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A Theory of Feelings Anger and Forgiveness"My Madness Saved Me"10 Good Questions about Life and Death12 Modern Philosophers50 Reasons People Give for Believing in a GodA Cabinet of Philosophical CuriositiesA Case for IronyA Companion to BioethicsA Companion to Buddhist PhilosophyA Companion to FoucaultA Companion to GenethicsA Companion to GenethicsA Companion to HumeA Companion to KantA Companion to Phenomenology and ExistentialismA Companion to PragmatismA Companion to the Philosophy of ActionA Companion to the Philosophy of BiologyA Companion to the Philosophy of LiteratureA Conceptual History of PsychologyA Critical Overview of Biological FunctionsA Critique of Naturalistic Philosophies of MindA Cursing Brain?A Delicate BalanceA Farewell to AlmsA Frightening LoveA Future for PresentismA Guide to the Good LifeA History of PsychiatryA History of the MindA Life Worth LivingA Manual of Experimental PhilosophyA Map of the MindA Metaphysics of PsychopathologyA Mind So RareA Natural History of Human MoralityA Natural History of Human ThinkingA Natural History of VisionA Parliament of MindsA Philosopher Looks at The Sense of HumorA Philosophical DiseaseA Philosophy of BoredomA Philosophy of Cinematic ArtA Philosophy of CultureA Philosophy of EmptinessA Philosophy of FearA Philosophy of PainA Physicalist ManifestoA Place for ConsciousnessA Question of TrustA Research Agenda for DSM-VA Revolution of the MindA Sentimentalist Theory of the MindA Stroll With William JamesA Tear is an Intellectual ThingA Theory of FreedomA Thousand MachinesA Universe of ConsciousnessA Very Bad WizardA Virtue EpistemologyA World Full of GodsA World Without ValuesAbout FaceAbout the Beginning of the Hermeneutics of the SelfAction and ResponsibilityAction in ContextAction Theory, Rationality and CompulsionAction, Contemplation, and HappinessAction, Emotion and WillAdam SmithAdaptive DynamicsAddictionAddictionAddiction and ResponsibilityAddiction Is a ChoiceAdvances in Identity Theory and ResearchAftermathAfterwarAgainst AdaptationAgainst AutonomyAgainst BioethicsAgainst HappinessAgainst HealthAgency and ActionAgency and AnswerabilityAgency and EmbodimentAgency and ResponsibilityAgency, Freedom, and Moral ResponsibilityAl-JununAlain BadiouAlain BadiouAlasdair MacIntyreAlien Landscapes?Altered EgosAn Anthology of Psychiatric EthicsAn Ethics for TodayAn Intellectual History of CannibalismAn Interpretation of DesireAn Introduction to EthicsAn Introduction to Kant's Moral Philosophy An Introduction to Philosophy of EducationAn Introduction to the Philosophy of MindAn Introduction to the Philosophy of MindAn Introduction to the Philosophy of PsychologyAn Introductory Philosophy of MedicineAn Odd Kind of FameAnalytic FreudAnalytic Philosophy in AmericaAncient AngerAncient Models of MindAncient Philosophy of the SelfAngerAnimal LessonsAnimal MindsAnimals Like UsAnnihilationAnother PlanetAnswers for AristotleAnti-ExternalismAnti-Individualism and KnowledgeAntigone’s ClaimAntipsychiatryAre We Hardwired?Are Women Human?Arguing about DisabilityArguing About Human NatureAristotle and the Philosophy of FriendshipAristotle on Practical WisdomAristotle's ChildrenAristotle's Ethics and Moral ResponsibilityAristotle, Emotions, and EducationArt & MoralityArt After Conceptual ArtArt in Three DimensionsArt, Self and KnowledgeArtificial ConsciousnessArtificial HappinessAspects of PsychologismAsylum to ActionAtonement and ForgivenessAttention is Cognitive UnisonAutobiography as PhilosophyAutonomyAutonomy and Mental DisorderAutonomy and the Challenges to LiberalismBabies by DesignBackslidingBadiouBadiou's DeleuzeBadiou, Balibar, Ranciere: Rethinking EmancipationBare Facts And Naked TruthsBasic Desert, Reactive Attitudes and Free WillBattlestar Galactica and PhilosophyBeautyBecoming a SubjectBecoming HumanBehavingBehavioral Genetics in the Postgenomic EraBeing AmoralBeing HumanBeing Mentally Ill: A Sociological Theory Being No OneBeing Realistic about ReasonsBeing ReducedBeing YourselfBelief's Own EthicsBending Over BackwardsBerlin Childhood around 1900Bernard WilliamsBertrand RussellBetter than BothBetter Than WellBetween Two WorldsBeyond HealthBeyond Hegel and NietzscheBeyond KuhnBeyond LossBeyond Moral JudgmentBeyond PostmodernismBeyond ReductionBeyond the DSM StoryBioethicsBioethics and the BrainBioethics in the ClinicBiological Complexity and Integrative PluralismBiology Is TechnologyBiosBipolar ExpeditionsBlackwell Companion to the Philosophy of EducationBlindsight & The Nature of ConsciousnessBlues - Philosophy for EveryoneBlushBob Dylan and PhilosophyBody ConsciousnessBody Image And Body SchemaBody ImagesBody LanguageBody MattersBody WorkBody-Subjects and Disordered MindsBoundBoundaries of the MindBoyleBrain Evolution and CognitionBrain FictionBrain, Mind, and Human Behavior in Contemporary Cognitive ScienceBrain-WiseBrainchildrenBrains, Buddhas, and BelievingBrainstormingBrave New WorldsBreakdown of WillBrief Child Therapy Homework PlannerBrief Inquiry into the Meaning of Sin and FaithBrief Therapy Homework PlannerBritain on the CouchBrute RationalityBuffy the Vampire Slayer and PhilosophyBut Is It Art?Camus and SartreCartesian LinguisticsCartographies of the MindCarving Nature at Its JointsCase Studies in Biomedical Research EthicsCassandra's DaughterCato's TearsCausation and CounterfactualsCauses, Laws, and Free WillChanging Conceptions of the Child from the Renaissance to Post-ModernityChanging the SubjectChaosophyCharacter and Moral Psychology Character as Moral FictionCharles DarwinCherishmentChildhood and the Philosophy of EducationChildrenChildren, Families, and Health Care Decision MakingChoices and ConflictChoosing Not to ChooseChristmas - Philosophy for EveryoneCinema, Philosophy, BergmanCinematic MythmakingCity and Soul in Plato's RepublicClassifying MadnessClear and Queer ThinkingClinical EthicsClinical Psychiatry in Imperial GermanyCodependent ForevermoreCoffee - Philosophy for EveryoneCognition and the BrainCognition of Value in Aristotle's EthicsCognition Through Understanding: Self-Knowledge, Interlocution, Reasoning, ReflectionCognitive BiologyCognitive FictionsCognitive Neuroscience of EmotionCognitive Systems and the Extended MindCognitive Systems and the Extended Mind Cognitive Theories of Mental IllnessCoherence in Thought and ActionCollected Papers, Volume 1Collected Papers, Volume 2College SexComedy IncarnateCommitmentCommunicative Action and Rational ChoiceCompetence, Condemnation, and CommitmentConcealment And ExposureConceptual Analysis and Philosophical NaturalismConceptual Art and PaintingConceptual Issues in Evolutionary BiologyConfessionsConfucianismConnected, or What It Means to Live in the Network SocietyConquest of AbundanceConscience and ConvenienceConsciousnessConsciousnessConsciousnessConsciousness ConsciousnessConsciousness and Its Place in NatureConsciousness and LanguageConsciousness and Mental LifeConsciousness and MindConsciousness and the NovelConsciousness and the SelfConsciousness EmergingConsciousness EvolvingConsciousness ExplainedConsciousness in ActionConsciousness RecoveredConsciousness RevisitedConsciousness, Color, and ContentConsole and ClassifyConstructing the WorldConstructive AnalysisContemporary Debates In Applied EthicsContemporary Debates in Moral TheoryContemporary Debates in Philosophy of BiologyContemporary Debates in Philosophy of MindContemporary Debates in Political PhilosophyContemporary Debates in Social PhilosophyContemporary Perspectives on Natural LawContested Knowledge: Social Theory TodayContesting PsychiatryContext and the AttitudesContinental Philosophy of ScienceControlControlling Our DestiniesConversations About Psychology and Sexual OrientationCopernicus, Darwin and FreudCrazy for YouCreating a Life of Meaning and CompassionCreating ConsilienceCreating HysteriaCreating Mental IllnessCreating Scientific ConceptsCreating the American JunkieCreation, Rationality and AutonomyCreatures Like Us?Crime and CulpabilityCrime, Punishment, and Mental IllnessCrimes of ReasonCritical New Perspectives on Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity DisorderCritical PsychiatryCritical PsychologyCritical ResistanceCritical Thinking About PsychologyCritical VisionsCross and KhoraCruel CompassionCTRL [SPACE]Cultural Psychology of the SelfCultural Theory: An IntroductionCulture and Psychiatric DiagnosisCulture and Subjective Well-BeingCulture of DeathCultures of NeurastheniaCurious EmotionsCurrent Controversies in Experimental PhilosophyCustom and Reason in HumeCustomers and Patrons of the Mad-TradeCutting God in Half - And Putting the Pieces Together AgainCylons in AmericaDamaged IdentitiesDamasio's Error and Descartes' TruthDangerous EmotionsDaniel DennettDaniel DennettDark AgesDarwin and DesignDarwin's Dangerous IdeaDarwin's LegacyDarwin, God and the Meaning of LifeDarwinian PsychiatryDarwinian ReductionismDarwinizing CultureDating: Philosophy for EveryoneDeathDeathDeath and CharacterDeath and CompassionDeath and the AfterlifeDebating DesignDebating HumanismDecision Making, Personhood and DementiaDecomposing the WillDeconstructing PsychotherapyDeconstruction and DemocracyDeeper Than DarwinDeeper than ReasonDefending Science - within ReasonDefining Psychopathology in the 21st CenturyDegrees of BeliefDelusion and Self-DeceptionDelusions and Other Irrational BeliefsDelusions and the Madness of the MassesDementiaDemons, Dreamers, and MadmenDennett and Ricoeur on the Narrative SelfDennett’s PhilosophyDepression Is a ChoiceDepression, Emotion and the SelfDepthDerrida, Deleuze, PsychoanalysisDescartesDescartes and the Passionate MindDescartes' CogitoDescartes's Changing MindDescartes's Concept of MindDescribing Inner Experience?Descriptions and PrescriptionsDesembodied Spirits and Deanimated Bodies Desert Islands and Other Texts (1953-1974)Desire and AffectDesire, Practical Reason, and the GoodDeveloping the VirtuesDiagnosing the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental DisordersDialectics of the SelfDid My Neurons Make Me Do It?Difference and IdentityDigital SoulDimensional Models of Personality DisordersDisability, Difference, DiscriminationDisjunctivismDisorders of VolitionDisorientation and Moral LifeDispatches from the Freud WarsDisrupted LivesDistractionDisturbed ConsciousnessDivided Minds and Successive SelvesDo Apes Read Minds?Do Fish Feel Pain?Do We Still Need Doctors?Does Consciousness Cause Behavior?Does the Woman Exist?Doing without ConceptsDon't Believe Everything You ThinkDonald DavidsonDonald Davidson on Truth, Meaning, and the MentalDoubting Darwin?Dreaming and Other Involuntary MentationDSM-IV SourcebookDSM-IV SourcebookDSM-IV-TR CasebookDworkin and His CriticsDying to KnowDynamics in ActionDysthymia and the Spectrum of Chronic DepressionsEccentricsEducational MetamorphosesEffective IntentionsElbow Room: The Varieties of Free Will Worth WantingEmbodied Minds in ActionEmbodied RhetoricsEmbodied Selves and Divided MindsEmbryos under the MicroscopeEmergencies in Mental Health PracticeEmerging Conceptual, Ethical and Policy Issues in BionanotechnologyEmotionEmotion and ConsciousnessEmotion and PsycheEmotion ExperienceEmotion RegulationEmotion, Evolution, And RationalityEmotional IntelligenceEmotional ReasonEmotional ReasonEmotional TruthEmotions in Humans and ArtifactsEmotions in the Moral LifeEmotions in the Moral LifeEmotions, Value, and AgencyEmpathyEmpathy and AgencyEmpathy and Moral DevelopmentEmpathy and MoralityEmpathy in the Context of PhilosophyEmpirical Ethics in PsychiatryEnchanted LoomsEngaging BuddhismEngineering the Human GermlineEnjoymentEnvyEpicureanismEpistemic LuckEpistemologyEpistemology and EmotionsEpistemology and the Psychology of Human JudgmentEros and the GoodErotic MoralityEssays in Social NeuroscienceEssays in the Metaphysics of Mind Essays on Derek Parfit's On What MattersEssays on Free Will and Moral ResponsibilityEssays on Nonconceptual ContentEssays on Philosophical CounselingEssays on Reference, Language, and MindEssays on the Concept of Mind in Early-Modern PhilosophyEssential Sources in the Scientific Study of ConsciousnessEsssential Philosophy of PsychiatryEternal Sunshine of the Spotless MindEthical Conflicts in PsychologyEthical Issues in Forensic Mental Health ResearchEthical Issues in Human CloningEthical TheoryEthicsEthicsEthics and the A PrioriEthics and the Metaphysics of MedicineEthics and Values in PsychotherapyEthics Done RightEthics ExpertiseEthics in Plain EnglishEthics in PracticeEthics in Psychiatric ResearchEthics of PsychiatryEthics without OntologyEuropean Review of Philosophy. Vol. 5Everyday IrrationalityEvil in Modern ThoughtEvolutionEvolution and the Human MindEvolution's RainbowEvolutionary Origins of MoralityEvolutionary PsychologyExamined LifeExamined LivesExistential AmericaExistentialismExistentialism and Romantic LoveExperimental PhilosophyExperimental PhilosophyExperimental PhilosophyExperimental Philosophy, Rationalism, and NaturalismExperiments in EthicsExplaining ConsciousnessExplaining the BrainExplaining the Computational MindExplanatory PluralismExploding the Gene MythExploring HappinessExploring the SelfExpression and the InnerExpressions of JudgmentFaces of IntentionFact and ValueFact and Value in EmotionFacts, Values, and NormsFads and Fallacies in the Social SciencesFaith and Wisdom in ScienceFatherhoodFear of KnowledgeFearless SpeechFeeling Pain and Being in PainFeelings and EmotionsFeelings of BeingFellow-Feeling and the Moral LifeFeminism and Its DiscontentsFeminism and Philosophy of ScienceFeminist Ethics and Social and Political PhilosophyFeminist Interpretations of Rene DescartesFeminist TheoryField Notes from ElsewhereFinding Consciousness in the BrainFingerprints of GodFlesh in the Age of ReasonFolk Psychological NarrativesFolk Psychology Re-AssessedForces of HabitForgivenessForgiveness and LoveForgiveness and RetributionFoucault 2.0Foucault and PhilosophyFoucault NowFoucault, Psychology and the Analytics of PowerFoundational Issues in Human Brain MappingFoundations of Ethical Practice, Research, and Teaching in PsychologyFour Views on Free WillFree WillFree WillFree WillFree WillFree Will and Action ExplanationFree Will and LuckFree Will And Moral ResponsibilityFree Will as an Open Scientific ProblemFree Will, Agency, and Meaning in LifeFree: Why Science Hasn't Disproved Free WillFreedomFreedom and DeterminismFreedom And NeurobiologyFreedom and ResponsibiltyFreedom and ValueFreedom EvolvesFreedom RegainedFreedom vs. InterventionFreedom, Fame, Lying, and BetrayalFreudFreud and the Question of PseudoscienceFreud As PhilosopherFreud's AnswerFreud, the Reluctant PhilosopherFriedrich NietzscheFrom Chance to ChoiceFrom Clinic to ClassroomFrom Complexity to LifeFrom Enlightenment to ReceptivityFrom Knowledge to Wisdom: A Revolution for Science and the HumanitiesFrom Morality to Mental HealthFrom Passions to EmotionsFrom Philosophy to PsychotherapyFrontiers of ConsciousnessFrontiers of JusticeFurnishing the MindGalileo in PittsburghGenderGender and Mental HealthGender in the MirrorGender TroubleGenesGenes, Women, EqualityGenetic Nature/CultureGenetic ProspectsGenetic ProspectsGenetic SecretsGenocide's AftermathGenomes and What to Make of ThemGerman Idealism and the JewGerman PhilosophyGetting HookedGilles DeleuzeGlobal PhilosophyGluttonyGod and Phenomenal ConsciousnessGoffman's LegacyGoing Amiss in Experimental ResearchGoodness & AdviceGrassroots SpiritualityGrave MattersGrave MattersGreedGreek Models of Mind and SelfGut ReactionsHabilitation, Health, and AgencyHabits of MindHallucinationHandbook of BioethicsHandbook of EmotionsHappinessHappinessHappinessHappinessHappiness and EducationHappiness and the Good LifeHappiness Is OverratedHappiness, Death, and the Remainder of LifeHard LuckHarmful ThoughtsHaving the World in ViewHealing PsychiatryHealing the Soul in the Age of the BrainHealth, Illness and DiseaseHealth, Science, and Ordinary LanguageHegelHeidegger and a Metaphysics of FeelingHeidegger, Metaphysics and the Univocity of BeingHermann von Helmholtz's MechanismHermeneutics As PoliticsHeterophobiaHeterosyncraciesHeuristics and BiasesHeuristics and the LawHidden ResourcesHidden SelvesHiding from HumanityHigh Art LiteHistorical OntologyHistory of Psychiatry and Medical