email page print pageAll Topic Reviews
Anger and Forgiveness"Are You There Alone?"10 Good Questions about Life and DeathA Casebook of Ethical Challenges in NeuropsychologyA Companion to BioethicsA Companion to BioethicsA Companion to GenethicsA Companion to GenethicsA Companion to Muslim EthicsA Cooperative SpeciesA Critique of the Moral Defense of VegetarianismA Delicate BalanceA Fragile LifeA Life for a LifeA Life-Centered Approach to BioethicsA Matter of SecurityA Mirror Is for ReflectionA Natural History of Human MoralityA Philosophical DiseaseA Practical Guide to Clinical Ethics ConsultingA Question of TrustA Sentimentalist Theory of the MindA Short Stay in SwitzerlandA Tapestry of ValuesA Very Bad WizardA World Without ValuesAction and ResponsibilityAction Theory, Rationality and CompulsionActs of ConscienceAddiction and ResponsibilityAddiction NeuroethicsAdvance Directives in Mental HealthAfter HarmAftermathAgainst AutonomyAgainst BioethicsAgainst HealthAgainst MarriageAgainst Moral ResponsibilityAgency and AnswerabilityAgency and ResponsibilityAgency, Freedom, and Moral ResponsibilityAging, Biotechnology, and the FutureAlbert Schweitzer's Reverence for LifeAlphavilleAltruismAltruismAmerican EugenicsAmerican PsychosisAn American SicknessAn Anthology of Psychiatric EthicsAn Introduction to EthicsAn Introduction to Evolutionary EthicsAn Introduction to Kant's Moral Philosophy And a Time to DieAnimal LessonsAnimal RightsAnimals Like UsApplied Ethics in Mental Health CareAre Women Human?Arguments about AbortionAristotle on Practical WisdomAristotle's Ethics and Moral ResponsibilityAssisted Suicide and the Right to DieAutonomyAutonomy and the Challenges to LiberalismAutonomy, Consent and the LawBabies by DesignBackslidingBad PharmaBad SoulsBarriers and BelongingBasic Desert, Reactive Attitudes and Free WillBeauty JunkiesBefore ForgivingBeing AmoralBeing YourselfBending Over BackwardsBending ScienceBernard WilliamsBetter Humans?Better Than WellBeyond ChoiceBeyond GeneticsBeyond HatredBeyond Humanity?Beyond LossBeyond LossBeyond Moral JudgmentBeyond SpeechBeyond the DSM StoryBias in Psychiatric DiagnosisBioethicsBioethicsBioethics and the BrainBioethics at the MoviesBioethics Beyond the HeadlinesBioethics Critically ReconsideredBioethics in a Liberal SocietyBioethics in the ClinicBiomedical EthicsBiomedical EthicsBiomedical EthicsBiomedical EthicsBiomedical Research and BeyondBiosBioscience EthicsBipolar ChildrenBluebirdBodies out of BoundsBodies, Commodities, and BiotechnologiesBody BazaarBoundBoundaries and Boundary Violations in PsychoanalysisBraintrustBrandedBreaking the SilenceBuffy the Vampire Slayer and PhilosophyCapital PunishmentCase Studies in Biomedical Research EthicsChallenging the Stigma of Mental IllnessCharacter and Moral Psychology Character as Moral FictionChild Well-BeingChildrenChildren's RightsChoosing ChildrenChoosing Not to ChooseClinical Dilemmas in PsychotherapyClinical EthicsCloningClose toYouCoercion as CureCoercive Treatment in PsychiatryCognition of Value in Aristotle's EthicsCognitive Disability and Its Challenge to Moral Philosophy Comfortably NumbCommonsense RebellionCommunicative Action and Rational ChoiceCompetence, Condemnation, and CommitmentComprehending CareConducting Insanity EvaluationsConfidential RelationshipsConfidentiality and Mental HealthConflict of Interest in the ProfessionsConsuming KidsContemporary Debates In Applied EthicsContemporary Debates in Moral TheoryContemporary Debates in Social PhilosophyContentious IssuesContesting PsychiatryCrazy in AmericaCreating CapabilitiesCreatures Like Us?Crime and CulpabilityCrime, Punishment, and Mental IllnessCritical Perspectives in Public HealthCritical PsychiatryCrueltyCultural Assessment in Clinical PsychiatryCurrent Controversies in BioethicsCurrent Controversies in Values and ScienceCutting to the CoreCyborg CitizenDamaged IdentitiesDeaf Identities in the MakingDeath Is That Man Taking NamesDebating ProcreationDebating Same-Sex MarriageDecision Making, Personhood and DementiaDecoding the Ethics CodeDefining DifferenceDefining Right and Wrong in Brain ScienceDefining the Beginning and End of LifeDelusions of GenderDementiaDemocracy in What State?Demons of the Modern WorldDescriptions and PrescriptionsDesert and VirtueDesire, Practical Reason, and the GoodDestructive Trends