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A Theory of Feelings Anger and Forgiveness"My Madness Saved Me"10 Good Questions about Life and Death12 Modern Philosophers50 Reasons People Give for Believing in a GodA Cabinet of Philosophical CuriositiesA Case for IronyA Companion to BioethicsA Companion to Buddhist PhilosophyA Companion to FoucaultA Companion to GenethicsA Companion to GenethicsA Companion to HumeA Companion to KantA Companion to Phenomenology and ExistentialismA Companion to PragmatismA Companion to the Philosophy of ActionA Companion to the Philosophy of BiologyA Companion to the Philosophy of LiteratureA Conceptual History of PsychologyA Critical Overview of Biological FunctionsA Critique of Naturalistic Philosophies of MindA Cursing Brain?A Delicate BalanceA Farewell to AlmsA Fragile LifeA Frightening LoveA Future for PresentismA Guide to the Good LifeA History of PsychiatryA History of the MindA Life Worth LivingA Manual of Experimental PhilosophyA Map of the MindA Metaphysics of PsychopathologyA Mind So RareA Natural History of Human MoralityA Natural History of Human ThinkingA Natural History of VisionA Parliament of MindsA Philosopher Looks at The Sense of HumorA Philosophical DiseaseA Philosophy of BoredomA Philosophy of Cinematic ArtA Philosophy of CultureA Philosophy of EmptinessA Philosophy of FearA Philosophy of PainA Physicalist ManifestoA Place for ConsciousnessA Question of TrustA Research Agenda for DSM-VA Revolution of the MindA Sentimentalist Theory of the MindA Stroll With William JamesA Tapestry of ValuesA Tear is an Intellectual ThingA Theory of FreedomA Thousand MachinesA Universe of ConsciousnessA Very Bad WizardA Very Bad Wizard: Morality Behind the CurtainA Virtue EpistemologyA World Full of GodsA World Without ValuesAbout FaceAbout the Beginning of the Hermeneutics of the SelfAction and ResponsibilityAction in ContextAction Theory, Rationality and CompulsionAction, Contemplation, and HappinessAction, Emotion and WillAdam SmithAdaptive DynamicsAddictionAddictionAddiction and ResponsibilityAddiction Is a ChoiceAdvances in Identity Theory and ResearchAftermathAfterwarAgainst AdaptationAgainst AutonomyAgainst BioethicsAgainst HappinessAgainst HealthAgency and ActionAgency and AnswerabilityAgency and EmbodimentAgency and ResponsibilityAgency, Freedom, and Moral ResponsibilityAl-JununAlain BadiouAlain BadiouAlasdair MacIntyreAlien Landscapes?Altered EgosAn Anthology of Psychiatric EthicsAn Ethics for TodayAn Intellectual History of CannibalismAn Interpretation of DesireAn Introduction to EthicsAn Introduction to Kant's Moral Philosophy An Introduction to Philosophy of EducationAn Introduction to the Philosophy of MindAn Introduction to the Philosophy of MindAn Introduction to the Philosophy of PsychologyAn Introductory Philosophy of MedicineAn Odd Kind of FameAnalytic FreudAnalytic Philosophy in AmericaAncient AngerAncient Models of MindAncient Philosophy of the SelfAngerAnimal LessonsAnimal MindsAnimals Like UsAnnihilationAnother PlanetAnswers for AristotleAnti-ExternalismAnti-Individualism and KnowledgeAntigone’s ClaimAntipsychiatryAre We Hardwired?Are Women Human?Arguing about DisabilityArguing About Human NatureAristotle and the Philosophy of FriendshipAristotle on Practical WisdomAristotle's ChildrenAristotle's Ethics and Moral ResponsibilityAristotle, Emotions, and EducationArt & MoralityArt After Conceptual ArtArt in Three DimensionsArt, Self and KnowledgeArtificial ConsciousnessArtificial HappinessAspects of PsychologismAsylum to ActionAt the Existentialist CaféAtonement and ForgivenessAttention is Cognitive UnisonAutobiography as PhilosophyAutonomyAutonomy and Mental DisorderAutonomy and the Challenges to LiberalismBabies by DesignBackslidingBadiouBadiou's DeleuzeBadiou, Balibar, Ranciere: Rethinking EmancipationBare Facts And Naked TruthsBasic Desert, Reactive Attitudes and Free WillBattlestar Galactica and PhilosophyBe Like the FoxBeautyBecoming a SubjectBecoming HumanBefore ConsciousnessBehavingBehavioral Genetics in the Postgenomic EraBeing AmoralBeing HumanBeing Mentally Ill: A Sociological Theory Being No OneBeing Realistic about ReasonsBeing ReducedBeing YourselfBelief's Own EthicsBending Over BackwardsBerlin Childhood around 1900Bernard WilliamsBertrand RussellBetter than BothBetter Than WellBetween Two WorldsBeyond HealthBeyond Hegel and NietzscheBeyond KuhnBeyond LossBeyond MelancholyBeyond Moral JudgmentBeyond PostmodernismBeyond ReductionBeyond SchizophreniaBeyond the DSM StoryBioethicsBioethics and the BrainBioethics in the ClinicBiological Complexity and Integrative PluralismBiology Is TechnologyBiosBipolar ExpeditionsBlackwell Companion to the Philosophy of EducationBlindsight & The Nature of ConsciousnessBlues - Philosophy for EveryoneBlushBob Dylan and PhilosophyBody ConsciousnessBody Image And Body SchemaBody ImagesBody LanguageBody MattersBody WorkBody-Subjects and Disordered MindsBoundBoundaries of the MindBoyleBrain Evolution and CognitionBrain FictionBrain, Mind, and Human Behavior in Contemporary Cognitive ScienceBrain-WiseBrainchildrenBrains, Buddhas, and BelievingBrainstormingBrave New WorldsBreakdown of WillBrief Child Therapy Homework PlannerBrief Inquiry into the Meaning of Sin and FaithBrief Therapy Homework PlannerBritain on the CouchBritish Idealism and the Concept of the SelfBrute RationalityBuffy the Vampire Slayer and PhilosophyBut Is It Art?Camus and SartreCartesian LinguisticsCartographies of the MindCarving Nature at Its JointsCase Studies in Biomedical Research EthicsCassandra's DaughterCato's TearsCausation and CounterfactualsCauses, Laws, and Free WillChanging Conceptions of the Child from the Renaissance to Post-ModernityChanging the SubjectChaosophyCharacter and Moral Psychology Character as Moral FictionCharles DarwinCherishmentChildhood and the Philosophy of EducationChildrenChildren, Families, and Health Care Decision MakingChoices and ConflictChoosing Not to ChooseChristmas - Philosophy for EveryoneCinema, Philosophy, BergmanCinematic MythmakingCity and Soul in Plato's RepublicClassifying MadnessClear and Queer ThinkingClinical EthicsClinical Psychiatry in Imperial GermanyCodependent ForevermoreCoffee - Philosophy for EveryoneCognition and the BrainCognition of Value in Aristotle's EthicsCognition Through Understanding: Self-Knowledge, Interlocution, Reasoning, ReflectionCognitive BiologyCognitive FictionsCognitive Neuroscience of EmotionCognitive Systems and the Extended MindCognitive Systems and the Extended Mind Cognitive Theories of Mental IllnessCoherence in Thought and ActionCollected Papers, Volume 1Collected Papers, Volume 2College SexComedy IncarnateCommitmentCommunicative Action and Rational ChoiceCompetence, Condemnation, and CommitmentConcealment And ExposureConceptual Analysis and Philosophical NaturalismConceptual Art and PaintingConceptual Issues in Evolutionary BiologyConfessionsConfucianismConnected, or What It Means to Live in the Network SocietyConquest of AbundanceConscience and ConvenienceConsciousnessConsciousnessConsciousnessConsciousness ConsciousnessConsciousness and Its Place in NatureConsciousness and LanguageConsciousness and Mental LifeConsciousness and MindConsciousness and the NovelConsciousness and the SelfConsciousness EmergingConsciousness EvolvingConsciousness ExplainedConsciousness in ActionConsciousness RecoveredConsciousness RevisitedConsciousness, Color, and ContentConsole and ClassifyConstructing the WorldConstructive AnalysisContemporary Debates In Applied EthicsContemporary Debates in Moral TheoryContemporary Debates in Philosophy of BiologyContemporary Debates in Philosophy of MindContemporary Debates in Political PhilosophyContemporary Debates in Social PhilosophyContemporary Perspectives on Natural LawContested Knowledge: Social Theory TodayContesting PsychiatryContext and the AttitudesContinental Philosophy of ScienceControlControlling Our DestiniesConversations About Psychology and Sexual OrientationCopernicus, Darwin and FreudCrazy for YouCreating a Life of Meaning and CompassionCreating ConsilienceCreating HysteriaCreating Mental IllnessCreating Scientific ConceptsCreating the American JunkieCreation, Rationality and AutonomyCreatures Like Us?Crime and CulpabilityCrime, Punishment, and Mental IllnessCrimes of ReasonCritical New Perspectives on Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity DisorderCritical PsychiatryCritical PsychologyCritical ResistanceCritical Thinking About PsychologyCritical VisionsCross and KhoraCruel CompassionCTRL [SPACE]Cultural Psychology of the SelfCultural Theory: An IntroductionCulture and Psychiatric DiagnosisCulture and Subjective Well-BeingCulture of DeathCultures of NeurastheniaCurious EmotionsCurrent Controversies in Experimental PhilosophyCurrent