email page print pageAll Topic Reviews
Health Care in America The Happiness of Burnout"Guns Don't Kill People, People Kill People""How Come Boys Get to Keep Their Noses?"17 Lies That Are Holding You Back20 Jazz Funk Greats50 Popular Beliefs That People Think Are TrueA Brief History of the SmileA Child of One's OwnA Citizen Legislature/A People's ParliamentA Clinician's Guide to Legal Issues in PsychotherapyA Colorful History of Popular DelusionsA Cultural History of Modern Science in ChinaA Cursing Brain?A History of Intelligence and "Intellectual Disability"A History of MarriageA History of PsychiatryA Little F'd UpA Loving Approach to Dementia CareA Man's Guide to Healthy AgingA Mind ApartA Mind So RareA Natural History of RapeA Natural History of VisionA Red Heart of MemoriesA Short History of MedicineA Student's Guide to the History And Philosophy of Yoga A Tear is an Intellectual ThingA Therapist's Guide to Understanding Common Medical ProblemsA Universe of ConsciousnessA User's Guide to the BrainA World Full of GodsABC of Eating DisordersABCs to Positive LivingAbnormal Psychology in ContextAbout FaceAccessible Yoga for Every Body DVDActs of ConscienceAdvances in Culture and PsychologyAfter HarmAfter the Ecstasy, the LaundryAfter the Globe, Before the WorldAgainst the MachineAging Our WayAIDS & People with Severe Mental IllnessAkhenatenAl-JununAlgernon, Charlie and IAll About LoveAllergy ReliefAlone TogetherAlpha GirlsAltered EgosAltered StatesAlways On CallAm I Making Myself Clear?Am I Okay?AM/PM YogaAmerica in the FortiesAmerican Science Fiction Film and TelevisionAmong the Great ApesAn American ObsessionAn Anthropologist on MarsAn Illustrated Book of Bad ArgumentsAn Odd Kind of FameAnatomy of an EpidemicAnger, Madness, and the DaimonicAnimal ArchitectsAnimal MadnessAnimal MindsAnimals in TranslationAnother CountryAntimatterAre the Rich Necessary? Updated and Expanded EditionArt and PoliticsArtemis FowlAs Nature Made HimAsylumAsylum on the HillAsylum to ActionAt Liberty to DieAtonement and ForgivenessAttention Deficit DisorderAttitudeAuthentic HappinessBe Very AfraidBeautiful MindsBeauty's NothingBeckett and AnimalsBecoming a DoctorBeing VirtualBelle and Sebastian's If You're Feeling SinisterBest of the Brain from Scientific AmericanBetrayal TraumaBetter Sex Through YogaBeyond AIBeyond GreekBeyond HealthBeyond ReasonBeyond ToleranceBibliotherapyBipolar DisorderBlack Man in a White CoatBlack MassBlind SpotsBlinkBlood and GutsBodies out of BoundsBody Piercing Saved My LifeBorn Standing UpBrain LongevityBrain-Based Teaching for All SubjectsBrainchildrenBrainwashingBread Upon the WatersBreaking Murphy's LawBreaking WomenBreathingBrian Eno's Another Green WorldBrief EncountersBritain on the CouchBrothelBuddhism and ScienceBuilding Healthy MindsBullspottingBullying PreventionBurn UnitBuzzC StreetCalling Our Spirits HomeCamp ZCampus Sexual AssaultCancer on $5 a Day* *(chemo not included)Cato's TearsCaughtChained to the DeskChickenizing Farms and FoodChild Slaves in the Modern WorldChildren's Learning in a Digital WorldChina on the MindChoices and ConflictChoosing CivilityChronic Fatigue Syndrome (The Facts)Classical Pilates Technique DVDCleopatraClinical Psychopharmacology Made Ridiculously SimpleClosing the AsylumsCognition, Creativity, and BehaviorCognitive Neuroscience of EmotionCollege Inc.Coming of Age in AmericaComing of Age in Ancient GreeceConceptual BlockbustingConcrete ReveriesConducting Insanity EvaluationsConfronting Postmaternal ThinkingConnected, or What It Means to Live in the Network SocietyConsciousnessConsider the LobsterConsuming InnocenceContagiousControlConversations About Psychology and Sexual OrientationCool WomenCorpora in Language Acquisition ResearchCorrect EnglishCorrupted CultureCount Us InCovered in InkCreative AngerCreative Core AbsCreative ThinkeringCreative Writing In Health And Social CareCreatures of AccidentCrime and Punishment in AmericaCritical ConditionCritical Perspectives in Public HealthCritical Psychology: An IntroductionCross-Cultural Topics in PsychologyCrossingCrossing the Unknown SeaCruddyCultural Healing and Belief SystemsCulture and Subjective Well-BeingCustomers and Patrons of the Mad-TradeCyber BullyingCyber-Safe Kids, Cyber-Savvy TeensDance the Chakras Yoga WorkoutDancing After HoursDangerous EmotionsDarwin's Dangerous IdeaDarwin's LegacyDeaf Identities in the MakingDeath in the AirDebunked!DeceptionDecoding DarknessDeep GossipDefenders of the TruthDefining Moments