying evolutionary rationale for attachment phenomena that may strike us as absurdly irrational. This account helps to explain why needy people so often become trapped in destructive relationships.

Averrill & More's overview of Happiness focuses on the Aristotlean concept of eudaimonia, examining its biological, social and psychological mechanisms, and relating it to personality factors. This chapter adds substance to an often abstract and vague topic, and could be a solid foundation for debates in philosophical counselling.

Eisenberg's discussion of empathy and sympathy touches on the origins of the empathetic impulse and its biological basis, in a mostly inconclusive discussion of empirical results padded out with observations and truisms.

 

© 2004 Sam Brown

 

Sam Brown is currently completing a PhD on the cognitive science of emotion. He has an MA in Philosophy and an MPhil in Cognitive Science.


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