email page print pageAll Topic Reviews
A New Understanding of Mental Disorders A Theory of Feelings Addictions Memory and the Self"Intimate" Violence against Women1001 Solution-Focused Questions101 Healing Stories101 Things I Wish I'd Known When I Started Using Hypnosis50 Great Myths of Popular Psychology50 Reasons People Give for Believing in a God8 Keys to Body Brain BalanceA Brief History of Modern PsychologyA Conceptual History of PsychologyA Conceptual History of Psychology: Exploring the Tangled Web A Cooperative SpeciesA Guide to Teaching Introductory PsychologyA History of Modern Experimental PsychologyA History of Psychology in AutobiographyA History of Social PsychologyA History of the BrainA History of the MindA Hole in the HeadA Matter of SecurityA Mind of Its OwnA Natural History of Human ThinkingA Place for ConsciousnessA Short Introduction to Promoting Resilience in ChildrenA Social History of PsychologyA Stroll With William JamesA System Architecture Approach to the BrainA Theory of FreedomA Very Bad WizardAbductedAbout FacesAccounts of InnocenceAction, Emotion and WillAdapting MindsAddiction and Self-ControlADHD & MeADHD in AdultsAdieu to GodAdolescence and Body ImageAdult Bipolar DisordersAdvances in Culture and PsychologyAdvances in Identity Theory and ResearchAffect Regulation, Mentalization, and the Development of SelfAffective MappingAgainst EmpathyAgainst HappinessAges and StagesAll Joy and No FunAll Out!All We Have to FearAlterations of ConsciousnessAmerican Psychiatric Publishing Textbook of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical NeurosciencesAn Argument for MindAncient Bodies, Modern LivesAnd BreatheAnimal MadnessAnimal Tool BehaviorAnimals in TranslationAnomalous CognitionAping MankindArtificial ConsciousnessAspects of PsychologismAsperger Syndrome and Your ChildAsperger Syndrome, Adolescence, and IdentityAssessment and Treatment of Childhood Problems, Second EditionAssisted Suicide and the Right to DieAttachedAttention is Cognitive UnisonAutism and the Myth of the Person AloneAutopsy of a Suicidal MindBecoming an Effective PsychotherapistBehavingBehavioral Genetics in the Postgenomic EraBeing No OneBelievingBetween Two WorldsBeyond AppearanceBeyond BlueBeyond BullyingBeyond MadnessBeyond MelancholyBeyond the BrainBeyond the DSM StoryBig DreamsBiofeedback for the BrainBipolar ChildrenBipolar DisorderBipolar KidsBlackwell Handbook of Childhood Cognitive DevelopmentBlind SpotsBlindsight & The Nature of ConsciousnessBlubberlandBlushBodiesBody ConsciousnessBody Image, Eating Disorders, and Obesity in YouthBody SenseBody WorkBorderline Personality DisorderBorderline Personality Disorder and the Conversational ModelBorn DigitalBorn to Be GoodBorn Together - Reared ApartBounceBoundaries in Human RelationshipsBounded RationalityBozo SapiensBrain and CultureBrain and the GazeBrain Arousal and Information TheoryBrain BugsBrain Change TherapyBrain Circuitry and Signaling in PsychiatryBrain FictionBrain, Mind, and Human Behavior in Contemporary Cognitive ScienceBrain-Based Therapy with AdultsBrain-WiseBrainstormBrainstormingBraintrustBrainwashingBrandedBreaking Murphy's LawBright-SidedBuddha's BrainBullying and TeasingBuyologyCan't You Hear Them?CaptureCare of the PsycheCartesian LinguisticsCartographies of the MindCerebrum 2007Cerebrum 2010Cerebrum 2015Cerebrum Anthology 2013Changing the SubjectCharacter Strengths and VirtuesCheating LessonsChild and Adolescent Psychological DisordersChildren’s Dreaming and the Development of Consciousness Chomsky NotebookClinical Psychiatry in Imperial GermanyClinical Psychology in Practice ClosureCognition and PerceptionCognition and the BrainCognitive BiologyCognitive DissonanceCognitive FictionsCognitive Mechanisms of Belief ChangeCognitive PragmaticsCognitive ScienceCognitive ScienceCognitive Systems and the Extended MindCognitive Therapy of Anxiety DisordersCognitive Unconscious and Human RationalityCold-Blooded KindnessComing of Age in Second LifeCommunication Issues In Autism And Asperger SyndromeCompassion and Healing in Medicine and SocietyComplementary and Alternative Therapies ResearchComprehending ColumbineConfessions of a SociopathConquering Shame and CodependencyConsciousnessConsciousnessConsciousnessConsciousnessConsciousnessConsciousness ConsciousnessConsciousness and Its Place in NatureConsciousness and LanguageConsciousness and Mental LifeConsciousness and MindConsciousness and the NovelConsciousness and the Social BrainConsciousness EmergingConsciousness RecoveredConsciousness RevisitedConsciousness, Self-Consciousness, and the Science of Being HumanConstructing PainConsumer NeuroscienceContemporary Debates in Cognitive ScienceConversations on ConsciousnessConviction of the InnocentCooperation and Its EvolutionCreating a Life of Meaning and CompassionCredit and BlameCritical New Perspectives on Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity DisorderCritical PsychologyCritical Thinking About