in ScienceDefying DementiaDeinstitutionalization And People With Intellectual DisabilitiesDematerializingDementiaDementia Caregivers Share Their StoriesDemons of the Body and MindDemons of the Modern WorldDepression In Later LifeDirty DetailsDiscourse of Twitter and Social MediaDistractedDivine MadnessDMT and the Soul of ProphecyDo-It-Yourself Eye Movement Techniques for Emotional HealingDoes Science Need a Global Language?Doing GoodDon't Believe Everything You ThinkDon't Get Too ComfortableDr. Andrew Weil's Guide to Optimum HealthDr. Andrew Weil's Mindbody ToolkitDreaming and Other Involuntary MentationDSM-IV SourcebookDSM-IV-TR Case StudiesDuplicityDutiful DaughtersDying for TimeEarthly Bodies, Magical SelvesEastern Body, Western MindEating AnimalsEccentricsEcological MedicineEducating People to Be Emotionally IntelligentEinstein and OppenheimerElectroshockElliott Smith and the Big NothingEmergence and EmbodimentEmergencies in Mental Health PracticeEmotionEmotional Intelligence at WorkEmotions RevealedEncyclopedia of Asylum Therapeutics, 1750-1950sEntwined LivesErotic PassionsEssentials of Cas AssessmentEssentials of Wais-III AssessmentEthics for the New MillenniumEvamarie Pilipuf's Yoga Express DVDEvery Day Yoga for Every Body DVDEveryday GreensEveryday IrrationalityEveryday SimplicityEverything Is MiscellaneousEvolutionEvolution and Human BehaviorEvolution in MindEvolution's RainbowExploring the Edge Realms of ConsciousnessExuberanceEyes of SophiaFalling for ScienceFalse-Memory Creation in Children and AdultsFamilyFamily Desk Reference to Psychology Fashion and Its Social AgendasFashion, Desire And AnxietyFast, Fresh & GreenFat and FuriousFear and Other Uninvited GuestsFearless ConfessionsFeminist Philosophy And Science FictionFinal ExamFine LinesFixing My GazeFlesh of My FleshFlesh WoundsFlirting With DangerFlow and YinFlying ColorsFocusFood for Thought:Food, Medicine, and the Quest for Good HealthFool Me TwiceFreedom, Fame, Lying, and BetrayalFridaFrom Certainty to UncertaintyFrom Joy Division to New OrderFull Frontal Feminism: A Young Woman's Guide to Why Feminism MattersFull Steam Ahead!Galileo Goes to Jail and Other Myths about Science and ReligionGang of Four's EntertainmentGender and Its Effects on PsychopathologyGender and Mental HealthGeneration DigitalGenetics of Mental DisordersGeniusGenomeGetting a Good Night's SleepGetting Inside Your HeadGetting WastedGilded CityGirl in the CurlGirlfightingGirls Gone MildGirls on the VergeGod and the MultiverseGood FortuneGood KarmaGood MedicineGood WorkGracefully InsaneGrassroots SpiritualityGreat Psychologists and Their TimeGulpHabeas CorpusHalf a Brain Is EnoughHandbook of AttachmentHappinessHappinessHappiness Is.Hate Crimes in CyberspaceHealingHealing SpacesHealth And the MediaHealth OnlineHearing the Person With DementiaHeavier than HeavenHello from Heaven!HelmholtzHelvetica: A documentary filmHemalayaa's Yoga for Young Bodies DVDHemingway's Second WarHerbs for the MindHere Is New YorkHeroes, Rogues, and LoversHeterophobiaHidden MindsHistory of ShitHistory of SuicideHoly Sh*tHoly WarHooked!Hot Body Cool Mind - Level 1Hot Body Cool Mind: Waking Energy Hot Chocolate for the Mystical LoverHot SpotsHotHouseHouse and PsychologyHow Children Learn the Meanings of WordsHow Doctors ThinkHow Emotions WorkHow Our Lives Become StoriesHow Proust Can Change Your LifeHow Science WorksHow to Build a Robot ArmyHow to Cook Everything VegetarianHow to Grow OldHow to Handle a Hard-To-Handle KidHow We AgeHow We Are Changed by WarHumankindHungerHysteria Complicated by EcstasyI Contain MultitudesI Know Who You Are and I Saw What You Did: Social Networks and the Death of PrivacyI of the VortexI Only Say This Because I Love YouI, Little AsylumIdiot AmericaIf Men Could TalkIgnoranceIllness and ImageImagining NumbersImprove Your Writing With NLPIn Bed with MadnessIn Defense of FoodIn Praise of ScienceIn Pursuit of HappinessIn Search of FatimaIn the Line of DutyIn the Shadows of the NetIn Therapy We TrustIndivisible by TwoInsight Yoga with Sarah PowersIntegrative MedicineIntensive CareInto the Gray ZoneIntroduction to Ashtanga Yoga DVDIntroduction to Qi YogaIntroduction to Yoga DVDInvented KnowledgeInvestigating Digital CrimeIrrationalityIs Shame Necessary?It's Up to YouJanis Saffell Beverly Hills YogaJudo with WordsKanye West's My Beautiful Dark Twisted FantasyKids OnlineKilling MonstersKinds of MindsKissing DoorknobsKnowing the Nature of FearKnowledge MonopoliesKundalini Yoga for