Controversies in Values and ScienceCustom and Reason in HumeCustomers and Patrons of the Mad-TradeCutting God in Half - And Putting the Pieces Together AgainCylons in AmericaDamaged IdentitiesDamasio's Error and Descartes' TruthDangerous EmotionsDaniel DennettDaniel DennettDark AgesDarwin and DesignDarwin's Dangerous IdeaDarwin's LegacyDarwin, God and the Meaning of LifeDarwinian PsychiatryDarwinian ReductionismDarwinizing CultureDating: Philosophy for EveryoneDeathDeathDeath and CharacterDeath and CompassionDeath and the AfterlifeDebating DesignDebating HumanismDecision Making, Personhood and DementiaDecomposing the WillDeconstructing PsychotherapyDeconstruction and DemocracyDeeper Than DarwinDeeper than ReasonDefending Science - within ReasonDefining Psychopathology in the 21st CenturyDegrees of BeliefDelusion and Self-DeceptionDelusions and Other Irrational BeliefsDelusions and the Madness of the MassesDementiaDemons, Dreamers, and MadmenDennett and Ricoeur on the Narrative SelfDennett’s PhilosophyDepression Is a ChoiceDepression, Emotion and the SelfDepthDerrida, Deleuze, PsychoanalysisDescartesDescartes and the Passionate MindDescartes' CogitoDescartes's Changing MindDescartes's Concept of MindDescribing Inner Experience?Descriptions and PrescriptionsDesembodied Spirits and Deanimated Bodies Desert Islands and Other Texts (1953-1974)Desire and AffectDesire, Love, and IdentityDesire, Practical Reason, and the GoodDeveloping the VirtuesDiagnosing the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental DisordersDialectics of the SelfDid My Neurons Make Me Do It?Difference and IdentityDigital SoulDimensional Models of Personality DisordersDisability, Difference, DiscriminationDisjunctivismDisorders of VolitionDisorientation and Moral LifeDispatches from the Freud WarsDisrupted LivesDistractionDisturbed ConsciousnessDivided Minds and Successive SelvesDo Apes Read Minds?Do Fish Feel Pain?Do We Still Need Doctors?Does Consciousness Cause Behavior?Does the Woman Exist?Doing without ConceptsDon't Believe Everything You ThinkDonald DavidsonDonald Davidson on Truth, Meaning, and the MentalDoubting Darwin?Dreaming and Other Involuntary MentationDSM-IV SourcebookDSM-IV SourcebookDSM-IV-TR CasebookDworkin and His CriticsDying to KnowDynamics in ActionDysthymia and the Spectrum of Chronic DepressionsEccentricsEducational MetamorphosesEffective IntentionsElbow Room: The Varieties of Free Will Worth WantingEmbodied Minds in ActionEmbodied RhetoricsEmbodied Selves and Divided MindsEmbryos under the MicroscopeEmergencies in Mental Health PracticeEmerging Conceptual, Ethical and Policy Issues in BionanotechnologyEmotionEmotion and ConsciousnessEmotion and PsycheEmotion ExperienceEmotion RegulationEmotion, Evolution, And RationalityEmotional IntelligenceEmotional ReasonEmotional ReasonEmotional TruthEmotions in Humans and ArtifactsEmotions in the Moral LifeEmotions in the Moral LifeEmotions, Value, and AgencyEmpathyEmpathy and AgencyEmpathy and Moral DevelopmentEmpathy and MoralityEmpathy in the Context of PhilosophyEmpirical Ethics in PsychiatryEnchanted LoomsEngaging BuddhismEngineering the Human GermlineEnjoymentEnvyEpicureanismEpistemic LuckEpistemologyEpistemology and EmotionsEpistemology and the Psychology of Human JudgmentEros and the GoodErotic MoralityEssays in Social NeuroscienceEssays in the Metaphysics of Mind Essays on Derek Parfit's On What MattersEssays on Free Will and Moral ResponsibilityEssays on Nonconceptual ContentEssays on Philosophical CounselingEssays on Reference, Language, and MindEssays on the Concept of Mind in Early-Modern PhilosophyEssential Sources in the Scientific Study of ConsciousnessEsssential Philosophy of PsychiatryEternal Sunshine of the Spotless MindEthical Conflicts in PsychologyEthical Issues in Forensic Mental Health ResearchEthical Issues in Human CloningEthical TheoryEthicsEthicsEthics and the A PrioriEthics and the Metaphysics of MedicineEthics and Values in PsychotherapyEthics Done RightEthics ExpertiseEthics in Plain EnglishEthics in PracticeEthics in Psychiatric ResearchEthics of PsychiatryEthics without OntologyEuropean Review of Philosophy. Vol. 5Everyday IrrationalityEvil in Modern ThoughtEvolutionEvolution and the Human MindEvolution's RainbowEvolutionary Origins of MoralityEvolutionary PsychologyExamined LifeExamined LivesExistential AmericaExistentialismExistentialism and Romantic LoveExperimental PhilosophyExperimental PhilosophyExperimental PhilosophyExperimental Philosophy, Rationalism, and NaturalismExperiments in EthicsExplaining ConsciousnessExplaining the BrainExplaining the Computational MindExplanatory PluralismExploding the Gene MythExploring HappinessExploring the SelfExpression and the InnerExpressions of JudgmentExtraordinary Science and PsychiatryFaces of IntentionFact and ValueFact and Value in EmotionFacts, Values, and NormsFads and Fallacies in the Social SciencesFaith and Wisdom in ScienceFatherhoodFear of KnowledgeFearless SpeechFeeling Pain and Being in PainFeelings and EmotionsFeelings of BeingFellow-Feeling and the Moral LifeFeminism and Its DiscontentsFeminism and Philosophy of ScienceFeminist Ethics and Social and Political PhilosophyFeminist Interpretations of Rene DescartesFeminist TheoryField Notes from ElsewhereFinding Consciousness in the BrainFingerprints of GodFlesh in the Age of ReasonFolk Psychological NarrativesFolk Psychology Re-AssessedForces of HabitForgivenessForgiveness and LoveForgiveness and RetributionFoucault 2.0Foucault and PhilosophyFoucault NowFoucault, Psychology and the Analytics of PowerFoundational Issues in Human Brain MappingFoundations of Ethical Practice, Research, and Teaching in PsychologyFour Views on Free WillFrank Ramsey (1903-1930)Free WillFree WillFree WillFree WillFree Will and Action ExplanationFree Will and LuckFree Will And Moral ResponsibilityFree Will as an Open Scientific ProblemFree Will, Agency, and Meaning in LifeFree: Why Science Hasn't Disproved Free WillFreedomFreedom and DeterminismFreedom And NeurobiologyFreedom and ResponsibiltyFreedom and ValueFreedom EvolvesFreedom RegainedFreedom vs. InterventionFreedom, Fame, Lying, and BetrayalFreudFreud and the Question of PseudoscienceFreud As PhilosopherFreud's AnswerFreud, the Reluctant PhilosopherFriedrich NietzscheFrom Chance to ChoiceFrom Clinic to ClassroomFrom Complexity to LifeFrom Enlightenment to ReceptivityFrom Knowledge to Wisdom: A Revolution for Science and the HumanitiesFrom Morality to Mental HealthFrom Passions to EmotionsFrom Philosophy to PsychotherapyFrom Valuing to ValueFrontiers of ConsciousnessFrontiers of JusticeFurnishing the MindGalileo in PittsburghGenderGender and Mental HealthGender in the MirrorGender TroubleGenesGenes, Women, EqualityGenetic Nature/CultureGenetic ProspectsGenetic ProspectsGenetic SecretsGenocide's AftermathGenomes and What to Make of ThemGerman Idealism and the JewGerman PhilosophyGetting HookedGilles DeleuzeGlobal PhilosophyGluttonyGod and Phenomenal ConsciousnessGoffman's LegacyGoing Amiss in Experimental ResearchGoodness & AdviceGrassroots SpiritualityGrave MattersGrave MattersGreedGreek Models of Mind and SelfGut ReactionsHabilitation, Health, and AgencyHabits of MindHallucinationHandbook of BioethicsHandbook of EmotionsHappinessHappinessHappinessHappinessHappiness and EducationHappiness and the Good LifeHappiness Is OverratedHappiness, Death, and the Remainder of LifeHard LuckHarmful ThoughtsHaving the World in ViewHealing PsychiatryHealing the Soul in the Age of the BrainHealth, Illness and DiseaseHealth, Science, and Ordinary LanguageHegelHeidegger and a Metaphysics of FeelingHeidegger, Metaphysics and the Univocity of BeingHermann von Helmholtz's MechanismHermeneutics As PoliticsHeterophobiaHeterosyncraciesHeuristics and BiasesHeuristics and the LawHidden ResourcesHidden SelvesHiding from HumanityHigh Art LiteHistorical OntologyHistory of Psychiatry and Medical PsychologyHistory, Historicity And ScienceHobbesHomosexualitiesHope and Dread in PsychoanalysisHot ThoughtHow Can I Be Trusted?How Can the Human Mind Occur in the Physical Universe?How Children Learn the Meanings of WordsHow Could Conscious Experiences Affect Brains?How Do We Know Who We Are?How Emotions WorkHow Emotions WorkHow History Made the MindHow Images ThinkHow is Nature Possible?How Propaganda WorksHow Science WorksHow Scientific Practices MatterHow Scientists Explain DiseaseHow The Body Shapes The MindHow the Body Shapes the Way We ThinkHow the Mind Explains BehaviorHow the Mind Uses the BrainHow to Make Opportunity EqualHow to Solve the Mind-Body Problemhow to stop timeHow to Think More About SexHow We HopeHow We ReasonHuman CloningHuman Development, Language and the Future of MankindHuman EnhancementHuman Evolution, Reproduction, and MoralityHuman