PsychologyCross-Cultural PsychologyCrowdsourcingCrueltyCultural Assessment in Clinical PsychiatryCuriousDamasio's Error and Descartes' TruthDangerous and Severe Personality DisorderDaniel DennettDaughters of MadnessDeafness In MindDeath and ConsciousnessDeath of a ParentDecomposing the WillDeep Brain StimulationDeep ChinaDefining DifferenceDefining Psychopathology in the 21st CenturyDelusion and Self-DeceptionDelusions of GenderDennett and Ricoeur on the Narrative SelfDeparting from DevianceDescartes' BabyDescartes's Changing MindDescribing Inner Experience?Desert Islands and Other Texts (1953-1974)Destructive EmotionsDevelopment of Geocentric Spatial Language and CognitionDevelopment of PsychopathologyDialogues on DifferenceDid My Neurons Make Me Do It?Digital HemlockDirty MindsDisgust and Its DisordersDisorders of VolitionDo Apes Read Minds?Do Fish Feel Pain?Does Consciousness Cause Behavior?Doing without ConceptsDrunk Tank PinkEducating People to Be Emotionally IntelligentEffective IntentionsEffective Writing in PsychologyEffortless AttentionEmbodied Minds in ActionEmbracing MindEmbracing UncertaintyEmotion and ConsciousnessEmotion ExperienceEmotion RegulationEmotion, Evolution, And RationalityEmotional IntelligenceEmotionally InvolvedEmotionsEmotionsEmotions and LifeEmotions in Humans and ArtifactsEmotions RevealedEmotions, Aggression, and Morality in ChildrenEmotions, Stress, and HealthEmpathyEnjoymentErotic MoralityEscape Your Own PrisonEssays in Social NeuroscienceEssential Sources in the Scientific Study of ConsciousnessEthical Issues in Forensic Mental Health ResearchEthically Challenged ProfessionsEveryday Mind ReadingEvidence for PsiEvidence-Based Mental Health PracticeEvil MenEvolution and Human BehaviorEvolution and LearningEvolution, Games, and GodEvolution, Gender, and RapeEvolutionary Psychology and ViolenceEvolutionary Psychology as Maladapted PsychologyExacting BeautyExperiences of DepressionExperimenterExplaining the BrainExplaining the BrainExplorations in Neuroscience, Psychology and ReligionExploring TranssexualismExpression and the InnerExtending Self-Esteem ResearchExtraordinary BeliefsFact and Value in EmotionFaking ItFatigue as a Window to the BrainFavorite Activities for the Teaching of PsychologyFeeling GoodFeeling Pain and Being in PainFeelings and EmotionsFinding Meaning, Facing FearsFitting In Is OverratedFive Constraints on Predicting BehaviorFlourishingFlow: The Psychology of Optimal ExperienceFolk Psychological NarrativesFooling HoudiniForever YoungFormulation in Psychology and PsychotherapyFoucault, Psychology and the Analytics of PowerFoundational Issues in Human Brain MappingFoundations of Psychological ThoughtFree Will as an Open Scientific ProblemFreedom And NeurobiologyFreedom EvolvesFrom Axons to IdentityFrom Madness to Mental HealthFrom Neurons to Self-ConsciousnessFrom Passions to EmotionsFrom Philosophy to PsychotherapyFrom Symptom to SynapseFrontiers of ConsciousnessGay, Straight, and the Reason WhyGenerosityGenes, Environment, and PsychopathologyGenetic Nature/CultureGeniusGetting Under the SkinGlued to GamesGoing SaneGot Parts?Group GeniusGrowing Up GirlGuilt, Shame, and AnxietyGut ReactionsHallucinationHandbook New Sexuality StudiesHandbook of Closeness and IntimacyHandbook of Critical PsychologyHandbook of Emotion RegulationHandbook of EmotionsHandbook of Personality DisordersHandbook of PsychopathyHandbook of Self and IdentityHandbook of Self and IdentityHandbook of Spatial CognitionHappinessHappinessHappinessHappinessHappiness at WorkHappiness Is.Happy at LastHard to GetHardwired BehaviorHatredHealing the SplitHidden ResourcesHope and DespairHot ThoughtHot ThoughtHouse and PsychologyHow Animals Affect UsHow Animals GrieveHow Can the Human Mind Occur in the Physical Universe?How Doctors ThinkHow Enlightenment Changes Your BrainHow Families Still MatterHow History Made the MindHow Infants Know MindsHow Many Friends Does One Person Need?How People ChangeHow Professors ThinkHow The Body Shapes The MindHow the Body Shapes the Way We ThinkHow the Mind Explains BehaviorHow the Mind Uses the BrainHow to Change Someone You LoveHow We ReasonHow We RememberHughes' Outline of Modern PsychiatryHumanHuman BondingHuman Reasoning and Cognitive ScienceHypnotismHysteriaiBrainIdentifying Hyperactive ChildrenIdentifying the MindiDisorderImagination and the Meaningful BrainImitation and the Social MindImpulse Control DisordersImpulsivityIn an Unspoken VoiceIn Defense of SentimentalityIn DoubtIn Search of HappinessIn the Wake of 9/11Individual and Collective Memory ConsolidationInner Experience and NeuroscienceInner PresenceInside the American CoupleIntegrated Behavioral Health CareIntegrating Evolution and DevelopmentIntegrating Psychotherapy and PharmacotherapyIntegrity and the Fragile SelfIntellectual DisabilityIntelligenceIntelligence, Destiny, and EducationIntentions and IntentionalityInterdependent MindsInterpreting MindsInto the Minds of MadmenIntoxicating MindsIntrospection