Beginners & BeyondLandscapes in My MindLaw, Mind and BrainLearning About School ViolenceLearning, Teaching and Education Research in the 21st CenturyLessons Learned on My Way HomeLicentious GothamLies! Lies! Lies!Life CoachingLife MakeoversLimboListening in the Silence, Seeing in the DarkListening to PainListening to the WorldLittle PeopleLittle Red Riding Hood UncloakedLiving DeeplyLiving Well with Pain and IllnessLiving with ArthritisLiving with SchizophreniaLiving, Thinking, LookingLoneliness as a Way of LifeLong Shadow of Small GhostsLosing My MindLove and Sex with RobotsLove Your Body, Love Your LifeLove, Sex & TragedyLust in TranslationMad Mary LambMade in AmericaMadhur Jaffrey's World VegetarianMadnessMadness in CivilizationMaidentripMake It CountMake It Fast, Cook It SlowMaking Babies the Hard WayMaking Dying IllegalMaking SpaceMaking the Big LeapMaking Your Mind MatterMale Female EmailMalefemaleMan As The PrayerManaged Care ContractingMandated Reporting of Suspected Child AbuseManic Depression and CreativityManlinessManning UpMapping the MindMarriage ConfidentialMary Pope Osborne's Tales from the OdysseyMaster PassionsMasters of the MindMatters of SubstanceMean GenesMedia ArgumentationMedia in the Digital AgeMediating MadnessMedical AnthropologyMedicine and Health Care in Early ChristianityMedicine and Philosophy in Classical AntiquityMedieval Writings on Female SpiritualityMemoires 1995Memory, Brain, and BeliefMental Health and Social SpaceMental Health MattersMental Illness in Popular MediaMerchants of DoubtMild Cognitive Impairment and Early Alzheimer's DiseaseMiles to Go for FreedomMillennium GirlsMind in Everyday Life and Cognitive ScienceMind WarsMind, Matter and Quantum MechanicsMindstormsMisconceptionsMistakes Were Made (But Not by Me)Mollie Katzen's RecipesMom's OK, She Just ForgetsMonsters, Demons and PsychopathsMoody BitchesMoral PanicsMore Than MedicineMortificationMothers Who Kill Their ChildrenMusicophiliaMy Bloody Valentine's LovelessMy Life Among the Serial KillersMy Misspent YouthMy Stroke of InsightNakedNaked CityNarratives in PsychiatryNations Have the Right to KillNatureNear Death ExperienceNeurons and NetworksNeuroscience in Science Fiction FilmsNever Out of SeasonNew Versions of VictimsNew YorkNew York September 11Not by DesignNot Your Mother's LifeNothing to HideNurembergNymphomaniaOath BetrayedObesityObjects of Our DesireObliquityOdd CouplesOf Spirits & MadnessOf Two MindsOld AgeOn BlindnessOn Fact and FraudOn the BrinkOn the Origin of StoriesOne Nation Under TherapyOpening to Love 365 Days a YearOptimizing Teaching and LearningOtherhoodOut of the DustOutliersOutsider ArtOver My HeadOxford Guide to the MindPainParanoia of Everyday LifeParents Do Make a DifferenceParty GirlPassingPassionate VegetarianPathways through PainPeople Like OurselvesPerceptual NeurosciencePersons and ThingsPestos, Tapenades, and SpreadsPhilosophy of MindPhotography and LiteraturePilates for MenPink ThinkPlanning for UncertaintyPoets on ProzacPostcards from the Brain MuseumPosthumanismPotatoes Not ProzacPower HerbsPower Yoga for HappinessPoxPractical ClassicsPractical Plans for Difficult Conversations in MedicinePracticing Feminist Ethics in PsychologyPrader-Willi SyndromePredictably IrrationalPretty in PunkPretty Is What ChangesPreventing Misbehavior in ChildrenPrime Ministers of CanadaPrint Literacy DevelopmentPrison MadnessPrivate Life in New Kingdom EgyptProblems in MindProtecting the GiftProust and the SquidPrudePsyche on the SkinPsychiatryPsychiatry in the New MilleniumPsychiatrylandPsychologyPsychology and the MediaPsychology for ScreenwritersPsychotherapy and ConfidentialityPublic Health LawPunishment in Popular CulturePure Yoga Pilates with Kerry BestwickQuantum ArchetypesQuantum LeapsR.I.P.Race in Contemporary MedicineRacial ParanoiaRaising a Self-StarterRaising AmericaReady for AnythingReady or NotReady or Not, Here Life ComesReal SexReckoning With HomelessnessReclaiming Our ChildrenReclaiming Soul in Health CareRed Lotus YogaReligion ExplainedRemaking a WorldRepublic.com 2.0Rethinking CommodificationRethinking Middle YearsReviving OpheliaReviving the LeftRewarding Specialties for Mental Health CliniciansRick SingsRights, Risk and Restraint-Free Care of Older PeopleSabbathSame DifferenceSamuel BeckettSatisfactionSavedScared SickScienceScience and NonbeliefScience in the MarketplaceScience TalkScience WarsScience, Consciousness and Ultimate RealitySecond OpinionsSeeds of HopeSelected Ambient Works