in Mental HealthDeveloping the VirtuesDid My Neurons Make Me Do It?Difference and IdentityDigital HemlockDigital SoulDignityDisability BioethicsDisability, Difference, DiscriminationDiscrimination against the Mentally IllDisordered Personalities and CrimeDisorders of VolitionDisorientation and Moral LifeDivided Minds and Successive SelvesDoes Feminism Discriminate against Men?Does Torture Work?Double Standards in Medical Research in Developing CountriesDown GirlDrugs and JusticeDworkin and His CriticsDying in the Twenty-First CenturyEarly WarningEconomics and Youth ViolenceEmbodied RhetoricsEmerging Conceptual, Ethical and Policy Issues in BionanotechnologyEmotional ReasonEmotions in the Moral LifeEmotions in the Moral LifeEmpathyEmpathy and Moral DevelopmentEmpathy and MoralityEmpirical Ethics in PsychiatryEncountering NatureEncountering the Sacred in PsychotherapyEngendering International HealthEnhancing EvolutionEnhancing Human CapacitiesEnoughEros and the GoodErotic InnocenceErotic MoralityEssays on Derek Parfit's On What MattersEssays on Free Will and Moral ResponsibilityEthical Choices in Contemporary MedicineEthical Conflicts in PsychologyEthical Dilemmas in PediatricsEthical Issues in Behavioral ResearchEthical Issues in Dementia CareEthical Issues in Forensic Mental Health ResearchEthical Issues in the New GeneticsEthical LifeEthical Reasoning for Mental Health ProfessionalsEthical TheoryEthical WillsEthically Challenged ProfessionsEthicsEthicsEthicsEthics and AnimalsEthics and ScienceEthics and the A PrioriEthics and the Discovery of the UnconsciousEthics and the Metaphysics of MedicineEthics at the CinemaEthics at the End of LifeEthics Case Book of the American Psychoanalytic AssociationEthics Done RightEthics ExpertiseEthics for EveryoneEthics for PsychologistsEthics for the New MillenniumEthics in CyberspaceEthics in Health CareEthics In Health Services ManagementEthics in Mental Health ResearchEthics in PracticeEthics in PsychiatryEthics in PsychologyEthics in Psychotherapy and CounselingEthics of PsychiatryEthics without OntologyEthics, Culture, and PsychiatryEthics, Sexual Orientation, and Choices about ChildrenEvaluating the Science and Ethics of Research on HumansEvilEvil GenesEvil in Modern ThoughtEvil in Modern ThoughtEvolution, Gender, and RapeEvolutionary Ethics and Contemporary BiologyEvolutionary Psychology and ViolenceEvolved MoralityExperiments in EthicsExploding the Gene MythExploiting ChildhoodFacing Human SufferingFact and ValueFacts and ValuesFaking ItFalse-Memory Creation in Children and AdultsFat ShameFatal FreedomFellow-Feeling and the Moral LifeFeminism and Its DiscontentsFeminist Ethics and Social and Political PhilosophyFeminist TheoryFinal ExamFirst Do No HarmFirst, Do No HarmFlashpointFlesh WoundsForced to CareForgivenessForgivenessForgiveness and LoveForgiveness and ReconciliationForgiveness and RetributionForgiveness is Really StrangeFoucault and the Government of DisabilityFoundational Issues in Human Brain MappingFoundations of Forensic Mental Health AssessmentFree WillFree Will And Moral ResponsibilityFree Will and Reactive AttitudesFree Will, Agency, and Meaning in LifeFree?Freedom and ValueFreedom vs. InterventionFriendshipFrom Darwin to HitlerFrom Disgust to HumanityFrom Enlightenment to ReceptivityFrom Morality to Mental HealthFrom Silence to VoiceFrom Valuing to ValueFrontiers of JusticeGender in the MirrorGenetic PoliticsGenetic ProspectsGenetic ProspectsGenetics of Original SinGenetics of Original SinGenocide's AftermathGetting RealGluttonyGood WorkGoodness & AdviceGreedGroups in ConflictGrowing Up GirlGut FeminismHabilitation, Health, and AgencyHandbook for Health Care Ethics CommitteesHandbook of BioethicsHandbook of Children's RightsHandbook of PsychopathyHappinessHappiness and the Good LifeHappiness Is OverratedHard FeelingsHard LuckHardwired BehaviorHarmful ThoughtsHeal & ForgiveHealing PsychiatryHealth Care Ethics for PsychologistsHeterosyncraciesHistorical and Philosophical Perspectives on Biomedical EthicsHoly WarHookedHookedHow Can I Be Trusted?How Propaganda WorksHow to Do Things with Pornography How to Make Opportunity EqualHow Universities Can Help Create a Wiser WorldHow We HopeHow We Think About DementiaHuman BondingHuman Dignity and Assisted DeathHuman EnhancementHuman GoodnessHuman Identity and