VindicatedIntuitionInventing PersonalityInvestigating the Psychological WorldIrrationalityIs There Anything Good About Men?Issues for Families, Schools and CommunitiesJane Sexes It UpJoint AttentionJoint AttentionJudgment and Decision MakingJust a DogJust BabiesJuvenile-Onset SchizophreniaKarl JaspersKey Thinkers in PsychologyKidding OurselvesKids of CharacterKilling MonstersLack of CharacterLanguage OriginsLanguage, Consciousness, CultureLanguage, Vision, and MusicLaw, Mind and BrainLess Than HumanLet Kids Be KidsLet's Talk About DeathLiving NarrativeLiving with Mild Cognitive ImpairmentLonelinessLooking for SpinozaLossLOT 2Love at Goon ParkMachine ConsciousnessMacrocognitionMade for Each OtherMadnessMadness and Modernism: Insanity in the light of modern art, literature, and thought Making a Good Brain GreatMaking Habits, Breaking HabitsMaking Minds and MadnessMaking Up the MindMale SexualityMan and WomanMan's Search for MeaningMan, Beast, and ZombieManic MindsManlinessMapping the MindMarking the MindMarvelous Learning AnimalMasculinity Studies and Feminist TheoryMeaningMeaning, Mortality, and ChoiceMedical MusesMeditating SelflesslyMeetings with a Remarkable ManMemoryMemory and DreamsMemory and EmotionMemory And UnderstandingMental BiologyMental IllnessMental Time TravelMetacognitionMetacognition and Theory of MindMethods in MindMindMindMind and BrainMind and ConsciousnessMind Games:Mind in LifeMind TimeMind to MindMind, Brain and the Elusive SoulMindful AngerMindfulnessMindfulnessMindfulness and AcceptanceMindfulness-Based Treatment Approaches: Clinician's Guide to Evidence Base and ApplicationsMinding AnimalsMinding MindsMindreadersMindreading AnimalsMinds, Brains, and LawMindsightMindworldsMirrors in the BrainMistakes Were Made (But Not by Me)Models of MadnessMoodMoral Development and RealityMoral MindsMoral Psychology, Volume 1Moral Psychology, Volume 2Moral Psychology, Volume 3Mothers and OthersMotivation and Cognitive ControlMotivational Interviewing: Preparing People For ChangeMovies and the MindMulticulturalism and the Therapeutic ProcessMultiplicityMuses, Madmen, and ProphetsMy Family AlbumMyths about SuicideNarrative IdentitiesNarrative PsychiatryNarratives in PsychiatryNaturalizing Intention in ActionNature and NarrativeNature Via NurtureNeither Bad nor MadNerveNeurobiology and the Development of Human MoralityNeurochemistry of ConsciousnessNeurodiversityNeuroethicsNeuroLogicNeurological Foundations of Cognitive Neuroscience Neuroscience and PhilosophyNo Child Left DifferentNo Two AlikeNot By Genes AloneNot Much Just Chillin'Not So Abnormal PsychologyNurturing the Older Brain and MindOn AnxietyOn Being an Introvert or Highly Sensitive PersonOn Being HumanOn Being MovedOn Deep History and the BrainOn DesireOn KillingOn Nature and LanguageOn PaedophiliaOn PersonalityOn the Frontier of AdulthoodOn the Origins of Cognitive ScienceOn The Stigma Of Mental IllnessOnflowOpen MindsOpening Skinner's BoxOrigin of MindOrigins of PsychopathologyOther MindsOut of Our HeadsOut of the WoodsOvercoming Depersonalization DisorderPanpsychism and the Religious AttitudePanpsychism in the WestParenting and the Child's WorldPassionate EnginesPathologies of the WestPatient-Based Approaches to Cognitive NeurosciencePediatric PsychopharmacologyPeople Types and Tiger StripesPerception & CognitionPerception beyond InferencePerception, Hallucination, and IllusionPersonal Development and Clinical PsychologyPerspectives on ImitationPhantoms in the BrainPhenomenal Concepts and Phenomenal KnowledgePhenomenology and Philosophy of MindPhilosophical Foundations of NeurosciencePhilosophical MidwiferyPhilosophy and HappinessPhilosophy of PsychologyPhilosophy, Neuroscience and ConsciousnessPhrenologyPhysical RealizationPhysics in MindPieces of LightPlaying with FirePositive PsychologyPositive PsychologyPostcards from the Brain MuseumPostpsychiatryPosttraumatic Stress DisorderPoverty and Brain Development During ChildhoodPractical Ethics for PsychologistsPractical Management of Personality DisorderPractical Management of Personality DisorderPredicative MindsPredictably IrrationalPreference, Belief, and SimilarityPrenatal Testosterone in MindPrivileged AccessProcess-Based CBTProcrastinationProust Was a NeuroscientistPsychiatric SlaveryPsychiatry as Cognitive NeurosciencePsychiatry, Psychoanalysis, And The New Biology Of MindPsychological AgencyPsychological Concepts and Biological PsychiatryPsychological Dimensions of the SelfPsychologists Defying the CrowdPsychologyPsychologyPsychology and Consumer CulturePsychology and LawPsychology and the Question of AgencyPsychology for ScreenwritersPsychology of Women: A Handbook of Issues and TheoriesPsychology's GhostsPsychology's Interpretive TurnPsychology's TerritoriesPsychopathologyPsychopathyPsychosis and EmotionPsychotherapy, American Culture, and Social PolicyPutnam CampPutting a Name to ItQuantum Memory PowerQuietRadical DistortionRadical Embodied Cognitive ScienceRadical