Volume IISelf Hypnosis for Cosmic ConsciousnessSelf-Help NationSelf-Help, Inc.Selling the Fountain of YouthSells like Teen SpiritSerious ShoppingSeven Challenges To Change Your Life DVDSex, Mom, and GodSex, Time and PowerSexing the BodySexual Orientation and School PolicySexy FeminismShadow, Self, SpiritShop Class as SoulcraftShrink RapSick to Death and Not Going to Take It AnymoreSimulation and Its DiscontentsSinfully VeganSister CitizenSleeping With Extra-TerrestrialsSlut!Snake Oil ScienceSnoopSo Brilliantly CleverSocial RepresentationsSolar Flow Yoga DVDSold on LanguageSome Kind of GeniusSometimes Madness Is WisdomSorting Things OutSoul Made FleshSounds from the Bell JarSoupsSpace, Place and Mental HealthSpeaking Our MindsSpiritual CrisisSpontaneous HealingStates of MindStatus AnxietyStiffedStill HereStill LivesStrange BehaviorStrategies of Commitment and Other EssaysStrength, Grace, HealingStroke DiariesStumbling on HappinessSun SalutationsSuper Natural CookingSuperstitionSupersurvivorsSurgery JunkiesSwordfishtrombonesSylvia Plath ReadsTalk to HerTalking About RaceTalking Back to PsychiatryTalking Heads' Fear of MusicTalking ScienceTeach Yourself MeditationTeaching OnlineTeaching SexTeen LoveTeenageTextbook of Cultural PsychiatryThanks!The 101 Best Graphic NovelsThe Age of American UnreasonThe Alice Behind WonderlandThe American HotelThe American ParadoxThe American Psychiatric Publishing Textbook of Clinical PsychiatryThe Americanization of Social ScienceThe Anatomy of HopeThe Anatomy of MelancholyThe Angelica Home KitchenThe Antibiotic EraThe Ape and the Sushi MasterThe Architecture of MadnessThe Arctic IncidentThe Art of ChoosingThe Art of Exceptional LivingThe Bard on the BrainThe Barmaid's BrainThe Beginner's Guide to Healthy EatingThe Better to Eat You WithThe Biotech CenturyThe Birth of PleasureThe Birth of the PillThe Black DeathThe Blackwell Handbook of Organizational Learning and Knowledge ManagementThe Book of the PenisThe Brain That Changes ItselfThe Breathing FieldThe Bridge to HumanityThe Brooklyn Nobody KnowsThe Bully SocietyThe Cafe Brenda CookbookThe Call of the WeirdThe Cambridge Illustrated History of MedicineThe Case Against SugarThe Childless RevolutionThe Clitoral TruthThe Complete Guide to Herbal MedicinesThe Complete Vegetarian HandbookThe Consolations of PhilosophyThe Contemplative HeartThe Couch and the TreeThe Course of Gay and Lesbian LivesThe Creation of the Modern WorldThe Cult of PharmacologyThe Cultural Origins of Human CognitionThe Culture of FearThe Culture of PunishmentThe Da Vinci DogThe Dark Night of the SoulThe Deadly TruthThe Decency WarsThe Digital MindThe Disobedience Of The Daughter Of The SunThe Dynamic NeuronThe Easy Yoga WorkbookThe Emotional BrainThe Emotional Journey of the Alzheimer's FamilyThe Employee Assistance Treatment PlannerThe End of MaterialismThe End of WarThe English and their HistoryThe Enigma of HealthThe Era of ChoiceThe Eternity CubeThe Event of LiteratureThe Evolving WorldThe f WordThe Fabulous ImaginationThe Faces of TerrorismThe Farm Colonies: Caring for New York City's Mentally Ill In Long Island's State HospitalsThe Fat Studies ReaderThe Fate of Early MemoriesThe Female ThingThe Final LeapThe Firmament of TimeThe Five Things We Cannot Change ...The ForgettingThe Game of TruthThe Get Healthy, Go Vegan CookbookThe Gift of FearThe Gold Leaf Lady and Other Parapsychological InvestigationsThe Good Enough ChildThe Great BetrayalThe Greatest Experiment Ever Performed on WomenThe HandThe Handbook of Disability StudiesThe Happiness HypothesisThe Healing Remedies SourcebookThe Health Psychology HandbookThe Healthy KitchenThe Heart of YogaThe Hedgehog's DilemmaThe Hero's JourneyThe History of Rhetoric and the Rhetoric of HistoryThe History of White PeopleThe Homework MythThe Hungry SoulThe Identity CodeThe Immortalization Commission:The Importance of Being LazyThe Indian VegetarianThe Insider's Guide to Mental Health Resources OnlineThe Insider's Guide to Mental Health Resources OnlineThe Insider's Guide to Mental Health Resources OnlineThe Insider's Guide to Mental Health Resources OnlineThe Intelligibility of NatureThe Interdisciplinary Science of ConsumptionThe Intuitive WriterThe Invisible PlagueThe Irreducible Needs of ChildrenThe Irritable Male SyndromeThe Jewel Tree of TibetThe Joy of MeditatingThe Language ImperativeThe Language Of YogaThe Language PoliceThe Language WarsThe Last PhysicianThe Last Self-Help Book You'll Ever NeedThe Law Is a White