BioethicsHuman TrialsHumanism, What's That?Humanitarian ReasonHumanityHumanizing MadnessI am Not Sick I Don't Need Help!I Was WrongIdentifying Hyperactive ChildrenIf That Ever Happens to MeImproving Nature?In Defense of FloggingIn Defense of SinIn Love With LifeIn Our Own ImageIn the FamilyIn the Land of the DeafIn the Name of IdentityIn the Wake of 9/11In Two MindsInclusive EthicsInformed Consent in Medical ResearchInnovation in Medical TechnologyInside Assisted LivingInside EthicsIntelligence, Race, and GeneticsIntensive CareInto the Gray ZoneIs Human Nature Obsolete?Is Long-Term Therapy Unethical?Is There a Duty to Die?Is There an Ethicist in the House?Issues in Philosophical CounselingJudging Children As ChildrenJust a DogJust BabiesJust CareJustice for ChildrenJustice for HedgehogsJustice in RobesJustice, Luck, and KnowledgeJustifiable ConductKant on Moral AutonomyKant's Theory of VirtueKids of CharacterKilling McVeighLack of CharacterLack of CharacterLaw and the BrainLearning About School ViolenceLearning from Baby PLeaving YouLectures on the History of Political PhilosophyLegal and Ethical Aspects of HealthcareLegal Aspects of Mental CapacityLegal ConceptionsLegal InsanityLegalizing ProstitutionLet Them Eat ProzacLevelling the Playing FieldLiberal Education in a Knowledge SocietyLiberal EugenicsLife After FaithLife at the BottomLife, Sex, and IdeasListening to the WhispersLiving ProfessionalismLosing Matt ShepardLostLuckyMad in AmericaMad PrideMadhouseMaking Another World PossibleMaking Babies, Making FamiliesMaking Genes, Making WavesMaking Sense of Freedom and ResponsibilityMalignantMasculinity Studies and Feminist TheoryMeaning and Moral OrderMeaning in LifeMeaning in Life and Why It MattersMeans, Ends, and PersonsMeans, Ends, and PersonsMedical Enhancement and PosthumanityMedical Research for HireMedicalized MasculinitiesMedically Assisted DeathMeditations for the HumanistMelancholia and MoralismMental Health Professionals, Minorities and the PoorMental Illness, Medicine and LawMerit, Meaning, and Human BondageMetaethical SubjectivismMill's UtilitarianismMind FieldsMind WarsMind WarsModern Theories of JusticeModernity and TechnologyMoney ShotMonsterMoral Acquaintances and Moral DecisionsMoral BrainsMoral ClarityMoral CultivationMoral Development and RealityMoral Dilemmas in Real LifeMoral DimensionsMoral EntanglementsMoral FailureMoral LiteracyMoral MachinesMoral MindsMoral OriginsMoral Panics, Sex PanicsMoral ParticularismMoral PerceptionMoral PsychologyMoral Psychology: Volume IVMoral RealismMoral RelativismMoral RepairMoral Responsibility and Alternative PossibilitiesMoral Status and Human LifeMoral StealthMoral Theory at the MoviesMoral TribesMoral Value and Human DiversityMoral, Immoral, AmoralMoralismMorality and Self-InterestMorality in a Natural WorldMorality, Moral Luck and ResponsibilityMorals, Rights and Practice in the Human ServicesMorals, Rights and Practice in the Human ServicesMore Than HumanMotive and RightnessMovies and the Moral Adventure of LifeMurder in the InnMy Body PoliticMy Brain Made Me Do ItMy Sister's KeeperMy Sister's KeeperMy WayNano-Bio-EthicsNarrative MedicineNarrative ProsthesisNatural Ethical FactsNatural-Born CybogsNaturalized BioethicsNeither Bad nor MadNeoconservatismNeonatal BioethicsNeurobiology and the Development of Human MoralityNeuroethicsNeuroethicsNeuroethicsNew Takes in Film-PhilosophyNew Waves in EthicsNew Waves in MetaethicsNietzsche on Ethics and PoliticsNo Child Left DifferentNo Impact ManNormative EthicsNormativityNothing about us, without us!Oath BetrayedOf War and LawOn ApologyOn Being AuthenticOn EvilOn Human RightsOn The Stigma Of Mental IllnessOn the TakeOn Virtue EthicsOn What MattersOn What We Owe to Each OtherOne ChildOne Nation Under TherapyOne World NowOne World NowOur Bodies, Whose Property?Our Bodies, Whose Property?Our Daily MedsOur Faithfulness to the PastOur Posthuman FutureOut of EdenOut of Its MindOut of the ShadowsOverdosed AmericaOxford Handbook of Psychiatric EthicsOxford Studies in Normative EthicsOxford Textbook of Philosophy of PsychiatryPassionate DeliberationPatient Autonomy and the Ethics of ResponsibilityPC, M.D.Perfecting VirtuePersonal AutonomyPersonal Autonomy in SocietyPersonal Identity and EthicsPersonalities on the PlatePersonhood and Health CarePersons, Humanity, and the Definition