PsychologyHistory, Historicity And ScienceHobbesHomosexualitiesHope and Dread in PsychoanalysisHot ThoughtHow Can I Be Trusted?How Can the Human Mind Occur in the Physical Universe?How Children Learn the Meanings of WordsHow Could Conscious Experiences Affect Brains?How Do We Know Who We Are?How Emotions WorkHow Emotions WorkHow History Made the MindHow Images ThinkHow is Nature Possible?How Propaganda WorksHow Science WorksHow Scientific Practices MatterHow Scientists Explain DiseaseHow The Body Shapes The MindHow the Body Shapes the Way We ThinkHow the Mind Explains BehaviorHow the Mind Uses the BrainHow to Make Opportunity EqualHow to Solve the Mind-Body Problemhow to stop timeHow to Think More About SexHow We HopeHow We ReasonHuman CloningHuman Development, Language and the Future of MankindHuman EnhancementHuman Evolution, Reproduction, and MoralityHuman GoodnessHuman Identity and BioethicsHuman NatureHuman NatureHuman Nature and the Limits of ScienceHuman-Built WorldHumanismHumanism, What's That?HumanityHumans, Animals, MachinesHumeHumeHume on Motivation and VirtueHusserlHystoriesI of the VortexI Was WrongIdeas that MatterIdentifying the MindIdentity and Agency in Cultural WorldsIgnorance and ImaginationIllnessImagination and Its PathologiesImagination and the Meaningful BrainImagining NumbersImmortal RemainsImproving Nature?In Defense of an Evolutionary Concept of HealthIn Defense of SentimentalityIn Love With LifeIn Praise of Athletic BeautyIn Praise of the WhipIn Pursuit of HappinessIn Search of HappinessIn the Name of GodIn the Name of IdentityIn the Space of ReasonsIn Two MindsIncompatibilism's AllureIndividual Differences in Conscious ExperienceInfinity and PerspectiveInformation ArtsInformed Consent in Medical ResearchIngmar Bergman, Cinematic PhilosopherInhuman ThoughtsInner PresenceInsanityIntegrating Psychotherapy and PharmacotherapyIntegrity and the Fragile SelfIntelligent VirtueIntentionIntentionality, Deliberation and AutonomyIntentions and IntentionalityIntentions and IntentionalityInterpreting MindsInterpreting NietzscheIntroducing Greek PhilosophyIntrospection and ConsciousnessIntrospection VindicatedIntuition, Imagination, and Philosophical MethodologyIntuitionismInvestigating the Psychological WorldIrrationalityIrrationalityIs Academic Feminism Dead?Is It Me or My Meds?Is Long-Term Therapy Unethical?Is Oedipus Online?Is Science Neurotic?Is Science Value Free?Is the Visual World a Grand Illusion?Is There a Duty to Die?Issues in Philosophical CounselingJacques LacanJacques RancièreJacques RanciereJean-Paul SartreJohn McDowellJohn SearleJohn Searle's Ideas About Social RealityJohn Stuart MillJohn Stuart Mill and the Writing of CharacterJoint AttentionJokesJonathan EdwardsJudging and UnderstandingJustice for ChildrenJustice in RobesJustice, Luck, and KnowledgeKantKant and MiltonKant and the Fate of AutonomyKant and the Limits of AutonomyKant and the Role of Pleasure in Moral ActionKant on Freedom, Law, and HappinessKant on Moral AutonomyKant's Anatomy of EvilKant's Anatomy of the Intelligent MindKant's Theory of VirtueKarl JaspersKarl PopperKey Concepts in PhilosophyKierkegaardKierkegaard as PhenomenologistKierkegaard's Concept of DespairKinds of MindsKinds, Things, and StuffKnowing, Knowledge and BeliefsKnowledge MonopoliesKnowledge, Belief, and CharacterKnowledge, Possibility, and ConsciousnessLacanLack of CharacterLack of CharacterLanguageLanguage in ContextLanguage, Consciousness, CultureLanguage, Culture, and MindLanguage, Vision, and MusicLaw and the BrainLaw, Liberty, and PsychiatryLaws, Mind, and Free WillLeaving YouLectures on the History of Political PhilosophyLevelling the Playing FieldLiberal Education in a Knowledge SocietyLiberatory PsychiatryLife and ActionLife at the Texas State Lunatic Asylum, 1857-1997Life Is Not a Game of PerfectLife of the MindLife's FormLife, Death, & MeaningLife, Death, and Meaning: Key Philosophical Readings on the Big Questions Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of UtilityLife, Sex, and IdeasLight in the Dark RoomLike a Splinter in Your MindLiving and Dying WellLiving NarrativeLiving Outside Mental IllnessLiving with DarwinLiving With One’s PastLockeLocke LockeLogic and the Art of Memory Loneliness in Philosophy, Psychology, and LiteratureLooking for SpinozaLooking for The StrangerLost SoulsLOT 2LoveLoveLove's ConfusionsLove's VisionLove, Friendship, and the SelfLove, Sex & TragedyLuckyLudwig WittgensteinLustLyingMachine ConsciousnessMad for FoucaultMad TravelersMade with WordsMadness And Death In PhilosophyMadness and DemocracyMadness at HomeMadness Is CivilizationMaking Natural KnowledgeMaking Sense of EvolutionMaking Sense of Freedom and ResponsibilityMaking the DSM-5Making the Social WorldMaking TruthMale Female EmailMan, Beast, and ZombieMandated Reporting of Suspected Child AbuseManiaManic Depression and CreativityMapping the Edges and the In-betweenMapping the Future of BiologyMarcus AureliusMaster PassionsMatters of the MindMe++Meaning and Moral OrderMeaning and Value in a Secular AgeMeaning in LifeMeaning in Life and Why It MattersMeaning, Basic Self-Knowledge, and MindMeasuring HappinessMeasuring PsychopathologyMedia MadnessMedical Enhancement and PosthumanityMedicine and Philosophy in Classical AntiquityMedicine of the PersonMedicine, Mental Health, Religion, Science and Well-BeingMelancholy And the Care of the SoulMelancholy and the Otherness of GodMementoMemory and NarrativeMental ActionsMental CausationMental Causation and OntologyMental HealthMental Health At The CrossroadsMental Health Policy in BritainMerit, Meaning, and Human BondageMerleau-PontyMerleau-Ponty and the Possibilities of PhilosophyMetacognition and Theory of MindMetacreationMetaethical SubjectivismMetaethicsMetal and FleshMetaphors of MemoryMetapoliticsMethods in MindMichel FoucaultMill's UtilitarianismMindMindMind and ConsciousnessMind and CosmosMind and MechanismMind GamesMind in a Physical WorldMind in Everyday Life and Cognitive ScienceMind in LifeMind TimeMind's LandscapeMind, Brain and the Elusive SoulMind, Brain, and Free WillMind, Reason and ImaginationMinding MindsMindreadersMindreading AnimalsMinds and PersonsMinds, Brains, and LawMinds, Ethics, and ConditionalsMindshapingMindsightMindworldsMirror, MirrorMixed FeelingsMockingbird YearsModels of the SelfModern Social ImaginariesModern Theories of JusticeModernity and SubjectivityModernity and TechnologyMoody Minds DistemperedMoral BrainsMoral DimensionsMoral FailureMoral ImaginationMoral LiteracyMoral MachinesMoral ParticularismMoral PsychologyMoral Psychology and Human AgencyMoral Psychology, Volume 1Moral Psychology, Volume 2Moral Psychology, Volume 3Moral Psychology: Volume IVMoral RepairMoral Responsibility and Alternative PossibilitiesMoral TribesMoral Value and Human DiversityMorality and Self-InterestMorality in a Natural WorldMorality, Moral Luck and ResponsibilityMotherhoodMotive and RightnessMoving Beyond Prozac, DSM, and the New PsychiatryMultiple Analogies in Science and PhilosophyMultiple Identities & False MemoriesMusic, Madness, and the Unworking of LanguageMy Brain Made Me Do ItMy Double UnveiledMy WayNarrativeNarrative and IdentityNarrative MedicineNarrative PsychiatryNarrative Theory and the Cognitive SciencesNatural Ethical FactsNatural Kinds and Conceptual ChangeNatural MindsNatural-Born CybogsNaturalism and the First-Person PerspectiveNaturalism and the Human ConditionNaturalism in the Philosophy of HealthNaturalism in the Philosophy of HealthNaturalized BioethicsNaturalizing the MindNatureNature and NarrativeNear Death ExperienceNeither Bad nor MadNeither Victim nor SurvivorNeuro-Philosophy and the Healthy MindNeuroethicsNeuroethicsNeurological Foundations of Cognitive Neuroscience Neurophilosophy at WorkNeurophilosophy of Free WillNeuropoliticsNeuropsychoanalysis in PracticeNeuroscience and PhilosophyNew Essays on the Explanation of ActionNew Philosophy for a New MediaNew Versions of VictimsNew Waves in Philosophy of ActionNietzscheNietzsche and Buddhist PhilosophyNietzsche on Ethics and PoliticsNietzsche's TherapyNietzsche, Culture and EducationNietzsche: The Man and His PhilosophyNihil