DogThe Lie DetectorsThe Little Book of Healthy TeasThe Little Book of HeartbreakThe Little Soy BookThe Little Yoga BookThe Lives and Loves of Daisy and Violet HiltonThe Lives of AnimalsThe Lolita EffectThe Lonely PatientThe Loss of Self: A Family Resource for the Care of Alzheimer's Disease and Related DisordersThe Lucifer EffectThe Lucifer PrincipleThe Madness of Adam and EveThe Madwoman in the AtticThe Magic of RealityThe Making of Dr. PhilThe Manual of EpictetusThe Marketplace of IdeasThe Mature MindThe Measure of Our DaysThe Meat Lover's Meatless CookbookThe Medical AdvisorThe Medicalization of SocietyThe Metaphysical ClubThe Mind's PastThe Misunderstood GeneThe MIT Encyclopedia of the Cognitive SciencesThe Monster WithinThe Mood CureThe Moral Intelligence of ChildrenThe Mystery of Mary RogersThe Myth of Freedom and the Way of MeditationThe New BrainThe New Cancer SurvivorsThe NineThe Nordic Theory of EverythingThe Norm ChroniclesThe Normal OneThe Obesity EpidemicThe Omnivorous MindThe Orchid ThiefThe Origin and Evolution of CulturesThe Origin of AnxietiesThe Oxford Book of Modern Science WritingThe Pain AntidoteThe Paradox of ChoiceThe Paradox of SleepThe Paranoia SwitchThe Passion PlanThe Pastoral Counseling Treatment PlannerThe PDR Family Guide to Natural Medicines & Healing TherapiesThe Physics of ConsciousnessThe PlaceboThe Placebo Effect and HealthThe Playful BrainThe Pocket Life CoachThe Portfolio and the DiagramThe Power of FocusThe Power of Full EngagementThe Praeger Handbook of Learning and the BrainThe Private Life of the BrainThe Professor and the MadmanThe Psychoanalytic MysticThe Psychology of Religion and CopingThe Psychology Of The InternetThe Psychotherapy Documentation PrimerThe Quantum UniverseThe Quarter-Acre FarmThe Race for ConsciousnessThe Real Rules for GirlsThe Red DevilThe Republican BrainThe Richer SexThe Rise and Fall of Classical GreeceThe Rise of Mental Health NursingThe Roman Search for WisdomThe Root of All EvilThe Routledge Companion to Landscape StudiesThe Same Stuff as StarsThe Savage CityThe Science of Good and EvilThe Science of Optimism and HopeThe Scientist In The CribThe Seat of the SoulThe Second SelfThe Secret History of DreamingThe Secret Lives of GirlsThe Secret World of Doing NothingThe Seven Sins of MemoryThe ShakeressThe ShallowsThe Social Psychology of StigmaThe Sociology of PhilosophiesThe Sociopath Next DoorThe Soul Knows No BarsThe Spa DeckThe Spiritual Anatomy of EmotionThe Split MindThe Star ThrowerThe Story Is TrueThe Storytelling AnimalThe Strange Case of Hellish NellThe Symmetry of GodThe Talking CureThe Thing You Think You Cannot DoThe Three CulturesThe Three Failures of CreationismThe Toxic ConsumerThe Triumph of NarrativeThe True PathThe Truth About Chronic PainThe UndertakingThe Volitional BrainThe Wages of SinThe War Against BoysThe Way of StretchingThe Weblog HandbookThe Weight of the NationThe Why CaféThe Wild Ass’s SkinThe Will to Live and Other MysteriesThe Wisdom of PsychopathsThe Wisdom of Your DreamsThe Words We Live ByThe World of CaffeineThe Worldwide Practice of TortureThe Worst-Case Scenario Survival HandbookThe Wow ClimaxTheaters of MadnessTheatre and AnimalsTheories of Scientific MethodTherapeutic LandscapesTheraScribe 4.0Think CatThink SmartThinking for a ChangeThinking With AnimalsThrough Deaf EyesToo Big to FailTooning InTop ChefTortured SubjectsTotal AstangaTotal PilatesTotally WiredTowards a Science of Consciousness IIITrain Your Brain to Get RichTransforming MadnessTraumatic PastsTreatment and Rehabilitation of Severe Mental IllnessTreatment Kind and FairTribal ScienceTrick or TreatmentTrusting DoctorsTry to RememberTutoring as a Successful BusinessTwelve Examples of IllusionTwinsUnder the Medical GazeUnderstanding and Treating Violent Psychiatric PatientsUnderstanding Child MolestersUnderstanding FitnessUnforgettableUnholy MadnessUnscientific AmericaUnspeakable Acts, Ordinary PeopleUnto OthersUp From DragonsUrban Tourism and Urban ChangeUseful BodiesValues in ConflictVarieties of Anomalous ExperienceVegan ExpressVegetarian Turkish CookingVertigo VisionsVictorian Popularizers of ScienceViniyoga Therapy for the Low Back, Sacrum and HipsViolence Against WomenVoices Of Alzheimer'sVoices of CaregivingVoices of MadnessVoluntary SimplicityWaking Up to What You DoWalkingWalking a Literary LabyrinthWall: A World DividedWarWays of KnowingWays of KnowingWe Shall Be No MoreWe Shall Not Be MovedWe've Got BlogWellbeingWhat Emotions Really AreWhat