GoodnessHuman Identity and BioethicsHuman NatureHuman NatureHuman Nature and the Limits of ScienceHuman-Built WorldHumanismHumanism, What's That?HumanityHumans, Animals, MachinesHumeHumeHume on Motivation and VirtueHusserlHystoriesI of the VortexI Was WrongIdeas that MatterIdentifying the MindIdentity and Agency in Cultural WorldsIgnorance and ImaginationIllnessImagination and Its PathologiesImagination and the Meaningful BrainImagining NumbersImmortal RemainsImproving Nature?In Defense of an Evolutionary Concept of HealthIn Defense of SentimentalityIn Love With LifeIn Praise of Athletic BeautyIn Praise of Natural PhilosophyIn Praise of the WhipIn Pursuit of HappinessIn Search of HappinessIn the Name of GodIn the Name of IdentityIn the Space of ReasonsIn the SwarmIn Two MindsInclusive EthicsIncompatibilism's AllureIndividual Differences in Conscious ExperienceInfinity and PerspectiveInformation ArtsInformed Consent in Medical ResearchIngmar Bergman, Cinematic PhilosopherInhuman ThoughtsInner PresenceInsanityIntegrating Psychotherapy and PharmacotherapyIntegrity and the Fragile SelfIntelligent VirtueIntentionIntentionality, Deliberation and AutonomyIntentions and IntentionalityIntentions and IntentionalityInterpreting MindsInterpreting NietzscheIntroducing Greek PhilosophyIntrospection and ConsciousnessIntrospection VindicatedIntuition, Imagination, and Philosophical MethodologyIntuitionismInvestigating the Psychological WorldIrrationalityIrrationalityIs Academic Feminism Dead?Is It Me or My Meds?Is Long-Term Therapy Unethical?Is Oedipus Online?Is Science Neurotic?Is Science Value Free?Is the Visual World a Grand Illusion?Is There a Duty to Die?Issues in Philosophical CounselingJacques LacanJacques RancièreJacques RanciereJean-Paul SartreJohn McDowellJohn SearleJohn Searle's Ideas About Social RealityJohn Stuart MillJohn Stuart Mill and the Writing of CharacterJoint AttentionJokesJonathan EdwardsJudging and UnderstandingJustice for ChildrenJustice in RobesJustice, Luck, and KnowledgeKantKant and MiltonKant and the Fate of AutonomyKant and the Limits of AutonomyKant and the Role of Pleasure in Moral ActionKant on Freedom, Law, and HappinessKant on Moral AutonomyKant's Anatomy of EvilKant's Anatomy of the Intelligent MindKant's Theory of VirtueKarl JaspersKarl PopperKey Concepts in PhilosophyKierkegaardKierkegaard as PhenomenologistKierkegaard's Concept of DespairKierkegaard's MuseKinds of MindsKinds, Things, and StuffKnowing, Knowledge and BeliefsKnowledge MonopoliesKnowledge, Belief, and CharacterKnowledge, Possibility, and ConsciousnessLacanLack of CharacterLack of CharacterLanguageLanguage in ContextLanguage, Consciousness, CultureLanguage, Culture, and MindLanguage, Vision, and MusicLaw and the BrainLaw, Liberty, and PsychiatryLaws, Mind, and Free WillLeaving YouLectures on the History of Political PhilosophyLevelling the Playing FieldLiberal Education in a Knowledge SocietyLiberatory PsychiatryLife and ActionLife at the Texas State Lunatic Asylum, 1857-1997Life Is Not a Game of PerfectLife of the MindLife's FormLife, Death, & MeaningLife, Death, and Meaning: Key Philosophical Readings on the Big Questions Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of UtilityLife, Sex, and IdeasLight in the Dark RoomLike a Splinter in Your MindLiving and Dying WellLiving NarrativeLiving Outside Mental IllnessLiving with DarwinLiving With One’s PastLockeLocke LockeLogic and the Art of Memory Loneliness in Philosophy, Psychology, and LiteratureLooking for SpinozaLooking for The StrangerLost SoulsLOT 2LoveLoveLove's ConfusionsLove's VisionLove, Friendship, and the SelfLove, Sex & TragedyLuckyLudwig WittgensteinLustLyingMachine ConsciousnessMad for FoucaultMad TravelersMade with WordsMadness And Death In PhilosophyMadness and DemocracyMadness at HomeMadness Is CivilizationMaking Natural KnowledgeMaking Sense of EvolutionMaking Sense of Freedom and ResponsibilityMaking the DSM-5Making the Social WorldMaking TruthMale Female EmailMan, Beast, and ZombieMandated Reporting of Suspected Child AbuseManiaManic Depression and CreativityMapping the Edges and the In-betweenMapping the Future of BiologyMarcus AureliusMaster PassionsMatters of the MindMe++Meaning and Moral OrderMeaning and Value in a Secular AgeMeaning in LifeMeaning in Life and Why It MattersMeaning, Basic Self-Knowledge, and MindMeanings of ArtMeasuring HappinessMeasuring PsychopathologyMedia MadnessMedical Enhancement and PosthumanityMedicine and Philosophy in Classical AntiquityMedicine of the PersonMedicine, Mental Health, Religion, Science and Well-BeingMelancholy And the Care of the SoulMelancholy and the Otherness of GodMementoMemory and NarrativeMental ActionsMental CausationMental Causation and OntologyMental HealthMental Health At The CrossroadsMental Health Policy in BritainMerit, Meaning, and Human BondageMerleau-PontyMerleau-Ponty and the Possibilities of PhilosophyMetacognition and Theory of MindMetacreationMetaethical SubjectivismMetaethicsMetal and FleshMetaphors of MemoryMetapoliticsMethods in MindMichel FoucaultMill's UtilitarianismMindMindMind and ConsciousnessMind and CosmosMind and MechanismMind GamesMind in a Physical WorldMind in Everyday Life and Cognitive ScienceMind in LifeMind TimeMind's LandscapeMind, Brain and the Elusive SoulMind, Brain, and Free WillMind, Reason and ImaginationMinding MindsMindreadersMindreading AnimalsMinds and PersonsMinds, Brains, and LawMinds, Ethics, and ConditionalsMindshapingMindsightMindworldsMirror, MirrorMixed FeelingsMockingbird YearsModels of the SelfModern Social ImaginariesModern Theories of JusticeModernity and SubjectivityModernity and TechnologyMoody Minds DistemperedMoral BrainsMoral DimensionsMoral FailureMoral ImaginationMoral LiteracyMoral MachinesMoral ParticularismMoral PsychologyMoral Psychology and Human AgencyMoral Psychology, Volume 1Moral Psychology, Volume 2Moral Psychology, Volume 3Moral Psychology: Volume IVMoral RepairMoral Responsibility and Alternative PossibilitiesMoral TribesMoral Value and Human DiversityMorality and Self-InterestMorality in a Natural WorldMorality, Moral Luck and ResponsibilityMotherhoodMotive and RightnessMoving Beyond Prozac, DSM, and the New PsychiatryMultiple Analogies in Science and PhilosophyMultiple Identities & False MemoriesMusic, Madness, and the Unworking of LanguageMy Brain Made Me Do ItMy Double UnveiledMy WayNarrativeNarrative and IdentityNarrative MedicineNarrative PsychiatryNarrative Theory and the Cognitive SciencesNatural Ethical FactsNatural Kinds and Conceptual ChangeNatural MindsNatural-Born CybogsNaturalism and the First-Person PerspectiveNaturalism and the Human ConditionNaturalism in the Philosophy of HealthNaturalism in the Philosophy of HealthNaturalized BioethicsNaturalizing the MindNatureNature and NarrativeNear Death ExperienceNeither Bad nor MadNeither Victim nor SurvivorNeuro-Philosophy and the Healthy MindNeuroethicsNeuroethicsNeurological Foundations of Cognitive Neuroscience Neurophilosophy at WorkNeurophilosophy of Free WillNeuropoliticsNeuropsychoanalysis in PracticeNeuroscience and PhilosophyNew Essays on the Explanation of ActionNew Philosophy for a New MediaNew Versions of VictimsNew Waves in Philosophy of ActionNietzscheNietzsche and Buddhist PhilosophyNietzsche on Ethics and PoliticsNietzsche's TherapyNietzsche, Culture and EducationNietzsche: The Man and His PhilosophyNihil UnboundNoir AnxietyNormative EthicsNormativityNorms of NatureNotebooks 1951-1959Notes Toward a Performative Theory of AssemblyNothing So AbsurdOblivionOn AnxietyOn ApologyOn Being AuthenticOn Being AuthenticOn BeliefOn BetrayalOn BullshitOn DelusionOn DesireOn EmotionsOn HashishOn Human RightsOn Loving Our EnemiesOn Nature and LanguageOn PersonalityOn ReflectionOn Romantic LoveOn the EmotionsOn the Freud WatchOn the Government of the LivingOn the Human ConditionOn the InternetOn the Meaning of LifeOn the Philosophy of LawOn the Pragmatics of CommunicationOn the Punitive SocietyOn TruthOn Virtue EthicsOn What MattersOn What We Owe to Each OtherOne Hundred DaysOnflowOnly a Promise of HappinessOntology of ConsciousnessOpen MindedOpen Your EyesOrgans without BodiesOther MindsOur Last Great IllusionOur Own MindsOur Posthuman FutureOur StoriesOut of Its MindOut of Our HeadsOxford Guide to the MindOxford Handbook of Psychiatric EthicsOxford Textbook of Philosophy of PsychiatryPanic DisorderPanpsychismPanpsychism in the WestPartialityPassionate EnginesPassionate EnginesPathologies of BeliefPathologies of ReasonPatient Autonomy and the Ethics of ResponsibilityPC, M.D.Perceiving the WorldPerception & CognitionPerception and Basic BeliefsPerception, Hallucination, and IllusionPerceptual ExperiencePerfecting VirtuePerplexities of ConsciousnessPersistencePersonal AutonomyPersonal