UnboundNoir AnxietyNormative EthicsNormativityNorms of NatureNotebooks 1951-1959Notes Toward a Performative Theory of AssemblyNothing So AbsurdOblivionOn AnxietyOn ApologyOn Being AuthenticOn Being AuthenticOn BeliefOn BetrayalOn BullshitOn DelusionOn DesireOn EmotionsOn HashishOn Human RightsOn Loving Our EnemiesOn Nature and LanguageOn PersonalityOn ReflectionOn Romantic LoveOn the EmotionsOn the Freud WatchOn the Government of the LivingOn the Human ConditionOn the InternetOn the Meaning of LifeOn the Philosophy of LawOn the Pragmatics of CommunicationOn the Punitive SocietyOn TruthOn Virtue EthicsOn What MattersOn What We Owe to Each OtherOne Hundred DaysOnflowOnly a Promise of HappinessOntology of ConsciousnessOpen MindedOpen Your EyesOrgans without BodiesOther MindsOur Last Great IllusionOur Own MindsOur Posthuman FutureOur StoriesOut of Its MindOut of Our HeadsOxford Guide to the MindOxford Handbook of Psychiatric EthicsOxford Textbook of Philosophy of PsychiatryPanic DisorderPanpsychism in the WestPartialityPassionate EnginesPassionate EnginesPathologies of BeliefPathologies of ReasonPatient Autonomy and the Ethics of ResponsibilityPC, M.D.Perceiving the WorldPerception & CognitionPerception and Basic BeliefsPerception, Hallucination, and IllusionPerceptual ExperiencePerfecting VirtuePerplexities of ConsciousnessPersistencePersonal AutonomyPersonal Autonomy in SocietyPersonal IdentityPersonal Identity and EthicsPersonal Identity and Fractured SelvesPersonhood and Health CarePersonsPersons and BodiesPersons, Humanity, and the Definition of DeathPersons, Souls and DeathPerspectives on ImitationPerspectives on PragmatismPessimismPhenomenal Concepts and Phenomenal KnowledgePhenomenal ConsciousnessPhenomenal IntentionalityPhenomenology and ExistentialismPhenomenology and Philosophy of MindPhilosophersPhilosophers on MusicPhilosophers without GodsPhilosophical CounselingPhilosophical Counselling and the UnconsciousPhilosophical DevicesPhilosophical Foundations of NeurosciencePhilosophical History and the Problem of ConsciousnessPhilosophical Issues in PsychiatryPhilosophical Issues in PsychiatryPhilosophical Issues in Psychiatry IIPhilosophical MethodologyPhilosophical MidwiferyPhilosophical Myths of the FallPhilosophical Perspectives on DepictionPhilosophical Perspectives on Technology and PsychiatryPhilosophical PracticePhilosophical Reflections on DisabilityPhilosophizing About Sex Philosophizing the EverydayPhilosophy and HappinessPhilosophy and LivingPhilosophy and PsychiatryPhilosophy and PsychotherapyPhilosophy and Science FictionPhilosophy and the EmotionsPhilosophy and the EmotionsPhilosophy and the Interpretation of Pop CulturePhilosophy and the Moving ImagePhilosophy and the NeurosciencesPhilosophy and This Actual WorldPhilosophy As FictionPhilosophy BitesPhilosophy Bites BackPhilosophy for Counselling and PsychotherapyPhilosophy for LifePhilosophy in a New CenturyPhilosophy in an Age of SciencePhilosophy in Children's LiteraturePhilosophy of ActionPhilosophy of ActionPhilosophy of BiologyPhilosophy of BiologyPhilosophy of BiologyPhilosophy of BiologyPhilosophy of BodyPhilosophy of Film and Motion PicturesPhilosophy of LovePhilosophy of Love, Sex, and MarriagePhilosophy of MindPhilosophy of Mind and CognitionPhilosophy of Personal Identity and Multiple PersonalityPhilosophy of PsychologyPhilosophy of Public HealthPhilosophy of SciencePhilosophy of SciencePhilosophy of Technology: The Technological ConditionPhilosophy of the Social SciencesPhilosophy on TapPhilosophy PracticePhilosophy the Day after TomorrowPhilosophy's Role in Counseling and PsychotherapyPhilosophy, Neuroscience and ConsciousnessPhilosophy, Politics, DemocracyPhotography and PhilosophyPhysical RealizationPhysicalism and Its DiscontentsPhysicalism and Mental CausationPhysicalism, or Something Near EnoughPhysician-Assisted DyingPillar of SaltPin-up GrrrlsPlatoPlatoPlato, Not Prozac!Platonic Ethics, Old and NewPluralistic CasuistryPolarities of ExperiencesPolitical EmotionsPopper, Objectivity and the Growth of KnowledgePornPorn StudiesPornography, Sex, and FeminismPortrait of the Psychiatrist as a Young ManPostcolonial DisordersPostpsychiatryPosttraumatic Stress DisorderPower and the SelfPower SplitPractical Autonomy and BioethicsPractical ConflictsPractical Identity and Narrative AgencyPractical PhilosophyPractical RulesPractical Tortoise RaisingPractically ProfoundPracticing Feminist Ethics in PsychologyPragmatic BioethicsPragmatismPragmatism, Old And NewPraise and BlamePredicative MindsPreferences and Well-BeingPrescriptions for the MindPresocraticsPrimary and Secondary QualitiesPrimates and PhilosophersPrivacyPrivileged AccessProblems in MindProblems of RationalityProzac As a Way of LifeProzac BacklashProzac on the CouchPsyche and SomaPsychiatric Aspects of Justification, Excuse and Mitigation in Anglo-American Criminal Law Psychiatric Cultures ComparedPsychiatric Diagnosis and ClassificationPsychiatric EthicsPsychiatric HegemonyPsychiatric PowerPsychiatric SlaveryPsychiatry and Philosophy of SciencePsychiatry and ReligionPsychiatry as a Human SciencePsychiatry as Cognitive NeurosciencePsychiatry in SocietyPsychiatry in the New MilleniumPsychiatry in the Scientific ImagePsychiatry, Psychoanalysis, And The New Biology Of MindPsycho-Physical Dualism TodayPsychoanalysis and Narrative MedicinePsychoanalysis and the Philosophy of SciencePsychological Concepts and Biological PsychiatryPsychology and PhilosophyPsychology and the Question of AgencyPsychology's Interpretive TurnPsychology, Psychotherapy, Psychoanalysis, and the Politics of Human RelationshipsPsychotherapy and ConfidentialityPsychotherapy As PraxisPublic PhilosophyPunishmentPure ImmanencePurple HazePursuing MeaningQuality of Life and Human DifferenceQueer PhilosophyQuestions for FreudQuestions for FreudQuine and Davidson on Language, Thought and RealityRaceRace in Contemporary MedicineRadiant CoolRadical AlterityRadical ExternalismRadical HopeRational and Social AgencyRational CausationRational Choice in an Uncertain WorldRationality + Consciousness = Free WillRationality and FreedomRationality and the Reflective MindRationality in ActionRawls, Dewey, and ConstructivismRe-creating MedicineRe-EmergenceRe-Engineering Philosophy for Limited BeingsReading AutobiographyReading Bernard WilliamsReading SartreReadings in the Philosophy of TechnologyReal MaterialismReal Natures and Familiar ObjectsReal ScienceRealism in ActionReason & EmancipationReason in ActionReason in PhilosophyReason's GriefReasonably ViciousReasoning About Rational AgentsReasoning in Biological DiscoveriesReasons from WithinReasons without RationalismReclaiming CognitionReclaiming the SoulReconceiving SchizophreniaReconstructing Reason and RepresentationReconstructing the Cognitive WorldRecreative MindsRediscovering EmotionRediscovering EmpathyReference and ExistenceReference and the Rational MindReflections On How We LiveReframing Disease ContextuallyRefusing CareRegulating SexReinventing the SoulRelativism and Human RightsRelativism and the Foundations of PhilosophyRelativism and the Foundations of PhilosophyReliable ReasoningReligion without GodRelying on OthersRemembering HomeResponsibility and PunishmentResponsibility and PunishmentResponsibility from the MarginsRestraining RageRethinking ExpertiseRethinking IntrospectionRethinking Mental Health and DisorderRethinking RapeRethinking the DSMRethinking the Sociology of Mental HealthRethinking the Western Understanding of the SelfReturn to ReasonRevolt, She SaidRichard RortyRichard RortyRichard RortyRichard RortyRichard RortyRichard Rorty's New PragmatismRightsRights, Democracy, and Fulfillment in the Era of Identity PoliticsRise And Fall of Soul And SelfRitalin NationRobert NozickRousseauRousseau and the Dilemmas of Modernity Routledge Philosophy Guidebook to Derrida on DeconstructionRules, Reason, and Self-KnowledgeSaints, Scholars, 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Essays on Nonconceptual ContentReview - Essays on Nonconceptual Content
by York H. Gunther (Editor)
MIT Press, 2003
Review by Paul Coates, Ph.D.
Oct 20th 2003 (Volume 7, Issue 43)

