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A Theory of Feelings Anger and Forgiveness"My Madness Saved Me"10 Good Questions about Life and Death12 Modern Philosophers50 Reasons People Give for Believing in a GodA Cabinet of Philosophical CuriositiesA Case for IronyA Companion to BioethicsA Companion to Buddhist PhilosophyA Companion to FoucaultA Companion to GenethicsA Companion to GenethicsA Companion to HumeA Companion to KantA Companion to Phenomenology and ExistentialismA Companion to PragmatismA Companion to the Philosophy of ActionA Companion to the Philosophy of BiologyA Companion to the Philosophy of LiteratureA Conceptual History of PsychologyA Critical Overview of Biological FunctionsA Critique of Naturalistic Philosophies of MindA Cursing Brain?A Delicate BalanceA Farewell to AlmsA Frightening LoveA Future for PresentismA Guide to the Good LifeA History of PsychiatryA History of the MindA Life Worth LivingA Manual of Experimental PhilosophyA Map of the MindA Metaphysics of PsychopathologyA Mind So RareA Natural History of Human MoralityA Natural History of Human ThinkingA Natural History of VisionA Parliament of MindsA Philosopher Looks at The Sense of HumorA Philosophical DiseaseA Philosophy of BoredomA Philosophy of Cinematic ArtA Philosophy of CultureA Philosophy of EmptinessA Philosophy of FearA Philosophy of PainA Physicalist ManifestoA Place for ConsciousnessA Question of TrustA Research Agenda for DSM-VA Revolution of the MindA Sentimentalist Theory of the MindA Stroll With William JamesA Tear is an Intellectual ThingA Theory of FreedomA Thousand MachinesA Universe of ConsciousnessA Very Bad WizardA Virtue EpistemologyA World Full of GodsA World Without ValuesAbout FaceAbout the Beginning of the Hermeneutics of the SelfAction and ResponsibilityAction in ContextAction Theory, Rationality and CompulsionAction, Contemplation, and HappinessAction, Emotion and WillAdam SmithAdaptive DynamicsAddictionAddictionAddiction and ResponsibilityAddiction Is a ChoiceAdvances in Identity Theory and ResearchAftermathAfterwarAgainst AdaptationAgainst AutonomyAgainst BioethicsAgainst HappinessAgainst HealthAgency and ActionAgency and AnswerabilityAgency and EmbodimentAgency and ResponsibilityAgency, Freedom, and Moral ResponsibilityAl-JununAlain BadiouAlain BadiouAlasdair MacIntyreAlien Landscapes?Altered EgosAn Anthology of Psychiatric EthicsAn Ethics for TodayAn Intellectual History of CannibalismAn Interpretation of DesireAn Introduction to EthicsAn Introduction to Kant's Moral Philosophy An Introduction to Philosophy of EducationAn Introduction to the Philosophy of MindAn Introduction to the Philosophy of MindAn Introduction to the Philosophy of PsychologyAn Introductory Philosophy of MedicineAn Odd Kind of FameAnalytic FreudAnalytic Philosophy in AmericaAncient AngerAncient Models of MindAncient Philosophy of the SelfAngerAnimal LessonsAnimal MindsAnimals Like UsAnnihilationAnother PlanetAnswers for AristotleAnti-ExternalismAnti-Individualism and KnowledgeAntigone’s ClaimAntipsychiatryAre We Hardwired?Are Women Human?Arguing about DisabilityArguing About Human NatureAristotle and the Philosophy of FriendshipAristotle on Practical WisdomAristotle's ChildrenAristotle's Ethics and Moral ResponsibilityAristotle, Emotions, and EducationArt & MoralityArt After Conceptual ArtArt in Three DimensionsArt, Self and KnowledgeArtificial ConsciousnessArtificial HappinessAspects of PsychologismAsylum to ActionAtonement and ForgivenessAttention is Cognitive UnisonAutobiography as PhilosophyAutonomyAutonomy and Mental DisorderAutonomy and the Challenges to LiberalismBabies by DesignBackslidingBadiouBadiou's DeleuzeBadiou, Balibar, Ranciere: Rethinking EmancipationBare Facts And Naked TruthsBasic Desert, Reactive Attitudes and Free WillBattlestar Galactica and PhilosophyBeautyBecoming a SubjectBecoming HumanBehavingBehavioral Genetics in the Postgenomic EraBeing AmoralBeing HumanBeing Mentally Ill: A Sociological Theory Being No OneBeing Realistic about ReasonsBeing ReducedBeing YourselfBelief's Own EthicsBending Over BackwardsBerlin Childhood around 1900Bernard WilliamsBertrand RussellBetter than BothBetter Than WellBetween Two WorldsBeyond HealthBeyond Hegel and NietzscheBeyond KuhnBeyond LossBeyond Moral JudgmentBeyond PostmodernismBeyond ReductionBeyond the DSM StoryBioethicsBioethics and the BrainBioethics in the ClinicBiological Complexity and Integrative PluralismBiology Is TechnologyBiosBipolar ExpeditionsBlackwell Companion to the Philosophy of EducationBlindsight & The Nature of ConsciousnessBlues - Philosophy for EveryoneBlushBob Dylan and PhilosophyBody ConsciousnessBody Image And Body SchemaBody ImagesBody LanguageBody MattersBody WorkBody-Subjects and Disordered MindsBoundBoundaries of the MindBoyleBrain Evolution and CognitionBrain FictionBrain, Mind, and Human Behavior in Contemporary Cognitive ScienceBrain-WiseBrainchildrenBrains, Buddhas, and BelievingBrainstormingBrave New WorldsBreakdown of WillBrief Child Therapy Homework PlannerBrief Inquiry into the Meaning of Sin and FaithBrief Therapy Homework PlannerBritain on the CouchBrute RationalityBuffy the Vampire Slayer and PhilosophyBut Is It Art?Camus and SartreCartesian LinguisticsCartographies of the MindCarving Nature at Its JointsCase Studies in Biomedical Research EthicsCassandra's DaughterCato's TearsCausation and CounterfactualsCauses, Laws, and Free WillChanging Conceptions of the Child from the Renaissance to Post-ModernityChanging the SubjectChaosophyCharacter and Moral Psychology Character as Moral FictionCharles DarwinCherishmentChildhood and the Philosophy of EducationChildrenChildren, Families, and Health Care Decision MakingChoices and ConflictChoosing Not to ChooseChristmas - Philosophy for EveryoneCinema, Philosophy, BergmanCinematic MythmakingCity and Soul in Plato's RepublicClassifying MadnessClear and Queer ThinkingClinical EthicsClinical Psychiatry in Imperial GermanyCodependent ForevermoreCoffee - Philosophy for EveryoneCognition and the BrainCognition of Value in Aristotle's EthicsCognition Through Understanding: Self-Knowledge, Interlocution, Reasoning, ReflectionCognitive BiologyCognitive FictionsCognitive Neuroscience of EmotionCognitive Systems and the Extended MindCognitive Systems and the Extended Mind Cognitive Theories of Mental IllnessCoherence in Thought and ActionCollected Papers, Volume 1Collected Papers, Volume 2College SexComedy IncarnateCommitmentCommunicative Action and Rational ChoiceCompetence, Condemnation, and