of DeathPerspectives On Health And Human RightsPharmaceutical FreedomPharmacracyPharmageddonPhilosophy and This Actual WorldPhilosophy of BiologyPhilosophy of Technology: The Technological ConditionPhysician-Assisted DyingPicturing DisabilityPilgrim at Tinker CreekPlaying God?Playing God?Political EmotionsPornlandPowerful MedicinesPractical Autonomy and BioethicsPractical EthicsPractical Ethics for PsychologistsPractical RulesPragmatic BioethicsPragmatic BioethicsPragmatic NeuroethicsPraise and BlamePreferences and Well-BeingPrimates and PhilosophersPro-Life, Pro-ChoiceProcreation and ParenthoodProfits Before People?Progress in BioethicsProperty in the BodyProzac As a Way of LifeProzac on the CouchPsychiatric Aspects of Justification, Excuse and Mitigation in Anglo-American Criminal Law Psychiatric EthicsPsychiatry and EmpirePsychological Concepts and Biological PsychiatryPsychology and Consumer CulturePsychology and LawPsychotropic Drug Prescriber's Survival GuidePublic Health LawPublic Health Law and EthicsPublic PhilosophyPunishing the Mentally IllPunishmentPursuits of WisdomPutting Morality Back Into PoliticsPutting on VirtueQuality of Life and Human DifferenceRaceRadical HopeRadical VirtuesRape Is RapeRe-creating MedicineRe-Engineering Philosophy for Limited BeingsReason's GriefReasonably ViciousReckoning With HomelessnessReconceiving Medical EthicsRecovery from SchizophreniaRedefining RapeRedesigning HumansReducing the Stigma of Mental IllnessReflections on Ethics and ResponsibilityReflections On How We LiveReframing Disease ContextuallyRefusing CareRefuting Peter Singer's Ethical TheoryRelative JusticeRelativism and Human RightsReligion ExplainedReprogeneticsRescuing JeffreyResponsibilityResponsibility and PsychopathyResponsibility and PunishmentResponsibility and PunishmentResponsibility from the MarginsResponsible GeneticsRethinking CommodificationRethinking Informed Consent in BioethicsRethinking Mental Health and DisorderRethinking RapeReturn to ReasonRevolution in PsychologyRightsRights, Democracy, and Fulfillment in the Era of Identity PoliticsRisk and Luck in Medical EthicsRobert NozickRousseau and the Dilemmas of Modernity Rule of Law, Misrule of MenRun, Spot, RunRunning on RitalinSatisficing and MaximizingSchizophrenia, Culture, and SubjectivityScience and EthicsScience in the Private InterestScience, Policy, and the Value-Free IdealScience, Seeds and CyborgsScratching the Surface of BioethicsSecular Philosophy and the Religious TemperamentSeeing the LightSelf-ConstitutionSelf-Made MadnessSelf-Trust and Reproductive AutonomySentimental RulesSex Fiends, Perverts, and PedophilesSex OffendersSex, Family, and the Culture WarsSexual DevianceSexual EthicsSexual PredatorsSexualized BrainsShaping Our SelvesShock TherapyShould I Medicate My Child?ShunnedSick to Death and Not Going to Take It AnymoreSickoSide EffectsSidewalk StoriesSister CitizenSkeptical FeminismSocial Inclusion of People with Mental IllnessSocial JusticeSociological Perspectives on the New GeneticsSome We Love, Some We Hate, Some We EatSovereign VirtueSpeech MattersSpiral of EntrapmentSplit DecisionsSticks and StonesStories MatterSubhumanSubjectivity and Being SomebodySuffering, Death, and IdentitySuicide ProhibitionSurgery JunkiesSurgically Shaping ChildrenTaking Morality SeriouslyTaming the Troublesome ChildTechnology and the Good Life?TestimonyText and Materials on International Human RightsThe Aims of Higher EducationThe Almost MoonThe Altruistic BrainThe American Psychiatric Publishing Textbook of Forensic PsychiatryThe Animal ManifestoThe Animals' AgendaThe Art of LivingThe Autonomy of MoralityThe Beloved SelfThe Best Things in LifeThe Big FixThe Bioethics ReaderThe Biology and Psychology of Moral AgencyThe Blackwell Guide to Medical EthicsThe Body SilentThe BondThe Book of LifeThe Burden of SympathyThe Cambridge Companion to Virtue EthicsThe Cambridge Companion to Virtue EthicsThe Cambridge Textbook of BioethicsThe Case against Assisted SuicideThe Case Against PerfectionThe Case Against PunishmentThe Case for PerfectionThe Case of Terri SchiavoThe Challenge of Human RightsThe Code for Global EthicsThe Colonization Of Psychic SpaceThe Commercialization of Intimate LifeThe Common ThreadThe Connected SelfThe Constitution of AgencyThe Creation of PsychopharmacologyThe Criminal BrainThe