I Learned in Medical SchoolWhat in the World Are Your Kids Doing Online?What Makes Us Think?What Nietzsche Really SaidWhat Our Children Teach UsWhat Science Offers the HumanitiesWhat Video Games Have to Teach Us About Learning and LiteracyWhat's Holding You Back? What's So Wrong with Being Absolutely RightWhen a Family Member Has DementiaWhen Experiments TravelWhen Good Thinking Goes BadWhen History Is a NightmareWhen Johnny and Jane Come Marching HomeWhen Mothers KillWhen Sex Goes to SchoolWhen Someone You Know Is Living in a Dementia Care CommunityWhen Things Fall ApartWhere Biology Meets PsychologyWhere Good Ideas Come FromWhere is the Mango Princess?Wherever You Go, There You AreWhile They SleptWhispers from the EastWho Rules in ScienceWhy Are We Attracted to Sad Music?Why Does E=mc2?Why Don't Students Like SchoolWhy God Won't Go AwayWhy Have Kids?Will They Ever Trust Us Again?WisdomWise Mind, Open MindWitch Beliefs and Witch Trials in the Middle AgesWitchcrazeWith Their EyesWithin ReasonWomanWomen and Mental IllnessWorking With Emotional IntelligenceWriting in FlowYogaYoga & Pilates Workouts for DummiesYoga Beauty BodyYoga for EveryoneYoga for People Who Can't Be Bothered to Do ItYoga for Regular GuysYoga for Regular Guys DVDYoga In BedYoga on DemandYoga SanctuaryYoga SculptYoga ShaktiYoga To Go's Yoga Quick Fixes DVDYogalosophyYou Are Not Your IllnessYou'd Be So Pretty If . . .Your Miracle BrainZen Encounters with LonelinessZen-Brain Reflections
It is difficult to think of a facet of human interaction in which the face does not play an important role. In the construction of self-identity, of emotions, and in weaving the fabric of the social matrix, facial signaling figures centrally. The important role of the human face in communication is revealed already at birth. As newborns, our facial expressions are finely adapted to elicit responses. Caregivers interpret these signals as signals of our inner states, and respond to them as such, helping to insure that our basic needs are met. And just as our faces are the predominant focus of others attention, so are theirs the focus of ours. While certain features of infants faces seem specially designed to attract and hold the attention of adults, infants prefer looking at faces to looking at most other visual stimuli. Once engaged in this mutual attention, adult caregivers typically mimic, model, and regulate the emotions of infants in protracted mutual gazing. With so much shared attention on faces, the infants ability to decode the facial expressions of others develops rapidly, and they enter effortlessly into the fluid, nonverbal tete-a-tete of facial communication. Throughout development, our reliance on facial cues is revealed in phenomena like social referencing and empathic mirroring that occur in close relationships. These abilities appear to be largely innate, as suggested by evidence of their universality, early emergence, and similarity to capacities of other species.
While language dominates adult human communication, the face remains an active channel through which subtle (and sometimes not so subtle) signals are silently exchanged. In parallel to verbal communication, facial cues are used to gauge agreement or interest. These signals can be too quick and fleeting to be registered consciously, yet they influence our judgments of others feelings and intentions. Our lack of awareness of this facial signaling most likely arises from its being partly involuntary and partly an over-learned skill. Nonetheless, its continued use seems to depend crucially on social reinforcement and reciprocation. For example, the social smile presented by blind infants disappears in childhood, probably due to its lack of reinforcement.
In About Face, Jonathan Cole visits the lives of individuals who for various reasons have lost important aspects of facial communication. He takes an uncommon approach; instead of teasing apart the interpretative capabilities of individuals through experiments, he delves into their inner lives. He asks, "What was it like to live without representation of self externally, and internally, on the face, and not to have the reassurance of others reflecting your worth back to you by their smile?" (p.181). His hope is that in discovering what is different about the lives of individuals for whom this channel has been closed off, we will discover something important about the role of the face in shaping our sense of self as private and as social beings.