CommitmentConcealment And ExposureConceptual Analysis and Philosophical NaturalismConceptual Art and PaintingConceptual Issues in Evolutionary BiologyConfessionsConfucianismConnected, or What It Means to Live in the Network SocietyConquest of AbundanceConscience and ConvenienceConsciousnessConsciousnessConsciousnessConsciousness ConsciousnessConsciousness and Its Place in NatureConsciousness and LanguageConsciousness and Mental LifeConsciousness and MindConsciousness and the NovelConsciousness and the SelfConsciousness EmergingConsciousness EvolvingConsciousness ExplainedConsciousness in ActionConsciousness RecoveredConsciousness RevisitedConsciousness, Color, and ContentConsole and ClassifyConstructing the WorldConstructive AnalysisContemporary Debates In Applied EthicsContemporary Debates in Moral TheoryContemporary Debates in Philosophy of BiologyContemporary Debates in Philosophy of MindContemporary Debates in Political PhilosophyContemporary Debates in Social PhilosophyContemporary Perspectives on Natural LawContested Knowledge: Social Theory TodayContesting PsychiatryContext and the AttitudesContinental Philosophy of ScienceControlControlling Our DestiniesConversations About Psychology and Sexual OrientationCopernicus, Darwin and FreudCrazy for YouCreating a Life of Meaning and CompassionCreating ConsilienceCreating HysteriaCreating Mental IllnessCreating Scientific ConceptsCreating the American JunkieCreation, Rationality and AutonomyCreatures Like Us?Crime and CulpabilityCrime, Punishment, and Mental IllnessCrimes of ReasonCritical New Perspectives on Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity DisorderCritical PsychiatryCritical PsychologyCritical ResistanceCritical Thinking About PsychologyCritical VisionsCross and KhoraCruel CompassionCTRL [SPACE]Cultural Psychology of the SelfCultural Theory: An IntroductionCulture and Psychiatric DiagnosisCulture and Subjective Well-BeingCulture of DeathCultures of NeurastheniaCurious EmotionsCurrent Controversies in Experimental PhilosophyCustom and Reason in HumeCustomers and Patrons of the Mad-TradeCutting God in Half - And Putting the Pieces Together AgainCylons in AmericaDamaged IdentitiesDamasio's Error and Descartes' TruthDangerous EmotionsDaniel DennettDaniel DennettDark AgesDarwin and DesignDarwin's Dangerous IdeaDarwin's LegacyDarwin, God and the Meaning of LifeDarwinian PsychiatryDarwinian ReductionismDarwinizing CultureDating: Philosophy for EveryoneDeathDeathDeath and CharacterDeath and CompassionDeath and the AfterlifeDebating DesignDebating HumanismDecision Making, Personhood and DementiaDecomposing the WillDeconstructing PsychotherapyDeconstruction and DemocracyDeeper Than DarwinDeeper than ReasonDefending Science - within ReasonDefining Psychopathology in the 21st CenturyDegrees of BeliefDelusion and Self-DeceptionDelusions and Other Irrational BeliefsDelusions and the Madness of the MassesDementiaDemons, Dreamers, and MadmenDennett and Ricoeur on the Narrative SelfDennett’s PhilosophyDepression Is a ChoiceDepression, Emotion and the SelfDepthDerrida, Deleuze, PsychoanalysisDescartesDescartes and the Passionate MindDescartes' CogitoDescartes's Changing MindDescartes's Concept of MindDescribing Inner Experience?Descriptions and PrescriptionsDesembodied Spirits and Deanimated Bodies Desert Islands and Other Texts (1953-1974)Desire and AffectDesire, Practical Reason, and the GoodDiagnosing the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental DisordersDialectics of the SelfDid My Neurons Make Me Do It?Difference and IdentityDigital SoulDimensional Models of Personality DisordersDisability, Difference, DiscriminationDisjunctivismDisorders of VolitionDisorientation and Moral LifeDispatches from the Freud WarsDisrupted LivesDistractionDisturbed ConsciousnessDivided Minds and Successive SelvesDo Apes Read Minds?Do Fish Feel Pain?Do We Still Need Doctors?Does Consciousness Cause Behavior?Does the Woman Exist?Doing without ConceptsDon't Believe Everything You ThinkDonald DavidsonDonald Davidson on Truth, Meaning, and the MentalDoubting Darwin?Dreaming and Other Involuntary MentationDSM-IV SourcebookDSM-IV SourcebookDSM-IV-TR CasebookDworkin and His CriticsDying to KnowDynamics in ActionDysthymia and the Spectrum of Chronic DepressionsEccentricsEducational MetamorphosesEffective IntentionsElbow Room: The Varieties of Free Will Worth WantingEmbodied Minds in ActionEmbodied RhetoricsEmbodied Selves and Divided MindsEmbryos under the MicroscopeEmergencies in Mental Health PracticeEmerging Conceptual, Ethical and Policy Issues in BionanotechnologyEmotionEmotion and ConsciousnessEmotion and PsycheEmotion ExperienceEmotion RegulationEmotion, Evolution, And RationalityEmotional IntelligenceEmotional ReasonEmotional ReasonEmotional TruthEmotions in Humans and ArtifactsEmotions in the Moral LifeEmotions in the Moral LifeEmotions, Value, and AgencyEmpathyEmpathy and AgencyEmpathy and Moral DevelopmentEmpathy and MoralityEmpathy in the Context of PhilosophyEmpirical Ethics in PsychiatryEnchanted LoomsEngaging BuddhismEngineering the Human GermlineEnjoymentEnvyEpicureanismEpistemic LuckEpistemologyEpistemology and EmotionsEpistemology and the Psychology of Human JudgmentEros and the GoodErotic MoralityEssays in Social NeuroscienceEssays in the Metaphysics of Mind Essays on Derek Parfit's On What MattersEssays on Free Will and Moral ResponsibilityEssays on Nonconceptual ContentEssays on Philosophical CounselingEssays on Reference, Language, and MindEssays on the Concept of Mind in Early-Modern PhilosophyEssential Sources in the Scientific Study of ConsciousnessEsssential Philosophy of PsychiatryEternal Sunshine of the Spotless MindEthical Conflicts in PsychologyEthical Issues in Forensic Mental Health ResearchEthical Issues in Human CloningEthical TheoryEthicsEthicsEthics and the A PrioriEthics and the Metaphysics of MedicineEthics and Values in PsychotherapyEthics Done RightEthics ExpertiseEthics in Plain EnglishEthics in PracticeEthics in Psychiatric ResearchEthics of PsychiatryEthics without OntologyEuropean Review of Philosophy. Vol. 5Everyday IrrationalityEvil in Modern ThoughtEvolutionEvolution and the Human MindEvolution's RainbowEvolutionary Origins of MoralityEvolutionary PsychologyExamined LifeExamined LivesExistential AmericaExistentialismExistentialism and Romantic LoveExperimental PhilosophyExperimental PhilosophyExperimental PhilosophyExperimental Philosophy, Rationalism, and NaturalismExperiments in EthicsExplaining