Decency WarsThe Difficult-to-Treat Psychiatric PatientThe Disability PendulumThe Disability Rights Movement: From Charity to ConfrontationThe Domain of ReasonsThe Double-Edged HelixThe Duty to ProtectThe Emotional Construction of MoralsThe End of Ethics in a Technological SocietyThe End of Stigma?The Essentials of New York Mental Health LawThe Ethical BrainThe Ethical Dimensions of the Biological and Health SciencesThe Ethics of BioethicsThe Ethics of Choosing ChildrenThe Ethics of Human EnhancementThe Ethics of ParenthoodThe Ethics of SightseeingThe Ethics of the FamilyThe Ethics of the Family in SenecaThe Ethics of the LieThe Ethics of TransplantsThe Ethics of WarThe Ethics ToolkitThe Evolution of Mental Health LawThe Evolution of MoralityThe FamilyThe Fat Studies ReaderThe Forgiveness ProjectThe Form of Practical KnowledgeThe Fountain of YouthThe Freedom ParadoxThe Future of Assisted Suicide and EuthanasiaThe Future of Human NatureThe Good BookThe Good LifeThe Great BetrayalThe Handbook of Disability StudiesThe Healing VirtuesThe High Price of MaterialismThe History of Human RightsThe HorizonThe Idea of JusticeThe Ideal of NatureThe Illusion of Freedom and EqualityThe Immortal Life of Henrietta LacksThe Importance of Being UnderstoodThe Insanity OffenseThe Joy of SecularismThe Language PoliceThe Last Normal ChildThe Last UtopiaThe Limits of MedicineThe LobotomistThe Love CureThe Lucifer EffectThe Manual of EpictetusThe Mark of ShameThe Meaning of NiceThe Medicalization of SocietyThe Merck DruggernautThe Mind Has MountainsThe Modern Art of DyingThe Modern SavageThe Moral ArcThe Moral BrainThe Moral Demands of MemoryThe Moral FoolThe Moral MindThe Moral Psychology HandbookThe Moral Punishment Instinct The Moral, Social, and Commercial Imperatives of Genetic Testing and ScreeningThe Most Good You Can DoThe Myth of ChoiceThe Myth of the Moral BrainThe Nature of NormativityThe New Disability HistoryThe New Genetic MedicineThe New Religious IntoleranceThe Offensive InternetThe Origins of FairnessThe Oxford Handbook of Animal EthicsThe Oxford Handbook of Ethics at the End of LifeThe Perfect BabyThe Philosophical ParentThe Philosophy of NeedThe Philosophy of PornographyThe Philosophy of PsychiatryThe Politics Of LustThe Portable Ethicist for Mental Health Professionals The Power of Religion in the Public SphereThe Price of PerfectionThe Price of TruthThe Problem of PunishmentThe Prosthetic ImpulseThe Psychology of Good and EvilThe Psychology of Good and EvilThe PsychopathThe Purity MythThe Pursuit of PerfectionThe Relevance of Philosophy to LifeThe Right Road to Radical FreedomThe Right to Be ParentsThe Righteous MindThe Root of All EvilThe Routledge Handbook of Philosophy of Animal MindsThe Routledge Handbook of Philosophy of EmpathyThe Rules of InsanityThe Second SexismThe Second-Person StandpointThe Silent World of Doctor and PatientThe Sleep of ReasonThe Social Psychology of Good and EvilThe Social Psychology of MoralityThe Social Psychology of MoralityThe Speed of DarkThe Stem Cell ControversyThe Stem Cell ControversyThe Story of Cruel and UnusualThe Story WithinThe Stubborn System of Moral ResponsibilityThe Suicide TouristThe Terrible GiftThe Theory of OptionsThe Therapy of DesireThe Trauma of Psychological TortureThe Trauma of Psychological TortureThe Triple HelixThe Trolley Problem MysteriesThe Trouble with DiversityThe Truth About the Drug CompaniesThe Ugly LawsThe Varieties of Religious ExperienceThe Virtue of Defiance and Psychiatric EngagementThe Virtues of FreedomThe Virtues of HappinessThe Virtuous Life in Greek EthicsThe Virtuous PsychiatristThe Voice of Breast Cancer in Medicine and BioethicsThe War Against BoysThe War for Children's MindsThe Whole ChildThe Woman RacketThe Worldwide Practice of TortureTherapy with ChildrenThieves of VirtueThree Generations, No ImbecilesTimes of Triumph, Times of DoubtTolerance Among The VirtuesTolerance and the Ethical LifeTolerationToxic PsychiatryTrauma, Truth and ReconciliationTreatment Kind and FairTrusting on the EdgeTry to RememberUltimate JudgementUnborn in the USA: Inside the War on AbortionUndermining ScienceUnderstanding AbortionUnderstanding CloningUnderstanding EmotionsUnderstanding EvilUnderstanding Kant's EthicsUnderstanding Moral ObligationUnderstanding Physician-Pharmaceutical Industry InteractionsUnderstanding