About Face takes us on a moving journey into the inner worlds of individuals who by either birth or accident have been deprived of this primary mechanism for social interaction. We meet Peter, blind from birth, who never knew the face as a communication channel, but for whom the face remains the focus of the personality the place from which the person communicates and toward which one orients communication. We meet John, who became blind as an adult, and for whom the world has gradually become a faceless gallery filled with individuals he now knows only through their voices. We encounter Donna, an autistic, who reveals her fear of looking into the faces of others, lest the signals there overpower her fragile sense of self-integration. Sufferers of Möbius Syndrome, Bells Palsy, and Parkinsons Disease, all of which affect the muscular control of facial expression, are also introduced, and their unique and disturbing experiences are touchingly related. Cole examines the effects of these various "losses of face" on these individuals capacity for emotional experience and expression, on their ability to understand their own and others emotions and to feel similarly understood, and on their most basic understanding of self and other.
A Theory of Mind
We have much yet to learn about the many cognitive and affective processes mediating facial communication. Yet it seems clear that the face, more than any other body part, is that which indicates to us the presence of another being like ourselves. In the face we read the mental state of others, whether they are happy or sad, tired or bored, interested or afraid. We rely on others gaze to tell us whether we have their attention, or to direct our attention to other things. We seek in the face an indication of personality and of ongoing thought. In animals to which we attribute consciousness, it is often the face that makes the strongest appeal to this intuition. The eyes, in particular, seem to hold a clue to the inner life inside.
The book revolves around Cole's central argument that facial communication plays a central role in our development of the understanding of ourselves and others as mental agents what has been called a theory of mind. Cole suggests that it is largely by expressing our emotions in a social context that we come to understand ourselves and others. We experience our emotions, in part, by expressing them, and this expression relies largely on the face, which embodies and differentiates our emotional states. We feel ourselves smiling, and project this smile outward, signaling it to others and inviting response. It is in the social context in which others respond to our expressions of feeling that our understanding of our own emotional experiences is refined. We learn the appropriate range of our expressions in the process of learning what particular emotions mean, by situating them in the social contexts in which they are evoked. By giving us access to others inner states, facial signals communicate to us that they too share this inner world. Throughout life, this overt nonverbal signaling supports our interpretations of others and theirs of us. Coles hypothesis is that this process must somehow be different in those who cannot use the face as a primary source of information about others or as a channel for communication, with the implication that the entire sense of self or of other can be disrupted.
The book is a compilation of case histories, set against a broad, if somewhat incomplete background of neurological, evolutionary, and developmental research. The lay reader will find much in the background chapters to whet the appetite, and the citations are full of further references. Experts in facial expression may find little new here. For them, Coles real contribution lies in his method, for he has ventured to ask his subjects about their inner lives, and in asking, brought forth sometimes new, if occasionally controversial data about the first person experiences of life without normal facial communication.
The interviews are both touching and personal, revealing the inner struggles of individuals whose lives have been cut off from the normal, effortless flow of emotional communication. As interviewer, Cole casts his investigative net broadly. Though he makes an effort not to lead his subjects, he occasionally encourages them to entertain notions consistent with his theoretical intuitions, seeking to weave together threads of support for his theory about the role of the face in the development of a theory of mind. For the most part, his gentle and sensitive questioning makes it possible for his subjects to reveal secrets obscured by more traditional investigations. Herein lies the gem of the work. For these secrets suggest new avenues for research and encourage us to think about more systematic approaches to collecting first person data.
By relating his own experiences both during the interviews and in the periods leading up to and following them, Cole reveals to us the importance of developing a relationship of trust between the subject and the investigator, as well as the investment of time and empathy it requires. Without that trust, much that is personal and sensitive may be filtered from subjects reports. Though it is difficult to ask questions that do not lead, an interviewer who helps subjects to frame their thinking by asking questions that force them to consider aspects of their experience they have under-explored can bring forth buried truths and features of experience otherwise unavailable to us. The intimacy of these encounters is captured in Coles writing style and in his willingness to reveal himself as a humble and curious explorer into his subjects inner worlds. Several of his subjects appear to have been touched by this process and moved to reexamine their lives in new ways. This raises the question whether the interview this mediated approach to first person investigation may not also change the experience and lead to an understanding not present before.
But what of this lack of face? What is it like to be unable to use the face to express ones feelings, to be deprived of the ability to decode others experiences through their facial signals, to be cut off from such a centrally human channel of communication? Cole explores the lives of his subjects from the inside and the outside, speaking both to them and, in some cases, to the family members who form their closest social network.