ConsciousnessExplaining the BrainExplaining the Computational MindExplanatory PluralismExploding the Gene MythExploring HappinessExploring the SelfExpression and the InnerExpressions of JudgmentFaces of IntentionFact and ValueFact and Value in EmotionFacts, Values, and NormsFads and Fallacies in the Social SciencesFaith and Wisdom in ScienceFatherhoodFear of KnowledgeFearless SpeechFeeling Pain and Being in PainFeelings and EmotionsFeelings of BeingFellow-Feeling and the Moral LifeFeminism and Its DiscontentsFeminism and Philosophy of ScienceFeminist Ethics and Social and Political PhilosophyFeminist Interpretations of Rene DescartesFeminist TheoryField Notes from ElsewhereFinding Consciousness in the BrainFingerprints of GodFlesh in the Age of ReasonFolk Psychological NarrativesFolk Psychology Re-AssessedForces of HabitForgivenessForgiveness and LoveForgiveness and RetributionFoucault 2.0Foucault and PhilosophyFoucault NowFoucault, Psychology and the Analytics of PowerFoundational Issues in Human Brain MappingFoundations of Ethical Practice, Research, and Teaching in PsychologyFour Views on Free WillFree WillFree WillFree WillFree WillFree Will and Action ExplanationFree Will and LuckFree Will And Moral ResponsibilityFree Will as an Open Scientific ProblemFree Will, Agency, and Meaning in LifeFree: Why Science Hasn't Disproved Free WillFreedomFreedom and DeterminismFreedom And NeurobiologyFreedom and ResponsibiltyFreedom and ValueFreedom EvolvesFreedom RegainedFreedom vs. InterventionFreedom, Fame, Lying, and BetrayalFreudFreud and the Question of PseudoscienceFreud As PhilosopherFreud's AnswerFreud, the Reluctant PhilosopherFriedrich NietzscheFrom Chance to ChoiceFrom Clinic to ClassroomFrom Complexity to LifeFrom Enlightenment to ReceptivityFrom Knowledge to Wisdom: A Revolution for Science and the HumanitiesFrom Morality to Mental HealthFrom Passions to EmotionsFrom Philosophy to PsychotherapyFrontiers of ConsciousnessFrontiers of JusticeFurnishing the MindGalileo in PittsburghGenderGender and Mental HealthGender in the MirrorGender TroubleGenesGenes, Women, EqualityGenetic Nature/CultureGenetic ProspectsGenetic ProspectsGenetic SecretsGenocide's AftermathGenomes and What to Make of ThemGerman Idealism and the JewGerman PhilosophyGetting HookedGilles DeleuzeGlobal PhilosophyGluttonyGod and Phenomenal ConsciousnessGoffman's LegacyGoing Amiss in Experimental ResearchGoodness & AdviceGrassroots SpiritualityGrave MattersGrave MattersGreedGreek Models of Mind and SelfGut ReactionsHabilitation, Health, and AgencyHabits of MindHallucinationHandbook of BioethicsHandbook of EmotionsHappinessHappinessHappinessHappinessHappiness and EducationHappiness and the Good LifeHappiness Is OverratedHappiness, Death, and the Remainder of LifeHard LuckHarmful ThoughtsHaving the World in ViewHealing PsychiatryHealing the Soul in the Age of the BrainHealth, Illness and DiseaseHealth, Science, and Ordinary LanguageHegelHeidegger and a Metaphysics of FeelingHeidegger, Metaphysics and the Univocity of BeingHermann von Helmholtz's MechanismHermeneutics As PoliticsHeterophobiaHeterosyncraciesHeuristics and BiasesHeuristics and the LawHidden ResourcesHidden SelvesHiding from HumanityHigh Art LiteHistorical OntologyHistory of Psychiatry and Medical PsychologyHistory, Historicity And ScienceHobbesHomosexualitiesHope and Dread in PsychoanalysisHot ThoughtHow Can I Be Trusted?How Can the Human Mind Occur in the Physical Universe?How Children Learn the Meanings of WordsHow Could Conscious Experiences Affect Brains?How Do We Know Who We Are?How Emotions WorkHow Emotions WorkHow History Made the MindHow Images ThinkHow is Nature Possible?How Propaganda WorksHow Science WorksHow Scientific Practices MatterHow Scientists Explain DiseaseHow The Body Shapes The MindHow the Body Shapes the Way We ThinkHow the Mind Explains BehaviorHow the Mind Uses the BrainHow to Make Opportunity EqualHow to Solve the Mind-Body Problemhow to stop timeHow to Think More About SexHow We HopeHow We ReasonHuman CloningHuman Development, Language and the Future of MankindHuman EnhancementHuman Evolution, Reproduction, and MoralityHuman GoodnessHuman Identity and BioethicsHuman NatureHuman NatureHuman Nature and the Limits of ScienceHuman-Built WorldHumanismHumanism, What's That?HumanityHumans, Animals, MachinesHumeHumeHume on Motivation and VirtueHusserlHystoriesI of the VortexI Was WrongIdeas that MatterIdentifying the MindIdentity and Agency in Cultural WorldsIgnorance and ImaginationIllnessImagination and Its PathologiesImagination and the Meaningful BrainImagining NumbersImmortal RemainsImproving Nature?In Defense of an Evolutionary Concept of HealthIn Defense of SentimentalityIn Love With LifeIn Praise of Athletic BeautyIn Praise of the WhipIn Pursuit of HappinessIn Search of HappinessIn the Name of GodIn the Name of IdentityIn the Space of ReasonsIn Two MindsIncompatibilism's AllureIndividual Differences in Conscious ExperienceInfinity and PerspectiveInformation ArtsInformed Consent in Medical ResearchIngmar Bergman, Cinematic PhilosopherInhuman ThoughtsInner PresenceInsanityIntegrating Psychotherapy and PharmacotherapyIntegrity and the Fragile SelfIntelligent VirtueIntentionIntentionality, Deliberation and AutonomyIntentions and IntentionalityIntentions and IntentionalityInterpreting MindsInterpreting NietzscheIntroducing Greek PhilosophyIntrospection and ConsciousnessIntrospection VindicatedIntuition, Imagination, and Philosophical MethodologyIntuitionismInvestigating the Psychological WorldIrrationalityIrrationalityIs Academic Feminism Dead?Is It Me or My Meds?Is Long-Term Therapy Unethical?Is Oedipus Online?Is Science Neurotic?Is Science Value Free?Is the Visual World a Grand Illusion?Is There a Duty to Die?Issues in Philosophical CounselingJacques LacanJacques RancièreJacques RanciereJean-Paul SartreJohn McDowellJohn SearleJohn Searle's Ideas About Social RealityJohn Stuart MillJohn Stuart Mill and the Writing of CharacterJoint AttentionJokesJonathan EdwardsJudging and UnderstandingJustice for ChildrenJustice in RobesJustice, Luck, and KnowledgeKantKant and MiltonKant and the Fate of AutonomyKant and the Limits of AutonomyKant and the Role of Pleasure in Moral ActionKant on Freedom, Law, and HappinessKant on Moral AutonomyKant's Anatomy of EvilKant's Anatomy of the Intelligent MindKant's Theory of VirtueKarl JaspersKarl PopperKey Concepts in PhilosophyKierkegaardKierkegaard as PhenomenologistKierkegaard's Concept of DespairKinds of