Autonomy in SocietyPersonal IdentityPersonal Identity and EthicsPersonal Identity and Fractured SelvesPersonhood and Health CarePersonsPersons and BodiesPersons, Humanity, and the Definition of DeathPersons, Souls and DeathPerspectives on ImitationPerspectives on PragmatismPessimismPhenomenal Concepts and Phenomenal KnowledgePhenomenal ConsciousnessPhenomenal IntentionalityPhenomenology and ExistentialismPhenomenology and Philosophy of MindPhilosophersPhilosophers on MusicPhilosophers without GodsPhilosophical CounselingPhilosophical Counselling and the UnconsciousPhilosophical DevicesPhilosophical Foundations of NeurosciencePhilosophical History and the Problem of ConsciousnessPhilosophical Issues in PsychiatryPhilosophical Issues in PsychiatryPhilosophical Issues in Psychiatry IIPhilosophical MethodologyPhilosophical MidwiferyPhilosophical Myths of the FallPhilosophical Perspectives on DepictionPhilosophical Perspectives on Technology and PsychiatryPhilosophical PracticePhilosophical Reflections on DisabilityPhilosophizing About Sex Philosophizing the EverydayPhilosophy and HappinessPhilosophy and LivingPhilosophy and PsychiatryPhilosophy and PsychotherapyPhilosophy and Science FictionPhilosophy and the EmotionsPhilosophy and the EmotionsPhilosophy and the Interpretation of Pop CulturePhilosophy and the Moving ImagePhilosophy and the NeurosciencesPhilosophy and This Actual WorldPhilosophy As FictionPhilosophy BitesPhilosophy Bites BackPhilosophy for Counselling and PsychotherapyPhilosophy for LifePhilosophy in a New CenturyPhilosophy in an Age of SciencePhilosophy in Children's LiteraturePhilosophy of ActionPhilosophy of ActionPhilosophy of BiologyPhilosophy of BiologyPhilosophy of BiologyPhilosophy of BiologyPhilosophy of BodyPhilosophy of Film and Motion PicturesPhilosophy of LovePhilosophy of Love, Sex, and MarriagePhilosophy of MindPhilosophy of Mind and CognitionPhilosophy of Personal Identity and Multiple PersonalityPhilosophy of PsychologyPhilosophy of Public HealthPhilosophy of SciencePhilosophy of SciencePhilosophy of Technology: The Technological ConditionPhilosophy of the Social SciencesPhilosophy on TapPhilosophy PracticePhilosophy the Day after TomorrowPhilosophy's Role in Counseling and PsychotherapyPhilosophy, Neuroscience and ConsciousnessPhilosophy, Politics, DemocracyPhotography and PhilosophyPhysical RealizationPhysicalism and Its DiscontentsPhysicalism and Mental CausationPhysicalism, or Something Near EnoughPhysician-Assisted DyingPillar of SaltPin-up GrrrlsPlant MindsPlatoPlatoPlato, Not Prozac!Platonic Ethics, Old and NewPluralistic CasuistryPolarities of ExperiencesPolitical EmotionsPopper, Objectivity and the Growth of KnowledgePornPorn StudiesPornography, Sex, and FeminismPortrait of the Psychiatrist as a Young ManPostcolonial DisordersPostpsychiatryPosttraumatic Stress DisorderPower and the SelfPower SplitPractical Autonomy and BioethicsPractical ConflictsPractical Identity and Narrative AgencyPractical PhilosophyPractical RulesPractical Tortoise RaisingPractically ProfoundPracticing Feminist Ethics in PsychologyPragmatic BioethicsPragmatismPragmatism, Old And NewPraise and BlamePredicative MindsPreferences and Well-BeingPrescriptions for the MindPresocraticsPrimary and Secondary QualitiesPrimates and PhilosophersPrivacyPrivileged AccessProblems in MindProblems of RationalityProzac As a Way of LifeProzac BacklashProzac on the CouchPsyche and SomaPsychiatric Aspects of Justification, Excuse and Mitigation in Anglo-American Criminal Law Psychiatric Cultures ComparedPsychiatric Diagnosis and ClassificationPsychiatric EthicsPsychiatric HegemonyPsychiatric PowerPsychiatric SlaveryPsychiatry and Philosophy of SciencePsychiatry and ReligionPsychiatry as a Human SciencePsychiatry as Cognitive NeurosciencePsychiatry in SocietyPsychiatry in the New MilleniumPsychiatry in the Scientific ImagePsychiatry, Psychoanalysis, And The New Biology Of MindPsycho-Physical Dualism TodayPsychoanalysis and Narrative MedicinePsychoanalysis and the Philosophy of SciencePsychological Concepts and Biological PsychiatryPsychology and PhilosophyPsychology and the Question of AgencyPsychology's Interpretive TurnPsychology, Psychotherapy, Psychoanalysis, and the Politics of Human RelationshipsPsychotherapy and ConfidentialityPsychotherapy As PraxisPublic PhilosophyPunishmentPure ImmanencePurple HazePursuing MeaningQuality of Life and Human DifferenceQueer PhilosophyQuestions for FreudQuestions for FreudQuine and Davidson on Language, Thought and RealityRaceRace in Contemporary MedicineRadiant CoolRadical AlterityRadical ExternalismRadical HopeRational and Social AgencyRational CausationRational Choice in an Uncertain WorldRationality + Consciousness = Free WillRationality and FreedomRationality and the Reflective MindRationality in ActionRawls, Dewey, and ConstructivismRe-creating MedicineRe-EmergenceRe-Engineering Philosophy for Limited BeingsReading AutobiographyReading Bernard WilliamsReading SartreReadings in the Philosophy of TechnologyReal MaterialismReal Natures and Familiar ObjectsReal ScienceRealism in ActionReason & EmancipationReason in ActionReason in PhilosophyReason's GriefReasonably ViciousReasoning About Rational AgentsReasoning in Biological DiscoveriesReasons from WithinReasons without RationalismReclaiming CognitionReclaiming the SoulReconceiving SchizophreniaReconstructing Reason and RepresentationReconstructing the Cognitive WorldRecreative MindsRediscovering EmotionRediscovering EmpathyReference and ExistenceReference and the Rational MindReflections On How We LiveReframing Disease ContextuallyRefusing CareRegulating SexReinventing the SoulRelativism and Human RightsRelativism and the Foundations of PhilosophyRelativism and the Foundations of PhilosophyReliable ReasoningReligion without GodRelying on OthersRemembering HomeResponsibility and PunishmentResponsibility and PunishmentResponsibility from the MarginsRestraining RageRethinking ExpertiseRethinking IntrospectionRethinking Mental Health and DisorderRethinking RapeRethinking the DSMRethinking the Sociology of Mental HealthRethinking the Western Understanding of the SelfReturn to ReasonRevolt, She SaidRichard RortyRichard RortyRichard RortyRichard RortyRichard RortyRichard Rorty's New PragmatismRightsRights, Democracy, and Fulfillment in the Era of Identity PoliticsRise And Fall of Soul And SelfRitalin NationRobert NozickRousseauRousseau and the Dilemmas of Modernity Routledge Philosophy Guidebook to Derrida on DeconstructionRules, Reason, and Self-KnowledgeSaints, Scholars, and Schizophrenics: Mental Illness in Rural IrelandSartreSartreSartreSartre in Search of an EthicsSatisficing and MaximizingSaving GodScandalous KnowledgeSchizophreniaSchizophrenia and the Fate of the SelfSchizophrenia: A Scientific Delusion?SchopenhauerSchopenhauer's TelescopeScienceScience and EthicsScience and Pseudoscience in Clinical PsychologyScience and SpiritualityScience and the Pursuit of WisdomScience Fiction and PhilosophyScience Fiction and PhilosophyScience in Civil SocietyScience in DemocracyScience RulesScience WarsScience, Consciousness and Ultimate RealityScience, Policy, and the Value-Free IdealSciences from BelowScientific EvidenceScientific IrrationalismScientific PerspectivismScientific PluralismScientific Realism and the Rationality of ScienceScratching the Surface of BioethicsSecond NatureSecond OpinionsSecond PhilosophySecrets of the MindSecular Philosophy and the Religious TemperamentSecurity, Territory, PopulationSeeing and VisualizingSeeing DoubleSeeing Fictions in FilmSeeing RedSeeing Wittgenstein AnewSeeing, Doing, And KnowingSelfSelf and OtherSelf and SubjectivitySelf, No Self?Self-ConsciousnessSelf-ConstitutionSelf-ExpressionSelf-FulfillmentSelf-Knowledge and ResentmentSelf-Knowledge and Self-DeceptionSelf-Made MadnessSelf-Reference and Self-AwarenessSelf-Representational Approaches to ConsciousnessSelvesSentimental RulesSexing the BodySexualized BrainsShades of LonelinessShame and GuiltShame and NecessityShame and PhilosophyShop Class as SoulcraftShynessSigns, Mind, And RealitySimone de BeauvoirSimple MindednessSimulating MindsSimulation and SimilaritySinging in the FireSisyphus's BoulderSituating SemanticsSix Questions of SocratesSkeptical FeminismSkepticismSketch for a Theory of the EmotionsSleeping With Extra-TerrestrialsSlothSocial EpistemologySocial PhenomenologySocializing MetaphysicsSociological Perspectives on the New 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Nature and NarrativeReview - Nature and Narrative
An Introduction to the New Philosophy of Psychiatry
by Bill Fulford, Katherine Morris, John Sadler, Giovanni Stanghellini (Editors)
Oxford University Press, 2003
Review by Christian Perring, Ph.D.
Jan 30th 2004 (Volume 8, Issue 5)