TerrorismUnderstanding the GenomeUnderstanding the Stigma of Mental IllnessUnderstanding Treatment Without ConsentUnhingedUnprincipled VirtueUnsanctifying Human Life: Essays on EthicsUnspeakable Acts, Ordinary PeopleUp in FlamesUpheavals of ThoughtUsers and Abusers of PsychiatryValue-Free Science?Values and Psychiatric DiagnosisValues in ConflictVegetarianismViolence and Mental DisorderVirtue EthicsVirtue, Rules, and JusticeVirtue, Vice, and PersonalityVirtues and Their VicesVoracious Science and Vulnerable AnimalsVulnerability, Autonomy, and Applied EthicsWar Against the WeakWar, Torture and TerrorismWarrior's DishonourWeaknessWelfare and Rational CareWhat Genes Can't DoWhat Have We DoneWhat Is a Human?What Is Good and WhyWhat Is Good and WhyWhat Is the Good Life?What Price Better Health?What Should I Do?What We Owe to Each OtherWhat Would Aristotle Do?What's Good on TVWhat's Normal?What's Wrong with Children's RightsWhat's Wrong with Homosexuality?What's Wrong With Morality?When Is Discrimination Wrong?Who Holds the Moral High Ground?Who Owns YouWho Qualifies for Rights?Whose America?Whose View of Life?Why Animals MatterWhy Animals MatterWhy I Burned My Book and Other Essays on DisabilityWhy Not Kill Them All?Why Punish? How Much?Why Some Things Should Not Be for SaleWisdom, Intuition and EthicsWithout ConscienceWomen and Borderline Personality DisorderWomen and MadnessWondergenesWould You Kill the Fat Man?Wrestling with Behavioral GeneticsWriting About PatientsYou Must Be DreamingYour Genetic DestinyYour Inner FishYouth Offending and Youth Justice Yuck!
Nearly every essay in the dozen
that make up this collection sheds genuinely fresh light on some aspect of the "confidential
relationships" referred to in the volume's title, namely, the confidential
relationships between psychotherapist and patient (or client). With sometimes
complementary, sometimes contradictory perspectives, the contributing
psychoanalysts, philosophers, and law professors engage the reader and each
other in a fascinating and thought-provoking conversation on the meaning,
scope, and significance of psychotherapist-patient confidentiality.
At a time when confidential
relationships (at least in North America), including but not limited to
therapist-patient relationships, are under attack from the legal system, the
health-care-industrial complex, and perhaps our confessional "therapeutic
culture" itself, this book comes as a needed antidote -- a multifaceted,
multidisciplinary exploration of the value, meaning, and even the cost of
Part One, "Introduction,"
contains a single brief essay by the book's three editors, Charles Levin,
Christine M. Koggel, and Allannah Furlong, called "Questions and Themes"
(Chapter One), which needlessly attempts to justify the presence of twelve
seemingly disparate essays in a single volume. In fact, its heterogeneity is
the book's greatest strength -- the unexpected, unscripted connections
generated by juxtapositions of "orthodox" psychoanalytic theory,
policy analysis of challenges to confidentiality deriving from medical
insurance databases, and feminist critiques of defendants' access to sexual
assault complainants' therapy records (to name just a few of the essay topics),
are more valuable than any links spoon-fed to us by the editors.
Part Two, "Psychoanalysis," contains
two of the very best essays in the book. R.D. Hinshelwood's contribution, "A
Psychoanalytic Perspective on Confidentiality: The Divided Mind in Treatment"
(Chapter Three), is especially excellent in its treatment of the nuanced and
complicated effects of disclosure (and even the possibility of
disclosure) on the analysis itself. After clearly articulating the
distinctiveness of the classic psychoanalyst-analysand relationship, in general
and with respect to confidentiality, Hinshelwood responds psychoanalytically,
rather than politically or legally, to the consequences of court-ordered disclosures,
addressing "psychodynamic aspects of confidentiality related to
psychoanalytic unconscious processes" (38). In discussing the patient who
may be a danger to himself or others, subpoenaed clinical notes, and relations
with lawyers, Hinshelwood critically examines not only the effects of
disclosure on the patient (and the analysis), but also the analyst's
motivations and reasons for disclosure.