MindsKinds, Things, and StuffKnowing, Knowledge and BeliefsKnowledge MonopoliesKnowledge, Belief, and CharacterKnowledge, Possibility, and ConsciousnessLacanLack of CharacterLack of CharacterLanguageLanguage in ContextLanguage, Consciousness, CultureLanguage, Culture, and MindLanguage, Vision, and MusicLaw and the BrainLaw, Liberty, and PsychiatryLaws, Mind, and Free WillLeaving YouLectures on the History of Political PhilosophyLevelling the Playing FieldLiberal Education in a Knowledge SocietyLiberatory PsychiatryLife and ActionLife at the Texas State Lunatic Asylum, 1857-1997Life Is Not a Game of PerfectLife of the MindLife's FormLife, Death, & MeaningLife, Death, and Meaning: Key Philosophical Readings on the Big Questions Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of UtilityLife, Sex, and IdeasLight in the Dark RoomLike a Splinter in Your MindLiving and Dying WellLiving NarrativeLiving Outside Mental IllnessLiving with DarwinLiving With One’s PastLockeLocke LockeLogic and the Art of Memory Loneliness in Philosophy, Psychology, and LiteratureLooking for SpinozaLooking for The StrangerLost SoulsLOT 2LoveLoveLove's ConfusionsLove's VisionLove, Friendship, and the SelfLove, Sex & TragedyLuckyLudwig WittgensteinLustLyingMachine ConsciousnessMad for FoucaultMad TravelersMade with WordsMadness And Death In PhilosophyMadness and DemocracyMadness at HomeMadness Is CivilizationMaking Natural KnowledgeMaking Sense of EvolutionMaking Sense of Freedom and ResponsibilityMaking the DSM-5Making the Social WorldMaking TruthMale Female EmailMan, Beast, and ZombieMandated Reporting of Suspected Child AbuseManiaManic Depression and CreativityMapping the Edges and the In-betweenMapping the Future of BiologyMarcus AureliusMaster PassionsMatters of the MindMe++Meaning and Moral OrderMeaning and Value in a Secular AgeMeaning in LifeMeaning in Life and Why It MattersMeaning, Basic Self-Knowledge, and MindMeasuring HappinessMeasuring PsychopathologyMedia MadnessMedical Enhancement and PosthumanityMedicine and Philosophy in Classical AntiquityMedicine of the PersonMedicine, Mental Health, Religion, Science and Well-BeingMelancholy And the Care of the SoulMelancholy and the Otherness of GodMementoMemory and NarrativeMental ActionsMental CausationMental Causation and OntologyMental HealthMental Health At The CrossroadsMental Health Policy in BritainMerit, Meaning, and Human BondageMerleau-PontyMerleau-Ponty and the Possibilities of PhilosophyMetacognition and Theory of MindMetacreationMetaethical SubjectivismMetaethicsMetal and FleshMetaphors of MemoryMetapoliticsMethods in MindMichel FoucaultMill's UtilitarianismMindMindMind and ConsciousnessMind and CosmosMind and MechanismMind GamesMind in a Physical WorldMind in Everyday Life and Cognitive ScienceMind in LifeMind TimeMind's LandscapeMind, Brain and the Elusive SoulMind, Brain, and Free WillMind, Reason and ImaginationMinding MindsMindreadersMindreading AnimalsMinds and PersonsMinds, Brains, and LawMinds, Ethics, and ConditionalsMindshapingMindsightMindworldsMirror, MirrorMixed FeelingsMockingbird YearsModels of the SelfModern Social ImaginariesModern Theories of JusticeModernity and SubjectivityModernity and TechnologyMoody Minds DistemperedMoral DimensionsMoral FailureMoral ImaginationMoral LiteracyMoral MachinesMoral ParticularismMoral PsychologyMoral Psychology and Human AgencyMoral Psychology, Volume 1Moral Psychology, Volume 2Moral Psychology, Volume 3Moral Psychology: Volume IVMoral RepairMoral Responsibility and Alternative PossibilitiesMoral TribesMoral Value and Human DiversityMorality and Self-InterestMorality in a Natural WorldMorality, Moral Luck and ResponsibilityMotherhoodMotive and RightnessMoving Beyond Prozac, DSM, and the New PsychiatryMultiple Analogies in Science and PhilosophyMultiple Identities & False MemoriesMusic, Madness, and the Unworking of LanguageMy Brain Made Me Do ItMy Double UnveiledMy WayNarrativeNarrative and IdentityNarrative MedicineNarrative PsychiatryNarrative Theory and the Cognitive SciencesNatural Ethical FactsNatural Kinds and Conceptual ChangeNatural MindsNatural-Born CybogsNaturalism and the First-Person PerspectiveNaturalism and the Human ConditionNaturalism in the Philosophy of HealthNaturalism in the Philosophy of HealthNaturalized BioethicsNaturalizing the MindNatureNature and NarrativeNear Death ExperienceNeither Bad nor MadNeither Victim nor SurvivorNeuro-Philosophy and the Healthy MindNeuroethicsNeuroethicsNeurological Foundations of Cognitive Neuroscience Neurophilosophy at WorkNeurophilosophy of Free WillNeuropoliticsNeuropsychoanalysis in PracticeNeuroscience and PhilosophyNew Essays on the Explanation of ActionNew Philosophy for a New MediaNew Versions of VictimsNew Waves in Philosophy of ActionNietzscheNietzsche and Buddhist PhilosophyNietzsche on Ethics and PoliticsNietzsche's TherapyNietzsche, Culture and EducationNietzsche: The Man and His PhilosophyNihil UnboundNoir AnxietyNormative EthicsNormativityNorms of NatureNotebooks 1951-1959Notes Toward a Performative Theory of AssemblyNothing So AbsurdOblivionOn AnxietyOn ApologyOn Being AuthenticOn Being AuthenticOn BeliefOn BetrayalOn BullshitOn DelusionOn DesireOn EmotionsOn HashishOn Human RightsOn Loving Our EnemiesOn Nature and LanguageOn PersonalityOn ReflectionOn Romantic LoveOn the EmotionsOn the Freud WatchOn the Government of the LivingOn the Human ConditionOn the InternetOn the Meaning of LifeOn the Philosophy of LawOn the Pragmatics of CommunicationOn the Punitive SocietyOn TruthOn Virtue EthicsOn What MattersOn What We Owe to Each OtherOne Hundred DaysOnflowOnly a Promise of HappinessOntology of ConsciousnessOpen MindedOpen Your EyesOrgans without BodiesOther MindsOur Last Great IllusionOur Own MindsOur Posthuman FutureOur StoriesOut of Its MindOut of Our HeadsOxford Guide to the MindOxford Handbook of Psychiatric EthicsOxford Textbook of Philosophy of PsychiatryPanic DisorderPanpsychism in the WestPartialityPassionate EnginesPassionate EnginesPathologies of BeliefPathologies of ReasonPatient Autonomy and the Ethics of ResponsibilityPC, M.D.Perceiving the WorldPerception & CognitionPerception and Basic BeliefsPerception, Hallucination, and IllusionPerceptual ExperiencePerfecting VirtuePerplexities of ConsciousnessPersistencePersonal AutonomyPersonal Autonomy in SocietyPersonal IdentityPersonal Identity and EthicsPersonal Identity and Fractured SelvesPersonhood and Health CarePersonsPersons and BodiesPersons, Humanity, and the Definition of DeathPersons, Souls