York Gunther has edited a useful collection of essays on a hot topic in the philosophy of mind:  the notion of nonconceptual content.  As several of the writers included do well to remind us, there is no consensus over what exactly nonconceptual content is.  One rough formulation is that nonconceptual content belongs to certain inner states of humans and other creatures, states that have content in so far as they represent other states of affairs, but are such that the subject does not, or cannot exercise the concepts that would be used in articulating such content.  Much, though not all of the initial impetus for introducing the notion of nonconceptual content arose from considerations about perception and its role in our mental economy.  Perception involves the processing of information from the environment, is essential for concept acquisition, and seems on the face of things to be a process enjoyed by creatures that either lack concepts, or, on some interpretations, have only very rudimentary, "low-level" concepts. 

Following a general introduction, the collection is divided into four sections, which overlap to some extent in the issues covered.  Each section is introduced by a further brief set of comments.  The first two sections contain most of the central articles on nonconceptual content that have helped to shape the contemporary debate.  Part I, Preliminaries, contains selections from Fred Dretske's Knowledge and the Flow of Information on sensation and perception; extracts from chapter six of Gareth Evans's The Varieties of Reference, on demonstrative identification, though nothing from his equally important chapter seven;  and chapter three of John McDowell's Mind and World.  Part II, Naturalism and Computation, contains a more recent paper by Robert Stalnaker, 'What Might Nonconceptual Content Be?', Christopher Peacocke's 'Scenarios, Concepts and Perception', parts of Adrian Cussins's 'The Connectionist Construction of Concepts', together with a recent postscript, Andy Clark's 'Connectionism and Cognitive Flexibility', and Jose Bermudez's 'Nonconceptual Content: From Perceptual Experience to Subpersonal States'.