Jacques Mauger's very brief
contribution, "Public, Private…" (Chapter Four) continues this
attention to the analyst, and is richly provocative about the "weight"
of transference and the pressures toward disclosure inevitably created, as it
were, by the cumulative force of all that is disclosed to the analyst, not only
about the individual patient, but in an almost Jungian way. Building on the
ideas that "[w]e [both analyst and analysand] always say more than we
intend" (53), and "the impossibility of containing -- or, for some
analysts, the excessive containment of -- this compulsive dimension of human
experience" (namely, transference) (57), he suggests, albeit abstractly,
that at least some forms of "disclosure" by analysts (such as the
presentation of case studies, or supervision of analysts-in-training) "is
thus not really a 'release valve' of transference overflow….[but] rather a 'return
to sender' of information that by its nature transcends individual existence"
(58). He suggests that communication of "the unconscious transindividual
content" (59) of analysis, "the human reality which lies beyond
individuality" (60), may be a "necessary violence" (59),
necessary for the analyst, for the practice of analysis itself, and for the
larger project of understanding human nature in which psychoanalysis plays such
a unique part.
The bulk of Part Three, "Ethics,"
is devoted to discussions of the Canadian Supreme Court decisions that have
given (male) criminal defendants in sexual assault cases access to the
psychotherapeutic records of (female) complainants as part of the criminal
defendants' right to a "full answer and defense." Notwithstanding
the rather general title of her contribution, "Confidentiality in the
Liberal Tradition: A Relational Critique" (Chapter Seven), editor Koggel
presents a narrow but penetrating feminist critique of this Canadian law. Her
essay also provides a clear introduction and sketch of "relational theory"
as a feminist ethics, including the significance of "private relationships"
and the sources of political inequality. In defending privacy rights as part
of an equalitarian politics, she writes, "Because the therapeutic
relationship would be viewed as a vehicle for addressing inequalities in the
private lives of its citizens, state protection of privacy would be understood
as promoting equality" (117).
Chapter Eight, "Sexual
Inequality and the Crisis of Confidentiality: The Myth and the Law on Personal
Records," by Margaret Denike, places the requirement to produce therapy
records in sexual assault cases squarely within the history of women's
sexuality and the criminal prosecution of sexual assault, illuminating how
traditional notions of privacy both derive from and entrench sexual
Chapter Nine, "Relational
Remembering: Suggestibility and Women's Confidential Records," by Sue
Campbell, rounds out this feminist analysis, placing "false memory
syndrome" in psycho-historico-legal context as a direct descendant of
hysterical pathology and concerns over hypnosis and the purported excessive
suggestibility of women. This essay also includes valuable contemporary
political and legal history relating to the False Memory Syndrome Foundation
and its role in changing Canadian law. Campbell's piece is not really about
confidentiality per se, but rather defends the therapeutic context as
one that is not necessarily "contaminating" to memory, once "remembering"
is properly seen as a social practice, not simply a physiological phenomonen --
"memory" -- testable in the laboratory.
Part Four, "Law,"
contains the sole essay devoted exclusively to U.S. law, "Psychotherapist-Patient
Privilege: The History and Significance of the United States Supreme Court's
Decision in the Case of Jaffee v. Redmond," (Chapter Ten), by Paul
Mosher, one of America's leading experts on this case and the
psychotherapist-patient privilege under U.S. law. The essay is tremendously
useful for lawyers, therapists, students of either profession, and those who
belong to neither, in placing this privilege both in the context of the other
familiar testimonial privileges in American law and in situating the
development of the privilege alongside the development of the various forms of
psychoanalysis, psychotherapy, and counseling currently practiced. Its concise
recounting of the relevant history, and its legal precision without unnecessary
technical jargon, make this essay a valuable addition to the literature on
testimonial privileges, significant both in professional ethics and in the law
Karen Busby's "Responding to
Defense Demands for Clients' Records in Sexual Violence Cases: Some Guidance
For Record Keepers" (Chapter Eleven) is an empirical demonstration of a
familiar argument advanced in defense of attorney-client privilege -- namely,
that if the communications will not be kept confidential, the "evidence"
later sought in the judicial process will never come into being. Busby
actually lays out, in the context of Canadian law, the evolving thinking about
whether "counselors and therapists should alter their record making and
retention policies in light of the continuing uncertainty about when the
defense (and therefore the defendant himself) can obtain possession of a
complainant's records" (208). She addresses whether counselors have any
obligation to keep records (and hence to "create evidence" (208)),
whether counselors should stop keeping records, and what can be done "to
minimize the impact of their records in criminal proceedings" (208). This
essay goes well beyond the theoretical, in presenting the quite practical
consequences for psychotherapeutic practice of changes in the law of
confidentiality regarding the records created in that setting.