and DeathPerspectives on ImitationPerspectives on PragmatismPessimismPhenomenal Concepts and Phenomenal KnowledgePhenomenal ConsciousnessPhenomenal IntentionalityPhenomenology and ExistentialismPhenomenology and Philosophy of MindPhilosophersPhilosophers on MusicPhilosophers without GodsPhilosophical CounselingPhilosophical Counselling and the UnconsciousPhilosophical DevicesPhilosophical Foundations of NeurosciencePhilosophical History and the Problem of ConsciousnessPhilosophical Issues in PsychiatryPhilosophical Issues in PsychiatryPhilosophical Issues in Psychiatry IIPhilosophical MethodologyPhilosophical MidwiferyPhilosophical Myths of the FallPhilosophical Perspectives on DepictionPhilosophical Perspectives on Technology and PsychiatryPhilosophical PracticePhilosophical Reflections on DisabilityPhilosophizing About Sex Philosophizing the EverydayPhilosophy and HappinessPhilosophy and LivingPhilosophy and PsychiatryPhilosophy and PsychotherapyPhilosophy and Science FictionPhilosophy and the EmotionsPhilosophy and the EmotionsPhilosophy and the Interpretation of Pop CulturePhilosophy and the Moving ImagePhilosophy and the NeurosciencesPhilosophy and This Actual WorldPhilosophy As FictionPhilosophy BitesPhilosophy Bites BackPhilosophy for Counselling and PsychotherapyPhilosophy for LifePhilosophy in a New CenturyPhilosophy in an Age of SciencePhilosophy in Children's LiteraturePhilosophy of ActionPhilosophy of ActionPhilosophy of BiologyPhilosophy of BiologyPhilosophy of BiologyPhilosophy of BiologyPhilosophy of BodyPhilosophy of Film and Motion PicturesPhilosophy of LovePhilosophy of Love, Sex, and MarriagePhilosophy of MindPhilosophy of Mind and CognitionPhilosophy of Personal Identity and Multiple PersonalityPhilosophy of PsychologyPhilosophy of Public HealthPhilosophy of SciencePhilosophy of SciencePhilosophy of Technology: The Technological ConditionPhilosophy of the Social SciencesPhilosophy on TapPhilosophy PracticePhilosophy the Day after TomorrowPhilosophy's Role in Counseling and PsychotherapyPhilosophy, Neuroscience and ConsciousnessPhilosophy, Politics, DemocracyPhotography and PhilosophyPhysical RealizationPhysicalism and Its DiscontentsPhysicalism and Mental CausationPhysicalism, or Something Near EnoughPhysician-Assisted DyingPillar of SaltPin-up GrrrlsPlatoPlatoPlato, Not Prozac!Platonic Ethics, Old and NewPluralistic CasuistryPolarities of ExperiencesPolitical EmotionsPopper, Objectivity and the Growth of KnowledgePornPorn StudiesPornography, Sex, and FeminismPortrait of the Psychiatrist as a Young ManPostcolonial DisordersPostpsychiatryPosttraumatic Stress DisorderPower and the SelfPower SplitPractical Autonomy and BioethicsPractical ConflictsPractical Identity and Narrative AgencyPractical PhilosophyPractical RulesPractical Tortoise RaisingPractically ProfoundPracticing Feminist Ethics in PsychologyPragmatic BioethicsPragmatismPragmatism, Old And NewPraise and BlamePredicative MindsPreferences and Well-BeingPrescriptions for the MindPresocraticsPrimary and Secondary QualitiesPrimates and PhilosophersPrivacyPrivileged AccessProblems in MindProblems of RationalityProzac As a Way of LifeProzac BacklashProzac on the CouchPsyche and SomaPsychiatric Aspects of Justification, Excuse and Mitigation in Anglo-American Criminal Law Psychiatric Cultures ComparedPsychiatric Diagnosis and ClassificationPsychiatric EthicsPsychiatric PowerPsychiatric SlaveryPsychiatry and Philosophy of SciencePsychiatry and ReligionPsychiatry as a Human SciencePsychiatry as Cognitive NeurosciencePsychiatry in SocietyPsychiatry in the New MilleniumPsychiatry in the Scientific ImagePsychiatry, Psychoanalysis, And The New Biology Of MindPsycho-Physical Dualism TodayPsychoanalysis and Narrative MedicinePsychoanalysis and the Philosophy of SciencePsychological Concepts and Biological PsychiatryPsychology and PhilosophyPsychology and the Question of AgencyPsychology's Interpretive TurnPsychology, Psychotherapy, Psychoanalysis, and the Politics of Human RelationshipsPsychotherapy and ConfidentialityPsychotherapy As PraxisPublic PhilosophyPunishmentPure ImmanencePurple HazePursuing MeaningQuality of Life and Human DifferenceQueer PhilosophyQuestions for FreudQuestions for FreudQuine and Davidson on Language, Thought and RealityRaceRace in Contemporary MedicineRadiant CoolRadical AlterityRadical ExternalismRadical HopeRational and Social AgencyRational CausationRational Choice in an Uncertain WorldRationality + Consciousness = Free WillRationality and FreedomRationality and the Reflective MindRationality in ActionRawls, Dewey, and ConstructivismRe-creating MedicineRe-EmergenceRe-Engineering Philosophy for Limited BeingsReading AutobiographyReading Bernard WilliamsReading SartreReadings in the Philosophy of TechnologyReal MaterialismReal Natures and Familiar ObjectsReal ScienceRealism in ActionReason & EmancipationReason in ActionReason in PhilosophyReason's GriefReasonably ViciousReasoning About Rational AgentsReasoning in Biological DiscoveriesReasons from WithinReasons without RationalismReclaiming CognitionReclaiming the SoulReconceiving SchizophreniaReconstructing Reason and RepresentationReconstructing the Cognitive WorldRecreative MindsRediscovering EmotionRediscovering EmpathyReference and ExistenceReference and the Rational MindReflections On How We LiveReframing Disease ContextuallyRefusing CareRegulating SexReinventing the SoulRelativism and Human RightsRelativism and the Foundations of PhilosophyRelativism and the Foundations of PhilosophyReliable ReasoningReligion without GodRelying on OthersRemembering HomeResponsibility and PunishmentResponsibility and PunishmentResponsibility from the MarginsRestraining RageRethinking ExpertiseRethinking IntrospectionRethinking Mental Health and DisorderRethinking RapeRethinking the DSMRethinking the Sociology of Mental HealthRethinking the Western Understanding of the SelfReturn to ReasonRevolt, She SaidRichard RortyRichard RortyRichard RortyRichard RortyRichard RortyRichard Rorty's New PragmatismRightsRights, Democracy, and Fulfillment in the Era of Identity PoliticsRise And Fall of Soul And SelfRitalin NationRobert NozickRousseauRousseau and the Dilemmas of Modernity Routledge Philosophy Guidebook to Derrida on DeconstructionRules, Reason, and Self-KnowledgeSaints, Scholars, and Schizophrenics: Mental 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ZizekReview - Zizek
A Critical Introduction
by Sarah Kay
Polity Press, 2003
Review by Adrian Johnston, Ph.D.