Nature and Narrative is a collection of 17 articles taking a philosophical perspective on psychiatry.  Some of the authors are well known philosophers such as Gordon Baker and Rom Harré and others are in psychology and psychiatry, including Alfred Kraus and Daniel Robinson. Most of the contributors are located in Europe: Natalie Depraz in philosophy at the University of Sorbonne, Paris, Markus Heinimaa in psychiatry at the University of Helsinki, Eric Matthews in philosophy at the University of Aberdeen, Michael Musalek in psychiatry at the University of Vienna, Paolo Rossi in philosophy at Florence University, Guy Widdershoven and Ineke Widdershoven-Heerding based in philosophy in the Netherlands.  Some authors are from South Africa and Australia.  They have a rich variety of perspectives, and employ diverse methodologies. 

In their introductory chapter, the editors make great claims for the recent renaissance of philosophy of psychiatry, suggesting that it is likely to lead to a long-term partnership between philosophy and psychiatry.  They go so far, at least in the section headings, to claim that the project will give rise to "new kinds" of philosophy, ethics, psychology, phenomenology, and scientific psychiatry.  The articles in this book do not really live up to such an ambitious proposition, and indeed, several of them amount to no more than a rehashing of long-familiar themes in philosophy of psychology, or present questionable and even rather bizarre ideas relating to the nature of psychopathology.  Nevertheless, despite or possibly in virtue of its eclecticism, as a whole Nature and Narrative is a valuable addition to the library of books in philosophy of psychiatry that is especially likely to appeal to an interdisciplinary readership.