While Busby's contribution seems
most closely related to the three essays on Canadian law found in Part Three,
certain chapters from elsewhere in the book really belong in the "Law"
section. For example, "The Questionable Contribution of Psychotherapeutic
and Psychoanalytic Records to the Truth-Seeking Process" (Chapter Two),
editor Furlong's contribution, presents several important arguments in defense
of a robust therapist-patient testimonial privilege, in the context of Canadian
law. The basis of her argument is that "established legal avenues for
determining relevance and probative value are unsuitable when applied to
psychotherapeutic or psychoanalytic documents" (14). For American
lawyers, one of her more interesting suggestions involves assimilating
therapist-patient privilege not to doctor-patient privilege (as Chapter One
implies) but to what is known in Canada as "the privilege of the
deliberative process" (20) and in the U.S. as the "self-evaluative"
or "self-critical analysis" privilege, which has begun to gain
acceptance in some U.S. states.
"Welcoming Big Brother: The
Malaise of Confidentiality in The Therapeutic Culture" (Chapter Five),
editor Charles Levin and Christine Ury's contribution, is not in fact about
therapist-patient confidentiality at all -- the "Big Brother" of the
title is not George Orwell's creation but the television program of the same
name, and the "therapeutic culture" is actually counterposed to the
private, one-on-one character of actual therapy. After breaking through the
hard shell of obligatory Foucault references, the reader is treated to the
soft, chewy center -- a quite fascinating discussion of the exhibitionistic,
confessional, and self-disclosive strands in contemporary culture, especially
televised popular culture, which constitutes a counter-trend to any rising
concerns about protecting the confidentiality of personal information in the
psychotherapeutic context or elsewhere.
"The Moral Framework of
Confidentiality and the Electronic Panopticon" (Chapter Six), by Michael Yeo
and Andrew Brook, ambitiously tries to identify and describe what the authors
call the "traditional" and "emerging" views of
confidentiality; provide empirical details about "the information revolution
currently going on in health care" (110) and its consequences for
confidentiality; and also situate these views in the context of political and
moral philosophy more generally. After reading this essay it is clear that no
discussion of confidentiality can meaningfully be carried on without reference
to the legal and technological dimensions of the management of health care data
today, and the institutional imperatives created by ever-growing databases,
regardless of whether one defends privacy rights in a "deontological"
or Kantian way, or criticizes contemporary health care policy as thoroughgoingly
utilitarian (or better, consequentialist). It should be noted that this essay,
like the preceding one, contains very little discussion specifically directed
to psychotherapist-patient confidentiality (and that feels a bit "tacked-on");
most of what the authors have to say applies to all medical privacy issues
generally. This is not necessarily a problem; only this book's other superb
analyses of the uniqueness of the psychotherapeutic context make the failure to
distinguish medical doctor-patient from therapist-patient confidentiality loom
Finally, Nathalie Des Rosiers' "Confidentiality,
Human Relationships, and Law Reform" (Chapter Twelve) is one of the few
disappointments in the book, perhaps due to an infelicitous translation from
French that creates an impression of imprecision. It is hard to know how to
take statements such as, "expressed aspirations of confidentiality should
be considered like any other promise made" (238), when the party
expressing such "aspirations" is obviously seeking to extract,
not to make, a promise. Similarly, no careful distinction is made
between confidentiality, secrecy, privacy, loyalty, and trust -- all important,
but surely not interchangeable. Her account of the Law Commission of Canada's "'relationship'
approach" to law reform (230) seems unfortunately beholden to a kind of psychologized
politics-by-slogan, in which the goal of "official law" is to
stimulate "healthy and productive relationships" (232) based on "respect
for the human capacity to self-regulate" (232) while simultaneously "recognizing
other needs such as acknowledgment of the wrong done, accountability, and
commitment toward a strategy of prevention" (233). While she is surely
correct that "relationships rooted in trust are essential to human
development" (236), the relevance of this very general psychological claim
to the proper legal scope of therapist-patient confidentiality is severely
All in all, though, nearly every
essay in the book contains some fact or theoretical insight about confidential
relationships -- psychotherapeutic and otherwise -- for which professionals and
non-professionals alike will be grateful.
© 2004 Diane J. Kein
Klein, J.D. (UCLA School of Law), Ph.D. candidate (philosophy) (U.C. Berkeley),
is Associate Professor of Law at Albany Law School, Union University, Albany,
New York. Her philosophical areas of interest include virtue ethics and
moral theory; her areas of legal scholarship include professional
responsibility, race and gender, and trusts and estates.