Jun 17th 2003 (Volume 7, Issue 25)

One of Slavoj Zizek's favorite recent references is a short 1997 book on Gilles Deleuze by Alain Badiou, Deleuze:  La clameur de l'ètre.  In this text, Badiou contends that the typical first impressions arising from a reading of Deleuze's works tend to reinforce a misinterpretation of him as philosophically celebrating the flourishing of heterogeneous multiplicities and the mad dance of "nomadic rhizomes" chaotically branching out in every possible direction, with no guiding trajectory either shaping this philosophical program or governing its objects of descriptive inquiry.  Deleuze is all too often cast as a theoretical anarchist of desire, as a schizophrenic troublemaker disrupting the organized structures operative within both political and libidinal economies.  In short, much of Deleuzian thought is exegetically filtered through the lens of his joint "anti-Oedipal" endeavor with Félix Guattari.  Badiou maintains that a pronounced discrepancy exists, in Deleuze's oeuvre, between, on the one hand, its superficial style, whose baroque, ornate intricacies encourage the view that this is a philosophy of explosive fragmentation, and, on the other hand, its basic, underlying content, its endlessly reiterated thesis.  Beneath the scintillating stylistic façade of a "rhizomatic" prose, Deleuze tirelessly and monotonously pursues the same essential point again and again:  everything exists on a single ontological level; everything is to be situated on one sole "plane of immanence"--therefore, the temptation to posit split tiers of existence (such as Plato's division between the visible and intelligible realms and Kant's noumenal-phenomenal gap) must be decisively resisted.  The heterogeneity of appearances belies the homogeneity of being.  Thus, according to Badiou, the frenzied multiplication of the "Many" in Deleuze ultimately serves to better reveal the all-inclusive "One" of an ontology of absolute immanence.

A similar observation should be made regarding Zizek's own corpus.  His frenetic accumulation of an ever-growing number of cultural examples and his famed forays into the twisting nooks and crannies of the popular imagination are liable to mislead readers into viewing him as an anti-systematic thinker (a thinker who seeks to compromise the ostensible purity of philosophical thought by forcing it into being dialectically contaminated through a symbiotic fusion with the disorganized domain of contemporary quotidian culture).  Faced with the "pyrotechnics" and "fireworks" of his extended, theoretically elaborate asides concerning literature, art, film, and daily life in late-capitalist societies, readers are susceptible to being dazzled to the point of giddy, over-stimulated incomprehension, of being stunned like the proverbial deer caught in the glare of blinding headlights.  Zizek's rhetorical flare and various features of his methodology are in danger of creating the same unfortunate sort of audience as today's mass media (with its reliance upon continual successions of rapid-fire, attention-grabbing sound bytes), namely, consumers too easily driven to distraction.  The extent of this risk can be mitigated if one keeps in mind that Badiou's warnings about Deleuze (i.e., don't let the heterogeneous style distract from and thereby obscure the homogeneous content) are equally applicable to Zizek himself.  When Zizek declares that he employs, for instance, popular culture as a subservient vehicle for the deployment of speculative theoretical philosophy--the "Many" of Zizek's examples ultimately serves the "One" of a project aiming at the "reactualization" (as Zizek himself puts it) of Kantian and German idealist thought through the mediation of Freudian-Lacanian psychoanalytic metapsychology--he is quite serious.  And yet, Sarah Kay challenges this Zizekian self-portrait as an oversimplification.  Not only does she see a much more volatile co-dependence between theory and culture at work in Zizek's writings (she hesitates to accept at face value Zizek's claim that, for him, culture is subordinate to theory)--but, she also argues that the central topic over which Zizek obsesses, the Lacanian register of the Real, compels him to adopt non-systematic, fragmentary procedures (as a series of "failed" or "missed" encounters with the forever-elusive Real) for attempting to engage with this interminably insistent-yet-inaccessible theoretical "object."  The Real, on Kay's reading, shatters the Zizekian oeuvre into a multitude of partial, "awry" perspectives on an infinitely receding vanishing point that can only ever be approached in an indirect, tangential manner.

In the opening of her introduction, Kay correctly identifies Zizek's intellectual agenda as involving the task of elevating Lacan to the dignity of philosophical modernity--"Zizek's... main philosophical contention is that Lacan's thought is heir to the Enlightenment, but represents a seismic shift forwards.  For Zizek, Lacan both continues and radicalizes the trajectory of European transcendental metaphysics" (pg. 1).  As is well known, the two main poles/components of his work are modern philosophy (from Descartes to Marx, with special emphasis on Kant, Schelling, and Hegel) and Freudian-Lacanian psychoanalysis.  A few of the minor problems with Kay's introduction to Zizek arise from the fact that, as she has the merit of openly and honestly admitting, she isn't a specialist in either area, being neither an expert on the late modern German philosophical tradition nor a psychoanalyst or scholar of Lacan's works (thus, when discussing Hegel, for instance, she seems unaware that his use of the term "understanding" [Verstand] has a precise technical meaning related to the Kantian distinction between understanding and "reason" [Vernunft], and that this isn't to be taken in a loose, everyday sense as a catch-all designation for the conceptual as opposed to the utterly non-conceptual--see page forty-two).  Consequently, details of the particular slant of her interpretation might be the result of trying to make a virtue out of the necessity of this constraining limitation:  as far as the philosophical dimension is concerned, Kay says very little about Kant, Schelling, and Badiou (these three are central figures in Zizek's more recent texts--Kay covers each in a couple of pages), putting a perhaps disproportionate amount of emphasis on Hegel; and, as far as the psychoanalytic dimension is concerned, Kay explicitly (and questionably) downplays Freud's role in Zizek's endeavors, claiming that Lacan alone is the sole analytic authority to which he appeals.