In this review, I will give brief summaries and comments on each article. 

In "Towards a psyche for psychiatry," Russell Meares argues that we need to go beyond the present level of conceptualization and practice in psychiatry, we need to turn to the modes of thinking of Hughlings Jackson, William James and Pierre Janet.  Meares seems to think that the problem of current psychiatry is that it treats humans as machines, and thus devalues or ignores the personal world of feelings and imagination.  However, he does little to establish either that psychiatry actually makes this error or that adopting the methods of Jackson, James or Janet is the best way to correct the error.  His paper is more of a rallying call than a philosophical argument.

Gordon Baker has a solid reputation as an interpreter of Wittgenstein.  In "Wittgenstein's method and psychoanalysis," he continues this work to explore how dissolving the puzzles that trouble philosophers can be seen as akin to psychotherapy.  Wittgenstein uses Heidegger's statement that "the nothing noths" to illusutrate his approach.  He does not believe that we need to develop a philosophical theory of the nature of reality to ascertain whether or not Heidegger's statement is true, but rather we need to diagnose what led Heidegger to make this claim, searching for reasons that might even be termed "unconscious."  By bringing back the philosopher to the ordinary linguistic usage, we should be able to cure him or her of the urge to think there was a deep conceptual problem to be solved.  The parallel between Wittgenstein's method and Freud's is interesting, although it's unclear how far the connection between the two illuminates either.  What is clear is that this tells us very little about psychiatry, since it is simply addresses the very general issue of the nature of philosophy.  

Eric Matthews addresses a solidly conceptual question in "How can a mind be sick?"  Matthews tries to steer a course between biological reductionism and Szasz's antipsychiatry: he resists the view that mental disorders must necessarily be physical disorders, but equally resists the view that mental disorders are simply cases of behavior that differs from social norms.  He traces the problem to the difficulty in conceptualizing the nature of mind and its relation to the body.  His solution to the problem is pluralistic, that there are several ways in which a mind can be sick.  But his main focus is on developing a notion of consciousness from Merleau-Ponty as a way of illuminating the concept of mental disorder.  He emphasizes the importance of embodied consciousness and the centrality of the concept of a person rather than a reduction of the person to a mind or body.  Of course, to what extent this approach really solves the mind-body problem is a matter for extensive discussion, and Matthews does not go into much detail concerning the implications of the approach for the nature of mental disorder.  Nevertheless, he does make a strong case that a phenomenological approach could be a productive one when addressing the conceptual puzzles that arise concerning mental disorder. 