ExternalismRadical GraceRapeRe-Visioning PsychiatryReal MaterialismReality CheckReconstructing Reason and RepresentationReconstructing the Cognitive WorldRecovery in Mental IllnessRecreative MindsRedirectReducing Adolescent RiskRegulating EmotionsRelational BeingRelational Mental HealthRelational Suicide AssessmentReliability in Cognitive NeuroscienceRemembering HomeRemembering Our ChildhoodResearch Advances in Genetics and GenomicsResearching Children's ExperienceResilience in ChildrenRestoring ResilienceRethinking ADHDRethinking Learning DisabilitiesRethinking Middle YearsRethinking the Western Understanding of the SelfRevolution in PsychologyRoadmap to ResilienceRomance and Sex in Adolescence and Emerging AdulthoodSchizophrenia RevealedSchizophrenia, Culture, and SubjectivityScience and Pseudoscience in Clinical PsychologyScience and Pseudoscience in Clinical PsychologySecond NatureSecond NatureSecond That EmotionSecond-order Change in PsychotherapySecrets of the MindSee What I'm SayingSee What I'm SayingSeeing and VisualizingSeeing RedSelf and SocietySelf Comes to MindSelf Control in Society, Mind, and BrainSelf-Awareness Deficits in Psychiatric PatientsSelf-CompassionSelf-RegulationSelf-Representational Approaches to ConsciousnessSelfless InsightSelvesSerial KillersSex at DawnSex on the BrainSex, Time and PowerSexual Coercion in Primates and HumansSexual DisordersSexual FluiditySexual ReckoningsSexualized BrainsShame and GuiltShatteredSimulating MindsSisyphus's BoulderSNAPSocial NeuroscienceSocial NeuroscienceSocial NeuroscienceSocial Psychology and DiscourseSome We Love, Some We Hate, Some We EatSoul DustSparkSpiral of EntrapmentSplendors and Miseries of the BrainSports Hypnosis in PracticeStanding at Water's EdgeStich and His CriticsStillpowerStop OverreactingStructure and Agency in Everyday LifeStructures of AgencyStuffStumbling on HappinessSubjectivity and SelfhoodSubstance Abuse and EmotionSupersizing the MindSweet DreamsSynaptic SelfTales from Both Sides of the BrainTalking Oneself SoberTalking to BabiesTaming the Troublesome ChildTargeting AutismTeaching Problems and the Problems of TeachingTeleological RealismTen Years of Viewing from WithinTestosterone RexThat's DisgustingThe 5 Elements of Effective ThinkingThe Accidental MindThe Age of EmpathyThe Altruism EquationThe Altruistic BrainThe American Psychiatric Publishing Textbook of Clinical PsychiatryThe Anatomy of BiasThe Anxious BrainThe Archaeology of MindThe Art and Science of MindfulnessThe Art InstinctThe Art of HypnosisThe Asymmetrical BrainThe Bifurcation of the SelfThe Big Book of ConceptsThe Big DisconnectThe Birth of IntersubjectivityThe Birth of the MindThe Blackwell Handbook of Organizational Learning and Knowledge ManagementThe Blank SlateThe Body Has a Mind of Its OwnThe Bounds of CognitionThe Boy Who Was Raised as a DogThe BrainThe BrainThe Brain and the Meaning of LifeThe Brain SupremacyThe Brain That Changes ItselfThe Brain's Way of HealingThe Brain: Big Bangs, Behaviors, and BeliefsThe Cambridge Handbook of Cognitive ScienceThe Cambridge Handbook of Situated CognitionThe Character of ConsciousnessThe Chemistry Between UsThe Choice EffectThe Clinical Science of Suicide PreventionThe Cognitive Approach to Conscious MachinesThe Cognitive Behavioral Workbook for Anxiety: A Step-By-Step ProgramThe Cognitive NeurosciencesThe Cognitive-Emotional BrainThe College Fear FactorThe Commercialization of Intimate LifeThe Compass of PleasureThe Compassionate ConnectionThe Concepts of ConsciousnessThe Conscious BrainThe Conscious SelfThe Consuming InstinctThe Creating BrainThe Creative BrainThe Crucible of ConsciousnessThe Crucible of ExperienceThe Cure WithinThe Dao of NeuroscienceThe Developing MindThe Developing MindThe Development of PsychopathologyThe Disappearance of the Social in American Social PsychologyThe Dissolution of MindThe Duty to ProtectThe Educated ParentThe Ego TunnelThe Elephant in the RoomThe Embodied Mind: Cognitive Science and Human ExperienceThe Emotional Journey of the Alzheimer's FamilyThe Encultured BrainThe Encyclopedia of StupidityThe Enduring Self in People with Alzheimer'sThe Epidemiology of SchizophreniaThe Essential DifferenceThe Ethical BrainThe Evolution of BeautyThe Evolution of ChildhoodThe Evolution of CooperationThe Evolution of LanguageThe Evolution of MindThe Evolving BrainThe Executive BrainThe Faces of TerrorismThe Feeling BrainThe Feeling of What HappensThe First IdeaThe Folly of FoolsThe Folly of FoolsThe Folly of FoolsThe Foundations of Cognitive ArchaeologyThe Fundamentalist MindsetThe GapThe Gender TrapThe Geography of BlissThe Gift of ShynessThe Good LifeThe Good LifeThe Happiness HypothesisThe Happiness of PursuitThe Health Psychology HandbookThe Healthy Aging BrainThe Heart of TraumaThe High Price of MaterialismThe History of PsychologyThe Human FaceThe Human SparkThe Hypomanic EdgeThe Imagery DebateThe Immeasurable MindThe Imprinted BrainThe Incredible Shrinking MindThe Innate