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A Companion to GenethicsA Companion to GenethicsA Cooperative SpeciesA Mind So RareA Natural History of RapeAcquiring GenomesAdapting MindsAgeing, Health and CareAlas, Poor DarwinAn Introduction to Evolutionary EthicsAncient Bodies, Modern LivesAnimal ArchitectsAping MankindAre We Hardwired?Bang!BehavingBeyond EvolutionBeyond GeneticsBlood MattersBody BazaarBoneBrain Evolution and CognitionBrain StormBrave New BrainBrave New WorldsChoosing ChildrenCloneCloningConceptual Issues in Evolutionary BiologyConsciousness EvolvingContemporary Debates in Philosophy of BiologyControlling Our DestiniesCooperation and Its EvolutionCreatures of AccidentDarwin Loves YouDarwin's Brave New WorldDarwin's Gift to Science and ReligionDarwin's UniverseDarwin's WormsDarwinian ConservatismDarwinian PsychiatryDarwinism and its DiscontentsDarwinism as ReligionDebating DesignDecoding DarknessDefenders of the TruthDo We Still Need Doctors?Doubting Darwin?Early WarningEngineering the Human GermlineEnhancing 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SinGenetics of Original SinGenomeGenomeGenome: Updated EditionGenomes and What to Make of ThemGlowing GenesHow Women Got Their Curves and Other Just-So StoriesHuman CloningHuman Evolution, Reproduction, and MoralityImproving Nature?In Our Own ImageIn Pursuit of the GeneIn the Name of GodIngenious GenesInheritanceInside the Human GenomeInside the O'BriensIntegrating Evolution and DevelopmentIntelligence, Race, and GeneticsIs Human Nature Obsolete?Language OriginsLess Than HumanLiberal EugenicsLiving with Our GenesMaking Genes, Making WavesMaking Sense of EvolutionMan As The PrayerMean GenesMenMood GenesMoral OriginsMothers and OthersNature Via NurtureNever Let Me GoNot By Genes AloneOf Flies, Mice, and MenOn the Origin of StoriesOrigin of MindOrigins of Human NatureOrigins of PsychopathologyOur Posthuman FuturePhilosophy of BiologyPlaying God?Playing God?Portraits of Huntington'sPrimates and PhilosophersPromiscuityPsychiatric Genetics and GenomicsPsychologyQuality of Life and Human DifferenceRe-creating MedicineRedesigning HumansResearch Advances in Genetics and GenomicsResponsible GeneticsResponsible GeneticsScience, Seeds and CyborgsSex and WarSociological Perspectives on the New GeneticsStrange BedfellowsStrange BehaviorSubjects of the WorldSubordination and DefeatThe Age of EmpathyThe Agile GeneThe Ape and the Sushi MasterThe Biotech CenturyThe Blank SlateThe Book of LifeThe Boy Who Loved Too MuchThe Bridge to HumanityThe Case Against PerfectionThe Case for PerfectionThe Case of the Female OrgasmThe Century of the GeneThe Common ThreadThe Concept of the Gene in Development and EvolutionThe Debated MindThe Double-Edged HelixThe Epidemiology of SchizophreniaThe Ethics of Choosing ChildrenThe Ethics of Human CloningThe Evolution of CooperationThe Evolution of MindThe Evolution of MindThe Evolved ApprenticeThe Evolving WorldThe Extended Selfish GeneThe Fact of EvolutionThe Folly of FoolsThe Future of Human NatureThe God GeneThe Immortal Life of Henrietta LacksThe Impact of the GeneThe Innate MindThe Innate MindThe Innate Mind: Volume 3The Limits and Lies of Human Genetic ResearchThe Lives of the BrainThe Maladapted MindThe Meme MachineThe Misunderstood GeneThe Moral, Social, and Commercial Imperatives of Genetic Testing and ScreeningThe Most Dangerous AnimalThe New Genetic MedicineThe Nurture AssumptionThe Origin and Evolution of CulturesThe Origins of FairnessThe Paradoxical PrimateThe Perfect BabyThe Robot's RebellionThe Selfish GeneThe Shape of ThoughtThe Shattered SelfThe Stem Cell ControversyThe Story WithinThe Stuff of LifeThe Talking ApeThe Temperamental ThreadThe Terrible GiftThe Theory of OptionsThe Top 10 Myths About EvolutionThe Triple HelixThe Triumph of SociobiologyThe Woman Who Walked into the SeaTwinsUnderstanding CloningUnderstanding the GenomeUnnatural SelectionUnto OthersUp From DragonsVoracious Science and Vulnerable AnimalsWar Against the WeakWhat Genes Can't DoWhat It Means to Be 98 Percent ChimpanzeeWho Owns YouWhose View of Life?Why Evolution Is TrueWhy Think? WondergenesWrestling with Behavioral GeneticsYour Genetic Destiny
Understanding the Genome, a volume in Scientific
American's "Science Made Accessible" series, is meant to shed
light on the Human Genome Project and related research in genetics. What it
illuminates, instead, are the shortcomings of popular scientific journalism. Understanding the Genome has an unfortunate
tendency to emphasize the viewpoints of the scientists and business
entrepreneurs involved in the Human Genome Project as a commercial venture, and
to forgo substance for speculation. In paying scant attention to the ethical,
legal and social implications of the HGP, as well as the (so far) limited
scientific usefulness of the enterprise, the book offers a very one-sided
perspective, one that often seems more like cheerleading than explication.
Granted, the purpose of the
series is to simplify complex scientific ideas for the general reader, not to
provide either scientific or philosophical arguments for professionals. But Understanding the Genome takes an
unquestioningly reductivist view of genetics, touting the HGP as the holy grail
of modern bioscience, one that promises to unlock all the secrets of the Book
of Life. Editor George Olshevsky gives in to the hype when he states that
"We will become able to cure, or at least to work around, devastating
hereditary disorders. And we could in time create nearly perfect 'designer'
babies, thereby ultimately fine-tuning our own evolution. The significance of
the Human Genome Project to the human species is impossible to overstate."
But as such statements demonstrate, it is quite possible to overstate the
significance of the HGP. "The door into a 'brave new world' of biology and
medicine is now open -- it will be fascinating to see what comes through,"
Olshevsky continues, remarkably ignoring the fact that references to Aldous
Huxley's dystopic Brave New World
typically express a negative rather than positive view of the genetic
engineering of humans.
With chapters that profile or
interview entrepreneurial figures like Stuart Kauffman of Cistem Molecular and
Craig Venter of Celera Genomics, and one written by Human Genome Sciences CEO
William A. Haseltine, Understanding the
Genome emphasizes the promise of genomics, with only perfunctory mention of
important issues such as the controversy over the patenting of genes and
genomes, and access to genetic information. Diane Martindale's brief chapter on
genetic discrimination describes some of the potential perils of misusing
genetic information, but a great deal more discussion of such issues is
particularly important in a volume intended for the general reader, since their
implications for the average person gets so little informed and meaningful
attention in the popular media.
The Human Genome Project is
an important and fascinating undertaking, but speculation about the "brave
new world" it promises to open up to us isn't science, it's science
fiction. Science fiction, while it is sometimes amazingly oracular, can also be
2003 Syd Johnson
Syd Johnson is a Ph.D.
candidate at SUNY Albany, where her primary research focus is on genetic harms
to future persons and the ethical implications of genetic technologies such as
pre-implantation genetic diagnosis, genetic enhancement and gene therapy.
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