In "Psychiatry and the law," Daniel Robinson steers the same course as Matthews between biological reductionism and antipsychiatry, but his topic is the moral standing of people with mental illness, and especially when they can be legitimately coerced into treatment.  He throws in his lot with the conservative political theory of Robert George as set out in his book Making Men Moral, as opposed to the liberal theory of Robert Dworkin.  However, it is hard to find a clear statement of a specific position that Robinson is arguing for.  He does say that, "it should be a principal commitment of psychiatry to develop and express as generous a disposition toward the dignity of the person as is found in the law itself," but it is hard to imagine who would disagree with this proposition.  It seems that Robinson's general outlook is to be wary of the use of state powers to deprive people of their liberty, but he gives very little detail about exactly how he would draw the line. 

Widdershoven and Widdershoven-Heerding propose a hermeneutic alternative to the predominant neuroscientific causal model of dementia.  One might expect this to be a replay of the long-standing debate between psychodynamic and "brain disorder" interpretations of bizarre beliefs, but they link their ideas to Gadamer rather than Freud.  In their paper "Understanding dementia: a hermeneutic perspective," they present a case of a woman on a psychogeriatric ward, who accuses her daughter of taking her money.  They suggest that all odd behavior becomes meaningful and even acceptable on their view.  They relate this to adopting a caring stance towards people, and say that one should "abstain from judgements about the adequacy of the person with dementia's perceptions."  This suggests that the primary aim of their project is not to find the correct explanation of the person's beliefs, but rather is about how to interact with her and her family in order to provide the best standard of care, and indeed the authors make an Aristotelian claim that ultimately understanding dementia is a practical matter connected with looking after the patient.  Their practical suggestions about how to help dementia patients make good sense, but it seems that their ideas could be summed up by saying one should be sympathetic and non-judgmental, and the heavy philosophical artillery used to justify their approach is unnecessary. 

Derek Bolton provides a more satisfactory discussion of the nature of explanation of mental disorder and human behavior more generally, in his article "Meaning and causal explanations in the behavioural sciences."  He summarizes the well-known split between causes and meanings in the history of psychiatric theory, and argues that this gap has been bridged with the new cognitive sciences.  Bolton argues that these show that meaning is encoded in the brain, and that the understanding of human behavior is firmly grounded in evolutionary theory, developmental psychology and the cultural sciences.  We can explain the symptoms of schizophrenia, for example, using multiple interacting levels of explanation, including neurosciences and systems of meaning.  He suggests that the "deconstruction" of the old dichotomies between physicalism and hermeneutics is an essential step for the progress of an integrated biopsychosocial science.  Bolton's chapter is programmatic, but those interested in a deeper exploration of these issues can look forward to the forthcoming second edition of the book he wrote with Hill, Mind, Meaning, and Mental Disorder.

In "Subjectivity and the possibility of psychiatry," Rom Harré synthesizes a number of philosophical perspectives into what he calls a discursive, constructionist approach heavily influenced by Wittgenstein and Goffman.  He emphasizes that the social is prior to the individual, and thus is unsympathetic to explanations of people's behavior that suppose they can have private languages.  With this approach, he briefly proposes that one of the problems of people diagnosed with multiple personality is that they incorrectly use pronouns, and they should use pronouns in way that acknowledges their own actions.  He makes the rather bizarre claim that "repairing grammar is repairing the mind."  He moves onto note that in the case of Alzheimer's patients, their use of personal pronouns is robust, and makes the even more surprising claim that, "According to Wittgenstein's 'expressive' account of the uses of language, the personal pronouns express one's sense of self in relation to others."  While paying attention to language is certainly important in interpreting other people, Wittgenstein is not often interpreted as providing a psychological theory.  If there are any studies that show that one cure mental illness or even relieve suffering through correcting people's grammatical mistakes, one would expect them to be better known.  Harré does not cite any.  Nevertheless, his claims are provocative, and he allies his project with other work in psychology so it might be counted as part of a productive research program. 

Grant Gillett and Harré jointly wrote a book entitled The Discursive Mind, so Gillett's article "Form and content: the role of discourse in mental disorder" can be seen as continuation of the discursive approach.  He emphasizes that conceptualizing the world is an interactive process.  Our conceptualizing of ourselves at least partly constitutes our own natures.  Gillett engages in the familiar debate between psychological and biological science, but he disagrees with Bolton and Hill's claim that mental explanation is a form of causal explanation, and suggests that the discursive view provides a better alternative account of mental explanation.  As he puts it, "Discursive explanations, in a way that differs from causal explanations, put the self-forming relational subject at the center of all mental explanations."  Gillett expresses sympathy towards Ian Hacking's well-known account of "the looping effect of human kinds," although he does not note that Hacking has used this account to express some skepticism about categories such as multiple personality and abused children.  While Hacking surely agrees that he need to use human kinds in the human sciences, he is less enthusiastic about their inevitability than Gillett seems to be.  Gillett proceeds to apply his account to the case of anorexia, which is exactly the kind of phenomenon Hacking's approach applies well to.  Gillett focuses on rather more biological details than conceptual, and he argues that a young woman's feelings about her gender and her development into womanhood can cause her to reduce her eating, which stops her menstruation and causes other physical changes in her body. 

There are some obvious difficulties in the discursive view defended by Harré and Gillett.  One immediately raised by Gillett's discussion of anorexia is how the view differs from standard psychosocial explanations of people's behavior.  Although they put more emphasis on the role of language, when it comes to particular examples, the kinds of theories they use when explaining human behavior come very close to those provided in standard psychological accounts.  More generally, it is not clear to what extent the discursive view is a collection of empirical claims and to what extent it makes conceptual, metaphysical, epistemological and methodological claims.  The fact that it is hard to be clear about these issues is a sign of vagueness in the discursive view.   We should welcome competition between approaches to mental disorder which steer the path between biological reductionism and antipsychiatry, and the debates between proponents of the phenomenological, discursive and integrated biopsychosocial approaches should lead to productive dialog, but the points of disagreement between the theories need to be more sharply defined and there needs to be more discussion of particular examples to see how the different approaches compare.  The articles in Nature and Narrative do contribute to this dialog but one wishes that there were more sharply defined interaction between them. 

Michael Musalek provides a thorough discussion of "Meaning and causes of delusions," but while he does refer to a number of philosophers in his article, it is far from clear what philosophical debate he is participating in.  He mentions the debate over the definition of delusion, this is not his primary topic.  His conclusion sets out the various kinds of meanings that can be investigated when presented with delusions, and his earlier discussion elaborates them at greater length.  His final sentence says that more research is needed to "clarify the significance of the various meanings of delusions in the pathogenesis of delusional states and their effects as disorder-maintaining factors."