The five chapters of Kay's book (not including the introduction) cover the following areas of Zizek's work:  philosophy, culture, sexuality, ethics, and politics (she also offers readers a glossary at the end to aid in deciphering Zizek's terminology).  In "Dialectic and the Real:  Lacan, Hegel and the Alchemy of après-coup," Kay advances several claims.  First, she portrays Lacan's fidelity to Freud as bringing him into conflict with Hegel.  Although she admits that Lacan, in various places, favorably invokes Hegel, she nonetheless opts to highlight the former's disagreements with and criticisms of the latter (Kay extracts these Lacanian objections to Hegelian philosophy mostly from the 1960 ecrit "The subversion of the subject and the dialectic of desire in the Freudian unconscious").  Of course, the Hegel that Lacan is said to reject is the straw man caricature of the philosopher of "absolute knowledge," the pretentious, self-anointed prophet of the end of philosophical and political history.  Then, Kay argues that Zizek counters Lacan's criticisms of Hegel one-by-one, recasting Hegel as a thinker of radical contingency, rather than as the herald of a final static closure qua outcome of some pre-ordained teleological movement.  Kay justifiably asserts that this Zizekian recasting of Hegel is intimately bound up with his philosophical deployment of the Freudian-Lacanian temporal model of retroactive causality (i.e., Freud's Nachtraglichkeit and Lacan's apres-coup)--"Another crucial aspect of Zizek's argument is his insistence that Hegel is a philosopher of contingency, not teleology.  It is only in retrospect that the outcome of the dialectic appears to have been necessary.  But, when looked at prospectively, it is always open to chance" (pg. 25).  As Kay notes, this heterodox portrait of Hegel enables Zizek to argue that true universality emerges out of the immanent, concrete domain of historical particularity--"it is only the particular which can become universal...  Far from diminishing its universality, historical specificity is the reflective key to it" (pg. 44).  The apparent necessity and inevitability of the march of Hegelian Geist is a perspectival après-coup effect:  instead of being an eternal, always-existent blueprint prefiguring the materialization of historical configurations, Geist only appears in its necessity and inevitability for the gaze of subjective hindsight, for those embedded within a contingent series of events rendered retroactively comprehensible vis-à-vis the formulation of such "spiritual" structures (Kay would be well served here by referring to Lacan's discussion of cybernetics and binary code in the postface to the "Seminar on 'The Purloined Letter'" as illustrating certain central aspects of Zizek's recasting of Hegel).  However, one of Kay's main claims in this chapter is a bit questionable.  She argues that the Zizek seeks to raise the level of Hegel's importance for Lacanian thought specifically at Freud's expense.  As is well known, Lacan never tires of emphasizing that his own work rests upon Freud, that his teachings represent a "return to Freud."  Kay seems to imply that Zizek, perhaps signaled by the relative dearth of references to Freud in his writings (as compared with other figures), aims to replace Freud as the primary historical forerunner of Lacan.  Just because Zizek, in the interests of his own theoretical purposes, doesn't refer to Freud as much as to Hegel doesn't necessarily entail that he actively downplays Freud's importance for the inner workings of Lacan's conceptual apparatus.  Zizek, although heavily influenced by Lacan, is motivated by a different set of intellectual agendas, practices, and contexts than his so-called "master."  His deployment of Lacanian theory in conjunction with philosophy reflects these different concerns, rather than indicating a desire to internally revise Lacan's corpus.

The next chapter, "'Reality' and the Real:  Culture as Anamorphosis," is devoted to elucidating the details of a Zizekian understanding of culture.  One of the most decisive factors contributing to Zizek's present fame is his witty, playful employment of numerous examples plucked from popular culture.  He humorously blends the "high" (extremely complex bodies of ideas, such as those propounded by Hegel and Lacan) with the "low" (in some cases, the lowest of low brow Hollywood blockbuster entertainment).  Unlike many ivory tower academics, he's refreshingly averse to the sort of snobbery that dictates illustrative references being limited to Greek tragedies or Proust;  he treats the entire range of cultural products, from Mozart to "The Matrix," as all equally capable of serving as grist for the mill.  In fact, time and again, Zizek produces surprising moments when the reader realizes that, in being dragged through the murky mud of popular culture, intricate-yet-ephemeral theoretical notions (rather than, for all that, losing their clarity) are rendered almost impossibly crystalline and concrete--this is, along with jarring Nietzschean reversals of perspective ("You usually think it's this way, but, in reality, the opposite is actually the case!"), his trademark flourish.  Zizek sometimes insists that his recourse to various cultural objects is merely engaged in for the sake of attaining a better grasp of a given set of philosophical and/or psychoanalytic concepts, namely, that these objects are mere props or vehicles for more abstract ideas.  However, Kay doubts this.  As noted, she contends that Zizek's grasp of theory is informed and contaminated by his detours through the socio-cultural domain.  In order to organize what risks potentially being a completely disorganized and haphazard chapter--Zizek's cultural references are all over the map--Kay wisely sticks to a guiding thread:  she examines the Zizekian cultural field as the reality within which "sublime objects" appear (as per the title of his first book in English, the 1989 Sublime Object of Ideology).  Kay, following Lacan, exploits the semantic link between "sublime" and "sublimation."  Lacan, in the seventh seminar, defines sublimation as the process whereby "an object is raised to the dignity of the Thing" (a formula also echoing Hegelian "sublation" [Aufhebung]).  So, Kay accordingly notes that an object (die Sache) becomes "sublime" when it occupies the forever-vacant place of the "Real Thing" (das Ding) as the primordially missing, jouissance-laden center of gravity for the entire libidinal economy.  A "sublime object" (objet petit a) is something situated at the interstices of Lacan's three registers:  the Real, the Symbolic, and the Imaginary (the later Lacan places objet a at the center of his tripartite Borromean knot).  Or, more succinctly put, these privileged objects situated within the sphere of culture are the loci where the Real sublimely shines through the cracks in the fabric of otherwise mundane reality.  As Kay aptly expresses it, these Lacanian-Zizekian objects "communicate something of the jouissance at their centre and, at the same time, hold it at bay.  By providing the co-ordinates for actual, real-world objects, they... serve to support our sense of 'reality,' but they also trouble it with the uncanny menace of the real" (pg. 57).  As a "theorist of the Real," Zizek scours the surface of culture looking for those moments where these alluring-yet-threatening flashes pop into view, and he finds them in a bewildering array of places.