MindThe Innate MindThe Integrated SelfThe Intentional BrainThe Language of ThoughtThe Languages of the BrainThe Lexicon of Adlerian PsychologyThe Lie DetectorsThe Lives of the BrainThe Lonely AmericanThe Lust for BloodThe Madness of WomenThe Male BrainThe Man Who Lost His LanguageThe Man Who Shocked the WorldThe Man Who Tasted ShapesThe Man Who Wasn't ThereThe Matter of the MindThe Mature MindThe Mean Girl MotiveThe Meaning of EvilThe Meaning of OthersThe Meaning of the BodyThe Measure of MadnessThe Measure of MindThe Medicalization of Everyday LifeThe Mind and the BrainThe Mind in ContextThe Mind of the ChildThe Mind of the HorseThe Mind's EyeThe Mind, the Body and the WorldThe Mind-Gut ConnectionThe Mindful BrainThe Misleading MindThe Moral MindThe Most Dangerous AnimalThe Most Human HumanThe Mother FactorThe Myth of ChoiceThe Myth of Depression as DiseaseThe Myth of Mirror NeuronsThe Myth of Self HelpThe Myth of Self-EsteemThe Myth of the Spoiled ChildThe Nature of the SelfThe Necessity Of MadnessThe Neuro RevolutionThe Neuron and the MindThe Neuropsychology of the UnconsciousThe Neuroscience of Human RelationshipsThe Neuroscience of PsychotherapyThe Neuroscience of Psychotherapy: Healing the Social BrainThe New BrainThe New Science of DreamingThe New Science of the MindThe New UnconsciousThe Normal PersonalityThe Origins of FairnessThe Overflowing BrainThe Oxford Companion to the MindThe Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of MindThe Paradoxical PrimateThe Perfectionist's HandbookThe Peripheral MindThe Phenomenology ReaderThe Philosopher's Secret FireThe Philosophical BabyThe Political MindThe Politics of HappinessThe Positive Side of Negative EmotionsThe Postnational SelfThe Postpartum EffectThe Power of PlayThe Praeger Handbook of TranssexualityThe Present Moment in Psychotherapy and Everyday LifeThe Primate MindThe Prism of GrammarThe Psychobiology of Trauma and Resilience Across the LifespanThe Psychological Construction of EmotionThe Psychology of Good and EvilThe Psychology of Good and EvilThe Psychology of HappinessThe Psychology of LifestyleThe Psychology of Religious FundamentalismThe Psychology of Science and the Origins of the Scientific MindThe Psychology of Science and the Origins of the Scientific MindThe Psychology of SpiritualityThe Psychology of StereotypingThe Psychology of SuperheroesThe Psychophysiology of Self-AwarenessThe Pursuit of PerfectThe Quest for Mental HealthThe Rational ImaginationThe Ravenous BrainThe Reasons of LoveThe Righteous MindThe Routledge Companion to Philosophy of PsychologyThe Routledge Companion to Philosophy of PsychologyThe Science of EvilThe Science of Intimate RelationshipsThe Science of Shame and its Treatment The Second SelfThe Secret History of EmotionThe Secret Lives of BoysThe Self and Its EmotionsThe Self-Sabotage CycleThe Sense of SelfThe Sensitive SelfThe Shape of ThoughtThe Social AnimalThe Social Nature of Mental IllnessThe Social Neuroscience of EmpathyThe Social Psychology of Good and EvilThe Social Psychology of MoralityThe Social Psychology of MoralityThe Story of Intellectual DisabilityThe Structure of ThinkingThe Survivors ClubThe Talking ApeThe Teenage BrainThe Tell-Tale BrainThe Temperamental ThreadThe Tender CutThe Tending InstinctThe Time ParadoxThe Trauma MythThe Trauma of Psychological TortureThe Trauma of Psychological TortureThe Trouble with IllnessThe True PathThe Truth About GriefThe Turing TestThe Uncertain SciencesThe Undoing ProjectThe Unhappy ChildThe Upside of IrrationalityThe War for Children's MindsThe Well-Tuned BrainThe Wild Girl, Natural Man, and the MonsterThe Winner's BrainThe Wisdom in FeelingThe Woman RacketThe World in My Mind, My Mind in the WorldThe Wow ClimaxThe Yipping TigerThemes, Issues and Debates in PsychologyTheoretical Issues in Psychology: An IntroductionTheory of AddictionTheory of MindThings and PlacesThink CatThink Confident, Be ConfidentThinking about AddictionThinking and SeeingThis Emotional Life: In Search of Ourselves...and HappinessThought and LanguageThought in a Hostile WorldTo Have and To Hurt:Toward an Evolutionary Biology of LanguageToward Replacement Parts for the BrainTrauma and Human ExistenceTrauma, Tragedy, TherapyTreating Attachment DisordersTreating Self-InjuryTreating Self-Injury: A Practical GuideTrue to Our FeelingsTrusting the Subject?Understanding and Treating Borderline Personality DisorderUnderstanding ConsciousnessUnderstanding ParanoiaUnderstanding PeopleUnderstanding TerrorismUndoing Perpetual StressUnlock the Genius WithinUnsettled MindsUnstrange MindsUnthinkingUnthoughtUs and ThemViolent PartnersVirtue, Vice, and PersonalityVision and MindVisual AgnosiaWarrior's DishonourWe Who Are DarkWednesday Is Indigo BlueWelcome to Your BrainWhat Do Women Want?What Dying People WantWhat Have We DoneWhat Intelligence Tests MissWhat Is an Emotion: Classic and Contemporary ReadingsWhat Is Emotion?What is Intelligence?What Is Mental Illness?What Is Thought?What Makes