There is more of a philosophical argument in Katherine Morris' "The phenomenology of body dysmorphic disorder: a Sartrean analysis."  She explains that she uses phenomenology as a method to find the essence of what is experienced by people with the disorder, and makes great use of Katharine Phillips' book about BDD, The Broken Mirror.  Morris distinguishes between the body-as-physical-thing, the body-as-physiological/biological-object, the body-of-the-other, the lived-body-for-itself, and the lived-body-for-others.  She identifies various elements in BDD: longing for invisibility, nausea or self-revulsion, alienation, inapprehensibility meaning that the BDD sufferer wants to know with certainty how others view him, and responsibility without control.  Her conclusion is that BDD is "a specific disorder of the 'lived-body-for-others,'" and she recommends that this result should be inform the DSM categorization.  Controversially, she suggests that it is phenomenologically misguided to provide a sociological explanation of the occurrence of BDD.  She agrees that the content of the disorder is influenced by culture, gender and the media, but says the occurrence is essential to humans living among others.  Her argument against the sociological approach is brief, and many will be puzzled how there could be an a priori argument to demonstrate such a conclusion. 

Continuing the phenomenological side of the book, Natalie Depraz contributes a chapter on, "Putting the époché into practice: schizophrenic experience as illustrating the phenomenological exploration of consciousness."  She uses the case of schizophrenic experience to call into question the common distinction used by those in the philosophical phenomenological tradition between ordinary experiences shared by most people and limit-experiences that are difficult to communicate.  She argues that the schizophrenic époché combines a transcendental disturbance of familiarity with a radical existential disturbance.  Depraz's discussion is admirably sophisticated, and does a wonderful job at showing the richness of a phenomenological approach to the understanding of experience.  However, it is somewhat surprising that in a paper that highlights the importance of understanding of experience, there is so little discussion of actual cases of schizophrenia.  For example, Louis Sass in his groundbreaking Madness and Modernism and many of his articles makes far clearer exactly what aspects of schizophrenic experience he is talking about.  Depraz briefly refers to four cases in a long footnote, and her bibliography does list a number of other works about schizophrenic experience.  One might hope that her recent book, co-authored with Varela and Vermersch, On Becoming Aware: The Pragmatics of Experience, take the opportunity to discuss actual experiences in far greater detail. 

Alfred Kraus provides another sophisticated discussion of phenomenology with "How can the phenomenological-anthropological approach contribute to diagnosis and classification in psychiatry?"  He explains that P-A (phenomenological-anthropological) psychiatry makes holistic diagnosis oriented to the person.  He thinks that this approach can complement the S-C (symptomatological-criteriological) approach to diagnosis of the ICD and DSM, using the examples of melancholia, hypomania and hysterical personality disorder.   Controversially, Kraus supposes that one's lived experience can be disclosed without any theoretical presuppositions, and he distinguishes between different approaches to phenomenology: eidetic phenomenology, the phenomenology of constitution, and existential-hermeneutic.  His discussion of these is brief, but fortunately it is possible to follow the main points of his subsequent discussion without worrying too much about these distinctions.  The central idea in his approach, that one needs to understand the person as a whole rather than as a collection of symptoms, is illustrated in his discussion of particular mental disorders, and Kraus also explains how his approach can improve the relationship between the clinician and patient, especially in psychotherapy and rehabilitation.  Given the limits of space, it is doubtful that Kraus has said enough to win over true-believers in the DSM, and he says nothing to compare the P-A approach to other alternatives to S-C diagnosis, but he does at least provide a guide to further reading on the topic.

One of the rising topics in philosophy of psychiatry is that of nonsense, addressed in the paper by Markus Heinimaa, "Incomprehensibility."  Some researchers have suggested that it is part of the essence of some mental illnesses that the words or actions of those with the illnesses are incomprehensible, and this immediately raises the question of what counts as incomprehensible.  Some other approaches to mental illness, especially hermeneutic or psychodynamic, take an opposite stance, showing the underlying meanings of the words or actions of the mentally ill.  Both approaches raise the issue of to what extent it is possible for a clinician to understand a patient.  Heinimaa surveys some of the psychiatric and philosophical literature on the topic, paying particular attention to the work of Wittgenstein.  He argues that "saying that something is incomprehensible is not an explanation at all, but just an expression of despair when our ordinary ways of comprehending people and situations elude us."  He concludes that this insight can be helpful to clinicians when frustrated in their efforts to communicate with patients.  This area of research seems particularly interesting, and Heinimaa's paper should help to spur further discussion.

Gerrit Glas tries to combine biological and existential approaches to psychiatry in "Anxiety -- animal reactions and the embodiment of meaning."  He surveys some common biological theories and the set out different kinds of psychodynamic causes of anxiety, as related to loss of structure, existence as such, lack of safety, unconnectedness, doubt and inability to choose, meaninglessness, and death.  He then brings in the work developed during the 1950s of the Dutch philosopher Herman Dooyeweerd as a way to integrate different perspectives.  Glas concludes that Dooyeweerd's work is very promising in this enterprise.  Given the limited length of the paper, it is inevitable that all he can to is provide a sketch of his project but he does make a case that it is worthwhile.  Since Dooyeweerd is an unfamiliar name for most philosophers and clinicians, others may be reluctant to invest much time in exploring his work until there is more decisive evidence that his approach will help to advance our understanding the relation between the biological and the psychodynamic, but one may at least look forward to Glas' other work in this area to see the strength of the research program.

In one of the more technical pieces in the collection, Werdie van Staden and Christa Kruger discuss "Linguistic markers of recovery: semantic and syntactic changes in the use of first person pronouns in the course of psychotherapy."  They briefly present the results of their empirical study, which shows a change in semantic use of first pronouns after psychotherapy, but no significant change in syntactic use.  They then explore the theoretical implications of this result, emphasizing the way that their study combines the study of meaning with scientific method.  They conclude with some practical consequences of their work. 

The book ends with a paper on "Magic, science, and the equality of human wits" by Paolo Rossi.  Rossi surveys the role of magic in pre-modern thought and the importance of the rise of science in the modern era.  It is hard to see why the editors saw fit to include the paper in the collection, since it includes no discussion of concepts of madness or mental disorder. 

As a whole, this collection is especially valuable for its presentation of more unusual perspectives in philosophy of psychiatry. Many of the papers make a strong case for the value of hermeneutic and phenomenological approaches to psychiatry, and address the issue of how to integrate those approaches with more mainstream psychiatric models.  The book should appeal to those with a background in philosophy and with at least some knowledge of clinical psychology.  The book's subtitle is somewhat misleading, since it is hardly an introduction to the new philosophy of psychiatry.  Despite the admirable attempts of the editors to tie the papers together in their introductory chapter, the most striking feature of the collection is its disunity.  The book would not be appropriate for use as a textbook in an introductory undergraduate course to this field, and it would have to be supplemented by a great deal of more central material if it were used in a course for graduate students or professionals.  Nevertheless, philosophers and mental health professionals who want to get a sense of some of the work being done to understand the debates at the foundations of the study of mental illness should find a provocative assortment of ideas in Nature and Narrative.

 

© 2004 Christian Perring. All rights reserved.

 

Christian Perring, Ph.D., is Academic Chair of the Arts & Humanities Division and Chair of the Philosophy Department at Dowling College, Long Island. He is also editor of Metapsychology Online Review.  His main research is on philosophical issues in medicine, psychiatry and psychology.


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