Part III is entitled 'The Nature of Experience' and is headed by a recent paper by Sean Kelly on the implications of the fact that experiences involve fineness of grain.  Also included in this section are Tim Crane's 'The Waterfall Illusion', Michael Martin's 'Perception Concepts and Memory', David Hamlyn's 'Perception, Sensation and Nonconceptual Content', Michael Tye's 'A Representational Theory of Pains and Their Phenomenal Character' and one new paper by York Gunther, 'Emotion and Force'.  The final part IV contains the debate between Bermudez and Peacocke on the Autonomy Thesis, that it is possible for a creature to be in states with nonconceptual content, even though that creature possesses no concepts at all.

I begin with some general comments about approaches to the question of attributing states with nonconceptual content, and then offer a few specific comments on some of the more recent material.

In his useful introduction, Gunther attempts to clarify the general idea of nonconceptual content,  and spells out some of the ambiguities and alternatives covered in the notion.  Gunther does a good job of sorting out several of the distinctions that can be made in clarifying exactly what determines a state as having conceptual content, and what it therefore means, precisely, to say that a state does not conform to those requirements, and hence does not qualify as a conceptual state.  As he also points out, we need to distinguish between claims about whether being in a state with nonconceptual content entails that the subject does not exercise the concepts that would be involved in articulating the conceptual content, or cannot exercise them.  The issue, as he expresses it, is what precisely is meant by the 'non-' in nonconceptual content. 