Your Brain Happy and Why You Should Do the Opposite What the Best College Students DoWhat the Dog SawWhat We Know about Emotional IntelligenceWhat We Say MattersWhat's Wrong With Morality?When Boys Become BoysWhen Perfect Isn't Good EnoughWhen the Impossible HappensWhen Walls Become DoorwaysWho's Been Sleeping in Your HeadWho's in Charge?Why Humans Like to CryWhy Love MattersWhy Lyrics LastWhy People CooperateWhy People Die by SuicideWhy Sex Matters: A Darwinian Look at Human BehaviorWhy Smart People Can Be So StupidWhy the Mind is Not a ComputerWhy Us?Why We LieWhy We LoveWhy We SleepWider than the SkyWilliam James at the BoundariesWilling, Wanting, WaitingWittgenstein And PsychologyWomen and Child Sexual AbuseWorking MindsYoga and PsychologyYou Are What You RememberYoung Minds in Social WorldsYour Brain on CubsYour Brain on FoodYour Brain on Food: How Chemicals Control Your Thoughts and Feelings,Your Brain on YogaYour Child in the BalanceZombies and Consciousness
For Harold Coward, Indian poetry
and philosophy encapsulate "the creative tension between a profound
attraction to sensual beauty and the yearning for liberation from it"
(p.42). That tension is the hallmark of yoga, which is the art and science of
release from suffering and ignorance given concise voice in Patanjali's Sutras.
Indian philosophy has never been so divorced from praxis as occurs in the
West. In India practice is at the heart of the ideas themselves. Many in the
West, drawn by techniques and exotic notions borrow from whichever spiritual
tradition addresses such tensions between immersion and release; rarely do we
get a chance to see the integrity of such systems of thought in their own
terms. Harold Coward makes plain yoga's intriguing promise of release and its
sharp differences from psychoanalysis and transpersonal psychology in his new
book Yoga and Psychology: Language, Memory and Mysticism. Coward does not
address Psychology as his title promises, but addresses two giants of
psychoanalysis. In Part One of the book, Coward establishes the centrality of
language to yoga. Here his thesis is bold and clear - that language has
inherent within itself the power to convey knowledge both of a sensuous and a
super sensuous kind, and to realize release. In the second part he discusses
Freud, Jung and some transpersonal psychologists' perspectives on yogic issues
like dualism and the possibility of an almost immaterial, ego-less knowing, the
eradication of desires and of the unconscious, and free will.
The links between part one and two
are there, but what Coward is trying to achieve in his critical discussion of
what he terms Western Psychology is less clear. The organization of the book
does not bring his contribution to full power. For those not so well steeped
in yoga philosophy as Coward, the first part of the first section is a daunting
acquisition of a new language with which to think the yoga sutras. I had Georg
Feuerstein's translation and commentary of Patanjali's Sutras open to read the
sutras discussed. At times Coward is dismissive of 'modern readers' and their
partial knowledge, and this does not make him feel a completely compassionate
guide. Persistence pays off when the book crackles with the poetry and passion
of Bhartrhari -- India's greatest philosopher of language (c 500CE). Suddenly
all the issues that one assimilated in the first part without quite knowing
where it was all headed come to sparkling life. The section on the overlaps
and distinctions between yoga and psychoanalysis is very clear though there is
some repetition in his section on Jung, and some (perhaps necessary) repetition
of the assumptions of yoga philosophy. Despite the comprehensive introduction,
the authorial voice to combine the issues into a sustained vision falters at
For those who thought they could practice
yoga without the issue of faith arising, this book will be a challenging
experience. Coward's perspective on yoga is erudite and committed. He speaks
from within the yoga system of thought and accordingly views most of Western
psychoanalysis as falling short. He details differences between East and West
with an unflinching clarity. His detailed citation of the original writers
along with his commentary makes this book a rare journey indeed.
First, Coward establishes in detail
the centrality of trustworthy linguistic communications: the importance of
testimony. David Cooper remarks it is "an epistemological issue whose
importance contrasts with the scant attention it has received in the Western
tradition; that of the credentials of testimony as a distinct source of
knowledge. This issue has long vexed Indian philosophers…" (Cooper, 1999,
p11). According to Coward, there are divisions of Indian schools depending on
the "degree of revealing power allowed to words" (p12). Verbal
communication (agama) is one of three sources of valid knowledge (pramana) in
Indian thought, (along with perception (pratyaksa) and inference (anumana)).