"The Real of Sexual Difference:  Imagining, Thinking, Being" tackles Zizek's heavily Lacanian handling of sexual difference.  Kay observes that, when speaking of sex, Zizek oscillates between two modes:  either crass, offensive vulgarities (usually involving dirty jokes) or incredibly abstract formalities (a la Lacan's logical "mathemes of sexuation").  In other words, he either wallows in base crudeness or indulges in disembodied theoretical speculations.  Kay's contention here is that this seesawing of Zizek's discourse apropos of the topic of sexuality is a performative instantiation of yet another aspect of the Real (i.e., sexual difference as an impossible "stumbling block" for the Symbolic).  More specifically, just as Zizek moves back-and-forth between "too much" (an almost pornographic portrayal of sex) and "not enough" (a level of theoretical abstraction seemingly too far removed from the embodied tangibility of sex), so also, "Sex... is the domain of the 'too much' or the 'not enough'" (pg. 101).  The first half of the chapter is principally occupied with outlining the fundaments of Lacan's account of sexual difference as offered in his famous twentieth seminar (Encore, 1972-1973).  After laying this groundwork, Kay, in the latter half of the chapter, proceeds to focus on two issues:  Zizek's disagreements with Judith Butler and his particular redefinition of the psychoanalytic notion of the "fundamental fantasy."  Against Butler's accusations that Lacanian theory erroneously reifies contingent socio-historical conflicts into apriori, transcendent(al) structures, Zizek demonstrates how her critique is founded upon a confused misapprehension of the status of Lacan's three registers--"Butler, Zizek observes, systematically reads the real as if it were the symbolic, and the symbolic as if it were the imaginary.  At each stage she semanticizes Lacan's thought, substituting symbolic difference for real antagonism and then confusing symbolic difference with ideological content" (pg. 93).  Regarding the fundamental fantasy--such fantasies are "vanishing mediators" between the primordially repressed Real of unbearable trauma and the tame, domesticated surface of Imaginary-Symbolic reality--Kay sees Zizek's crucial, innovative contribution as residing in the discernment of a foundation to the being of the subject beyond, behind, or beneath sexuality.  The sexualization of the unconscious is a secondary after-effect of a prior tension-ridden dynamic involving the drives and the difficult, disturbing entrance into the mediated realm of the symbolic order (as per Lacan's concept of "symbolic castration").  Sexuality isn't, in Zizek's account, a primary, indissoluble given, an axiomatic starting point.  Rather, as Kay accurately notes, the Lacanian-Zizekian position here is that sexuality and the formation of gender identities are after-the-fact responses to an underlying and unrepresentable trauma involving the archaic conflict, in the individual's forever-lost ontogenetic prehistory, between the libidinal economy and its enveloping matrices of mediation.

The last two chapters, "Ethics and the Real:  The Ungodly Virtues of Psychoanalysis" and "Politics, or, The Art of the Impossible," are closely tied together.  "Ethics and the Real" can be read as, in part, a supplement to the first chapter.  Whereas the first chapter's summary of Zizek's engagement with philosophy focuses almost exclusively on Hegel, this later chapter somewhat makes up for this lop-sidedness by providing a series of short summaries of various other Zizekian philosophical references:  Pascal, Kant, Schelling, Kierkegaard, Althusser, and Badiou.  Kay maintains that one of Zizek's primary objectives in passing through the works of these various philosophers is the forging of, as she puts it, a "godless theology" (pg. 103).  Like Badiou (in his reading of Saint Paul), Zizek turns to Christianity, seeking, through a secular, atheistic appropriation, to extract from it valuable insights into pressing matters of practical as well as theoretical concern (of course, a key precursor of this is Hegel's treatment of Christianity as an unconscious set of precious philosophical-dialectical insights, insights that he, the philosopher-dialectician, seeks to "raise to the dignity of their Notion").  The conclusion of "Ethics and the Real" segues into the subsequent chapter on politics with the claim that, "Radical politics, Zizek is asserting, is the materialist atheist equivalent of Protestant fundamentalism" (pg. 126).  In other words, what Zizek is looking for in thinkers ranging from Pascal to Badiou is a viable bulwark against the ethically suspect symptoms of postmodern, late-capitalist society:  covertly conformist cynicism and a pervasive relativism that does nothing but tacitly justify the reigning status quo.

In "Politics, or, The Art of the Impossible," Kay asserts that Zizek's entire theoretical endeavor is political from top to bottom.  Given that the Lacanian subject is "decentered" and "outside of itself"--such subjectivity is inextricably intertwined with the grand Autre of the symbolic order--its very nature is inseparable from the polis in which it's embedded.  The bulk of Zizek's socio-political analysis centers on the workings of ideology in relation to psychoanalytically delineated mechanisms structuring the subject's relation to reality (especially fetishistic disavowal and its sustenance of unconscious belief in the social system).  However, Kay describes a recent shift away from a Lacanian "critique of ideology"--as Kay notes, Lacan himself is hardly sympathetic to extreme leftist politics--and towards a more Marxist political program based on Lacan's notion of the "Act" (as defined chiefly in the fifteenth seminar, L'acte psychanalytique, 1967-1968).  Whereas an "action" is something unproblematic for and compatible with a governing state of affairs, an Act per se is a violent gesture shattering the Symbolic framework in which it occurs.  Zizek's recourse to the Act as the foundation for a renewal of radical politics testifies to "a striking combination of optimism and pessimism... pessimism about the situation as it is, optimism that it could be transformed" (pg. 154).  In describing capital itself as functioning at the level of a Real materiality underpinning the Imaginary-Symbolic reality of the socio-political order, Zizek makes it seem as if this vampiric monstrosity is a foe so insidiously powerful that only a miraculous event could bring about its defeat.  And, his affirmation of the eternal possibility of the emergence of genuine Acts expresses his belief that such miracles can still grace those subjected to today's lamentable political circumstances.

Despite the fact that his writing is quite lucid, people often complain that Zizek is difficult to access:  his discussions jump too quickly from topic to topic and he draws on too diverse a range of figures and areas.  It's indeed true that a full appreciation of Zizek's oeuvre requires of the reader that he/she acquire familiarity with, among other thinkers, Kant, Schelling, Hegel, Marx, Freud, Lacan, and Badiou.  Attempting to decipher his texts without this background, although tempting given the amount of material, is an effort doomed from the start.  However, Kay's introduction, while no substitute for this labor, is a helpful guide for those trying to find their initial bearings amidst the frenzied whirlwind of Zizek's hyper-kinetic prose.  She clearly and concisely summarizes some of the themes and ideas to which Zizek repeatedly recurs.  Similarly, the organization of her book is well thought out, managing to productively touch upon the most essential areas of Zizekian concern.  Ironically enough, the success of Kay's struggle to exegetically lend a degree of stable coherence to Zizek's writings cuts against her claim, advanced in the book's introduction, that Zizek is an anti-systematic theorist, a theorist whose theories are prevented from ever achieving internal consistency due to the disrupting effects of his chosen object of inquiry, namely, the Real itself.  Thanks to her introduction, previously disoriented and confused readers of Zizek now have a chance of discerning the contours of a fairly integrated set of arguments and strategies.

 

© 2003 Adrian Johnston

 

Adrian Johnston, Ph.D. holds a position as interdisciplinary research fellow in psychoanalysis at Emory.


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