But there are deeper problems with the whole notion of nonconceptual content, which some of the contributors address.  How does our external conception of such perceptual processes relate to the conception that depends essentially on our first-person perspective?  Take the case of vision.  Considered from the external, third-person perspective, there are good reasons for holding that visual perception involves a series of stages.  Some papers in this collection in effect treat vision in this way.  One important tradition in cognitive psychology holds that there is a key intermediate level of processing in which the sensory input in vision is represented in the form of a low-level map-like array;  the information at this level is taken up selectively by the higher level attentional processes, and links with the cognitive processes of memory, planning, goal choice and the selection of action types.  If an account like this is broadly correct, then the question arises as to which states in the information processing chain have nonconceptual content -- low-level sensory arrays, or subsequent, possibly higher level, action-guiding states, or both? 

Certainly, the conception of an inner sensory experience that is arrived at from this third-person perspective is very different from than that derived from considerations underpinned by the first-person perspective, which appeals to the phenomenology of perceptual experience.  Dretske, for example, treats perception largely from the external third person standpoint in his selection.  Admittedly, at one point Dretske refers to the impression of seeing more than can be 'consciously noticed or attended to', but there is no attempt to show how the two different conceptions of experience are integrated.  For the main part, his treatment of seeing is, as it were, "from the outside", considering a person as one might consider a sophisticated robot.  From this external perspective on perception, both the low-level sensory array, and higher level certain action guiding states can be held to involve different kinds of nonconceptual content.  Such contents contribute, in different ways, towards explanations of both perceptual learning, and also targeted behaviour.

First-person considerations about perceptual experience suggest rather different motives for introducing nonconceptual content.  Hence the appeal to what is distinctive about perception is not straightforward.  This point is worth spelling out more fully. 

Suppose, for example, I see someone catch a ball I throw to them.  I can see that they have a visual experience, just as I can see that a kettle is boiling.  Such seeing is in one sense direct, in that my perceptual belief need not be inferentially based upon any prior belief:  I simply form the perceptual belief that the other person is visually aware of the ball coming towards them.  If asked subsequently why I formed the belief I had, I could cite facts about how that person's eyes was oriented, how they moved and so on;  but at the time I may not have formed any conscious beliefs of this kind.  Such perceptual beliefs about the other's experience are defeasible;  it is possible, from my epistemic standpoint, that they did not in fact have any visual awareness of the ball.  The access we have here to another's experience is from a third-person perspective.

We also have a very different kind of access to perceptual experience, the direct first-person access to what is going on in conscious experience in our own case.  I may decide to take up an introspect attitude, and attend to what it is that my consciousness involves when, for example, I have a visual experience while I am looking at an object, or while engaged in some activity such as riding a bicycle, or juggling.  But even without my adopting any special introspective attitude, there remains the fact that when I perceive an object in my surroundings, my awareness involves a first-person perspective that contrasts with the different kind of awareness I have when I perceive the perceptually guided activity of another person. 

What I am aware of in my own case involves a distinctive phenomenology that is lacking when I find out about the perceptual states of another through observing their behaviour.  Because of the subjective phenomenology, available from the first-person perspective on experience, I come to understand perceptual experience as comprising the vivid conscious state that it is.  As Gunther points out, perceptual experience has a 'specificity of content, a richness of detail and a fineness of grain'.  Although such aspects are potentially cashable in terms of the subject's ability to behaviourally discriminate and otherwise react to its environment, the grasp we have of the distinctive nature of perceptual experience is arrived at primarily because we have this subjective, immediate, access to our conscious states.

The first person access we have to experience suggests a certain line of argument for nonconceptual content .  Just as with perception, we have two different perspectives on our own beliefs and other intentional states.  As is well-known, there are competing accounts about the exact processes by which we come to have beliefs about another person's beliefs and other propositional attitudes.  But on any account, how I arrive at direct knowledge of my own thoughts, etc., differs from the way that I come to know about the thoughts of another.  Again, first-person and third-person perspectives differ. 

It seems reasonable to claim that part of my grasp of the content of the concept of belief involves an understanding of the role of beliefs as connected with reasoning, planning and action.  But, importantly, I understand pure intentional states, such as thought and belief, to be very different in kind from perceptual states and processes.  There may be some degree of overlap:  experiences, in the wide sense of the term, involve some kind of conceptualisation, at least at a low level.  When I am conscious of seeing something, I necessarily see it as belonging to a certain kind, even if the classification is broad and indeterminate, perhaps merely involving a disposition to react to what I see as "a roughly round shape".  So in this inclusive sense, all experience involves low-level classificatory content, which is manifested in my expectancies, and involves propensities to act in specific kinds of ways.  But -- and this is the crucial point --we abstract the representational content from the context of the subjective experience.  We consider the organism from the outside, as a physical mechanism navigating through its surroundings, by means of inner representations of some kind.  In so far as we grasp the content of representational states as connected with patterns of potential behaviour in this objective way, we grasp such content from an external, third-person perspective.  This purely external notion of content is what many theorists have in mind when they speak of nonconceptual content.

The key point, however, is that perceptual experiences involve something more than the (low level) classificatory content.  Seeing a red patch of colour in front of me, or hearing a noise as situated on my left is, from a phenomenological point of view, fundamentally different from merely thinking about a patch of red in front of me, or thinking that there is some noise source situated on my left (which I may now no longer hear because I have inserted ear-plugs).  Experiencing things is fundamentally different from merely being inclined to react to features of my environment in ways appropriate to them.  There is therefore a compelling prima facie argument, from the first-person standpoint, for the view that perceptual experiences involve a form of sensory nonconceptual content that does justice to the phenomenal aspects of conscious experience.  (This line of thought is suggested by Wilfrid Sellars's seminal writings, especially in his later papers, on the place of sensory states in our conceptual scheme, of which there is no mention in this collection.)  In discussions of nonconceptual content it is not always made clear in what way externally based motivations for introducing the notion of nonconceptual content are connected with this first-person, subjective perspective.  Indeed, the external conception of nonconceptual content, content arising from considerations about the explanation of actions, might less misleadingly be labelled 'low-level conceptual content', to indicate the continuity between such content and high-level fully conceptual states.  This would help to distinguish it from sensory nonconceptual content (it is interesting that Peacocke has on occasions referred to low-level conceptual content of this kind as 'proto-propositional content').