Verbal communication functions when a trusted observer (apta), transfers his or
her knowledge to us and is valid "if it is not deceptive, confused or
barren in knowledge" (p. 12). The apta has to be "skilled and
compassionate in the passing on of knowledge" (p.12), and not prone to any
twisting of the knowledge for fame or fortune. Of course, the verbal
communication may still fail if the mind of the hearer is too 'covered with
karmic impurity' or too distracted to pay attention.
Coward addresses not merely
empirical concerns regarding trustworthiness and what it takes for justified
true knowledge to arise from testimony. He moves beyond empirical to
metaphysical issues concerning the Original Speaker Isvara. Isvara's authority
hinges on his status as perceiver and speaker. Isvara is the source of
knowledge par extraordinaire because from the start, "Isvara was the Original
Speaker who was omniscient and therefore of unquestionable authority" (p.
13). Isvara has no karmic taint (ignorance, ego-sense, desire, hatred, and
clinging to life), no clouds of desire or of habit to obscure his perception. Isvara
is defined by a special kind of self or purusa that is beginninglessly
untouched by the taints of karmas. As pure sattva (transparent consciousness),
he functions as a mind in the world. By a thought he resumes his task: "after
this period of latency finishes I must again assume a pure sattva body so as to
continue to help the world" (p.15). Thus the next cycle of creation
Surely the presence of desire to
remain active in the material world disqualifies one from enlightened status?
This is akin to the paradox of the Bodhisattva discussed by Arthur C Danto. For
Coward, the crux is Isvara's motivation "since the motivation is for
others and not for himself, Isvara remains free from the taint of karma" (Vyasa's
commentary on yoga Sutra 1:25, cited in page 15).
In this move to considering the
metaphysics of the original speaker there is much to trouble some Western
Philosophers: circularity of argument, fixity of link between word and meaning,
dualism and a kind of telos attributed to consciousness. Coward is so clear in
his exposition that one grasps immediately where faith is required.
The scriptures are proof of Isvara,
and the authority of the scriptures comes from the fact that they are
manifestations of Isvara's sattva. "Clearly this argument is circular"
notes Coward, adding this "is a presupposition upon which the Yoga Sutra
definition of the authority of agama [verbal communication] with regard to
super sensuous matters is grounded" (p. 15).
Yoga is thus a set of techniques
for permitting the committed yogin to become one with Isvara, a mystical fusion
that entails losing one's impure personal ego. Language is central to this
mystical experience since in it sound and meaning become one. "It is Isvara
who is expressed by the word AUM: the sound of the word evokes its meaning"
(p17). The relation between word and meaning here is not by convention"
the relationship between Isvara and the word AUM is fixed like a lamp and its
light" (Vyasa cited in p. 17). Coward says that "AUM… as the beginningless
utterance of Isvara is the seed from which the Vedas arise. By meditatively
chanting AUM, the devotee will gradually purify his or her mind…. Then the
fully purified perception of Isvara as the eternally pure purusa and original
speaker of the Vedas opens the door to the devotee's realization of his or her
own purusa as also pure and free." (p. 20).
Coward objects to what he terms Eliade's
(1971, p. 74) rather 'flippant remark' in suggesting that Patanjali's
introduction of Isvara to the Sankhya soteriology is perfectly useless. Coward
suggests that without Isvara there would be no special help from the Vedas and
no special help from chanting AUM.
Unlike the materialism of Classical
Freudian Psychoanalysis the yoga system is ultimately a duality between pure
consciousness (purusa) and non-intelligent matter (prakrti). Further, yoga
posits a telos of consciousness. Coward notes "Yoga psychology maintains
that in itself consciousness [citta] is always attempting to move towards moksa
[release]. Therefore all the specific yoga techniques do is remove the
obstructions within the mind, and consciousness then passes naturally into the
state of moksa." (p. 36). It is a matter of getting out of our own way. Though
this requires dedication, as Coward shows.
Yoga assumes that humans are
perfectible to a very high degree. We can be restrained, truthful and capable
of noble silence. Of the five self-restraints recommended in Yoga truthfulness
(satya) requires most discipline. "Satya is the conformity of one's
speech and mind [citta vrtti] with the thing itself" (p36). There is a
link with the Buddhist notion of noble silence. "This vak [true speech] is
for the benefit of all beings, not for their injury" (p.36). "Utter
what is beneficial to others; do not utter what is true but injurious to
others…". (Manu, cited in Coward, p 36).
In the second part of his book,
Coward canvasses the challenges the yogic system of thought presents for what
he calls modern psychology, though the subjects he discusses are actually
psychoanalysts and transpersonalist psychology that flourished in the 1970's
though it still has some green shoots in the form of Ken Wilber.