One matter where the distinction is important concerns the types of content that are in play.  Many writers seem to equate representational content with intentional content.  But this equation can be questioned;  it is arguable that intentional content only arises when there is some kind of conscious classification of experience, and where such a classification can be directly utilised in the formation of plans for medium and long term action.  Intentional content is forward-looking.  In an interesting paper related to this issue, Stalnaker develops the idea that the representational content of nonconceptual states is a form of informational content, and can be construed as attaching to many different kinds of states, including beliefs:  he concludes that 'different kinds of states have the same kind of content, but …it is nonconceptual all the way up.'  However, informational content is backward looking, to be explicated, if at all, in terms of input under ideal circumstances.  This conception may be relevant to the content of the sensory aspect of perception, but it is doubtful whether any clear sense of the notion can be articulated for belief states, which can be caused in too many different ways.

 The distinction of perspectives is also relevant to the question of the fine grained character of visual experience, a feature that provides one motive for introducing nonconceptual content.  In his contribution, Kelly discusses the debate between Peacocke and McDowell on fineness of grain.  This originated with Evans's claim that we can discriminate more colour shades in experience than we have concepts for.  Our general colour concepts seem to be more restricted than our experiences.  McDowell countered Evans's claim by appealing to the employment of demonstrative concepts that could be expressed by usages such as 'that shade'.  Peacocke's objection to this idea, as set out in his 1998 comments on McDowell in Philosophy and Phenomenological Research, rests in part on the fact that there are too many demonstrative concepts potentially available.  In a reply to this particular objection, Kelly defends the idea that we could specify on a principled basis the demonstrative concepts that are relevant to identifying the fine shade differences in experience.  He does not, however, deal with the more detailed and persuasive arguments against McDowell's position, which Peacocke develops in his 2001 Journal of Philosophy paper (not included in this collection). 

Kelly then goes on to produce an interesting argument of his own against McDowell, based upon the phenomena of colour constancy.  In brief, the thrust of his argument is that demonstrative references to the objective colour shades possessed by objects fail to capture the experience of colour, since the same surface can appear differently in experience under different lighting conditions.  I may rightly take a surface I perceive to be uniform in colour, even though my experience of different regions of the surface varies because the surface is poorly lit in some areas.  There are subtleties here about the extent to which our beliefs influence how we experience things, but it seems right to say that, in some sense, experience does not correspond directly with the simple colour properties of the objects, when these are considered independently of the surroundings.  Thus Kelly claims, 'the complete and accurate account of my perceptual experience of an object must contain some reference to the lighting context in which that colour is perceived.'  In a further argument, following Merleau-Ponty (and also Peacocke), Kelly argues on phenomenological grounds that that colour experience is dependent upon the nature and type of object that the colour is perceived to be a property of.  Kelly concludes that a demonstrative concept like 'that shade' is inadequate to account for experience, and that therefore perceptual content is nonconceptual.  

It is not clear to me whether it might be possible for McDowell to rescue his argument here by appealing to some more complex kind of demonstrative, one that takes the context into account.  But in any event, Kelly's argument on this issue does not go far enough.  He appears to accept the basic externalist view of experience defended by McDowell.  Experiences are to be identified in terms of the actual properties objects (and also perhaps their relations in the context) surrounding the perceiver.  Yet reflection on further cases such as double vision shows that this now widely accepted view cannot be correct.  Suppose I see an apple as double.  For reasons which are independent of any external features, it may be that the shades I am subjectively aware of, in experiencing the two images of that object, are different.  The image of the apple on the left may appear a yellower shade of red than the image on the right (I have a some kind of jaundice which is affecting the two eyes differently, say).  Hence it is not true to say that we must identify the shades I am aware of by reference to any external objects.  I am able to identify them, on a particular occasion, directly.  I appeal to subjective, phenomenological considerations.  Of course this is compatible with a much weaker form of externalism, on which it is held that this general ability is supported by the general connections that normally hold between external objects and my experiences. 

The only new complete paper here is Gunther's own contribution.  He considers the status of the content of emotional states.  According to Gunther, emotions involve intentionality, and are irreducible; however, they involve nonconceptual content, since the emotional content violates the principle of force independence that is associated with the full blown logical complexity of conceptual contentful states.

In a postscript added for this volume, Peacocke revises his views on the autonomy thesis.  Peacocke now argues that there can be spatial contents that, while having objective significance, are still nonconceptual -- they need not lead on to full judgements, which would involve the capacity to reflect on the reasons or grounds for their justification.  There can, therefore, be creatures with states involving nonconceptual content, but who lack conceptual capacities.

In another added postscript, Cussins elaborates the idea that nonconceptual content is connected with our actions.  He spells out the way the notion of how the world can be nonconceptually presented, as a realm of mediation that enables a subject to negotiate along activity trails.  These trails are structures in the world that guide us in carrying out our tasks;  such content is a form of practical knowledge (that would appear to connect in interesting ways with the idea of the mastery of "sensorimotor contingencies" that O'Regan and Noë appeal to, in a number of recent publications).

Unfortunately, Cussins is unable here to respond to the arguments of Andy Clark, set out in the latter's valuable recent paper, 'Visual Experience and Motor Action: Are the Bonds Too Tight', in the Philosophical Review (2001), a paper which discusses semi-automatic responses involving the on-line control of action.  (As is inevitable with collections of papers on cutting edge research, some important papers emerge to late to be included.)  Clark argues on empirical grounds, derived in part from the research of Milner and Goodale, that there are very different conceptions of nonconceptual content currently being debated.  He argues forcefully for a distinction between the action-guiding -- apparently non-conscious -- notion of nonconceptual content, and a different notion that reflects our conscious experience.  Combining Clark's line of thought with the distinction argued for above on more a priori grounds, between the representational content of sensory nonconceptual states and the nonconceptual content of higher level classificatory states, this all suggests that there are at least three distinct notions of nonconceptual content that should be taken into consideration in theorising about experience an action.

Nevertheless, despite these criticisms, overall this is a valuable collection of articles on an important issue in the philosophy of mind.  Gunther has done a useful service to his fellow philosophers in bringing them together.

 

© 2003 Paul Coates

 

Paul Coates, Philosophy, University of Hertfordshire


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