Yoga teaches freedom and release
from the individual ego rather than the cultivation of ego-strength or uniqueness
endorsed in the west, entails a loss of individual ego. Yoga entails the
belief that the true nature of objects can be encountered when we have
transcended all of the material apparatus of body, senses and to some extent
individual mind. Yoga is not about control of the object, but of changing the
subject. It has a very precise array of techniques and practices to achieve
that, involving postures, breath-control, taming of the fluctuations of the
mind as a result of wandering senses, and an exquisite attention to the role
that habits of mind and perception play in distorting our grasp of reality so
that we can counter these habits, and be open to what is. With meditative
practice one becomes so subtly aware of the way that past traces, emotions and a
kind of sloth or heaviness marks one's consciousness that one can root out
those tendencies to an ever-increasing degree. Coward suggests that Yoga
assumes that when 'egoity' (sic) is overcome there is no further duality
between subject and object, only immediate intuition. Coward notes "yoga
psychology finds the essence of human nature to be at the transcendent level of
consciousness, where ego and unconscious desires have been excised" (p.
2). For Patanjali "the goal of Yoga is the complete overcoming of the
karmic traces and thus, in the end, the annihilation of the unconscious."
(p. 56). Yoga claims that human nature is not finite, that its ego limitations
can be transcended.
This illustrates once more that
Yoga assumes a virtually limitless capacity for perfection in humans, where
psychoanalysis has a much grittier, more embodied stance. For psychoanalysis
desire is here to stay, and while one can become more sublimated in the manner
of expressing desire, it is always desire that provides the motivation for
perception and remembering and any encounter with objects in the world. Coward
is right to say that for Western Psychology (excluding post-modern varieties), "it
is impossible to have a knowing experience without the presence of a knower",
but it is important to note that it need not be a conscious knower, or even a 'knower
in consciousness' as Coward (p.65) maintains. For Freud the knower may be but
a part of us, like a drive (see Maze, 1983), with the drive standing in knowing
relation to some object in the environment. For Freud the drives at the basis
of the unconscious cannot 'go away' or be transcended while a person is still
embodied. Coward suggests that yoga philosophy suggests that there is a state
in which such dualities as knower and known, subject and object are overcome,
and rather than unconsciousness, a clear consciousness persists.
Yet from a psychoanalytic point of
view the required annihilation of memory traces, of the unconscious and the
transcendence of bodily desire entailed in the egolessness that yoga suggests
we may aspire to, and that some dedicated yogis are said to achieve are not
Few philosophers or psychologists
in the West would suggest that we are able to know the ding an sich. Yet this is
precisely the aim of yoga; to be open to what is. Patanjali's sutras suggest,
says Coward that we can come to know the object itself unclouded by the habits
of perception, memories, associations that come to mind as a result of the word
we use in language to name the object and all the associations. In other
words, Yoga assumes that we can drop all the 'motes in the mind's eye'. These
motes or samskaras include all the traces of memories of past encounters with
similar objects, all biases of perception like perceptual readiness, desire,
schemas that make some features of an event more personally salient to us, even
the categories of knowledge of our particular culture which might prime us to
attend to certain features more than others and in time distort our
recollection of an object.
Coward notes however that
psychoanalysis and yoga do have similarities. " In theory, both yoga and
Freud agree that memory and motivation are parts of a single psychic process
which also embodies choice or selection" (p.55). That Freud would not
endorse choice in the sense of free will choice, is something that Coward is
aware of since he notes "Freud seems convinced that there is no such thing
as free will." (p.56). For Freud, seemingly free actions are under the
control of the unconscious and "determinism in the psychic realm is
carried out uninterruptedly" (pg 56). Coward notes it is "with this
final stand in favour of absolute determinism of the unconscious that Freud
sharply diverges from Yoga". Jung takes more of the middle path between
the two extremes according to Coward, though it is hard to see why since Jung
seems quite uncompromising in the account given here. He doesn't like the
emphasis on meditation, rejects reincarnation and suggests that egolessness is
impossible. Jung argued that his technique of active imagination was more
suited to the westerner than the meditation that yoga requires. He said Patanjali's
yogic practice would only exacerbate the 'overdevelopment of the will and the
conscious control of the psyche' (p. 64) already endemic in the West. Jung
thought it better to use active imagination that "leaves the integrative
processes of the ego-consciousness functional and thereby enables therapeutic
gains to be made." (p.67).
For yoga the samskaras (memory
traces) come from the 'individual history of that particular person's past
lives" (pp. 57-58). Jung flatly rejects the reincarnation of the
individual soul, but suggests that there are inherited archetypes, and that
these memory complexes from the history of mankind could organize our
perceptions and allow us to individuate as an individual ego provided that we
were dominated neither by archetype nor by instinct. Jung's notion of freedom
as 'individuating the archetypes' is the polar opposite notion of freedom to
that of yoga where freedom is known 'only when one gives up all ego-activity'
(p.58). Jung draws the line (it "is absolutely impossible to know what I
would experience when that "I" which could experience didn't exist
any more…." (Jung, 1939, cited in Coward, p.64) and suggests this is an
example of "Eastern intuition over-reaching itself." (p. 61).
The West falls short from the
Eastern point of view established by Coward, and Jung (seen by many in the West
to have moved well beyond science) emerges as a hard-headed man dismissing as
speculation what those within the tradition see as shored up by empirical
experience. After that journey we are left as readers with more insight as to
what issues are at stake as we take our position between immersion in the
material world and release from its limitations and our own.
Cooper, D.E. [Ed] (1999)
Epistemology: The Classic Readings. Oxford:Blackwell.
Maze, J.R. (1983) The Meaning of Behaviour,
London: Allen and Unwin.
© 2003 Doris McIlwain
Doris McIlwain, Department
of Psychology, Macquarie University, Australia.