From the inside (the first person perspective), the face is the vehicle for our presentation of ourselves to the world. Through the face we signal our engagement with the other and express the pattern of feelings evoked in communication. Meanwhile, the proprioceptive effects of our facial expressions constitute a component of our experienced emotional state. Not being able to feel one's expressions, reports Oliver, who suffers from Bell's Palsy, is like being in an "emotional limbo. I still feel happy to see or hear something I like, but I don't think that I feel it as much because I am not actually smiling. I have started to write a diary
Writing it out helps a lot. Such and such has happened and I feel this. Writing allows me to express" (p. 150).
In blindness, the visual consciousness that so dominates the mental life of the normal individual is lacking, leaving the blind person with a world constituted largely of auditory and tactile sensory information to which the sighted do not always attend. Peter White, blind from birth, describes the importance of voice for his appreciation of others: "I'm very aware of my wife's moods -- aren't we all? I can talk to her on the phone and I say 'What's wrong?'
It is not only in the voice, there are also different qualities of silence. A contented silence when you know that she's just been talking to you and that she is doing something else, and a silence when you know she's quiet because if she said something it would be absolutely appalling" (p.14). For John, who became blind as an adult, constructing a faceless social world out of sound and touch is more difficult. Yet new sources of information have opened up to him. He speaks of feeling the face of his young son: "What does continually strike me," he says, "is the lack of commensurability between what it looks like and what it feels like. You see my little boy's face, my five-year-old, is such a beautiful face, and I often touch it... I rest my hand lightly on his forehead at night sometimes, or I rest it over his face and the puckering of the childlike cheeks and nose and lips, and the fact that it's still small enough to be felt in the hand, somehow is curiously roselike. It is soft and flabby, there's a curious significance in all these knobs and little bits and pieces. It's a curious tactile thing that I don't think I ever enjoyed as a sighted person" (p 32.).
An awareness of the social importance of face is not absent even in the congenitally blind. According to Peter White, "The face is not doing something that's very conscious. It's not doing something that's vital to my existence, but it is dong something that I want to communicate. You are aware at some level that in order to interact and talk with people you present your face to them. It's not just a place where your voice comes out of. I think it's possibly a reflection of wanting to make contact with them.
It's to say I'm interested in you. It's you I'm directing this at. I don't think anyone taught me to do this" (p. 15-16).
Many interviewers, therapists, and teachers rely heavily on facial communication, training themselves to keep this channel never far from focal awareness. For others, awareness of facial signaling often seems to have faded into the background. Even less conscious is our own automatic use of the face to send emotional information to others. Not until an unanticipated or undesirable expression is sent, do we notice and consciously adjust our responses to the other. Yet our mostly unconscious use of face can break down in the absence of social reinforcement and continued use. An unreciprocated smile is like the comment that falls on deaf ears it eventually stops being sent. This phenomenon is common both among the blind, who lacking feedback from others must make a conscious effort to use facial expression, and among companions of those who lack facial expressions, who often cease responding to them facially (and even verbally) as a result of their disability.
From the outside, the face of a person suffering from Möbius Syndrome, Parkinson's Disease, Bell's Palsy, or of someone blind from birth who has not learned the proper facial signals appears to lack expression, to be unresponsive, to indicate an absence of interest, or possibly the presence of an emotion incongruous to the situation. As a result, such individuals can be systematically ignored or misunderstood. Mary, who suffered from a gradual worsening of a condition known as bilateral seventh nerve paresis (damage to the cranial nerve that innervates the facial muscles) saw her social contacts slowly slip away as her own ability to respond verbally or with facial expression worsened. Her only remaining contacts were with immediate family, who mourned the loss of the intimacy provided through facial and vocal communication.
Cole's narratives poignantly chronicle the struggles of those whose profound losses we can only imagine - individuals whose losses of face have cast them into deep depressions and social isolation. Some of them have emerged with a renewed sense of self; others are struggling through. The journey, invariably, has been an arduous one. What these stories of courage and persistence suggest is that facial loss can lead to a dramatic alteration of social interaction and of self-integration.
The development of systematic approaches to the collection of first person data is currently a central issue in the science of consciousness. We need to use subjective reports as a source of information about conscious experience, and to use them as a guide in our investigations at other levels (e.g., conceptual, neural, behavioral, or computational). Some worry about the objectivity of the data. Reports of experiences can be altered due to forgetting or other memory distortions, and the process of reporting itself can be subject to filtering and interpretation on the part of the subject. A science of experience should strive to strike a balance between first and third person data, allowing each to inform the other. About Face is an exclusively first person sort of investigation. It is perhaps best viewed as an exploration of a method, and of what is required of the investigator. Cole is an adept mediator for the reports of his subjects' experiences of facelessness. At times, his questioning is overly suggestive, though he seems generally aware of the occasions when this is the case. Much that we learn from his subjects' narratives seems fresh and new and points to the need for systematic investigation of the phenomena that are disclosed here. One particular case study seems especially problematic, however; Donna, a high functioning autistic has studied psychology at university and has written extensively on her own experiences. Her commentary is rife with interpretations and is couched in a peculiar psychological language that renders it difficult to separate the experience from the interpretation. In this regard, her narrative stands alone, and one may wish to be cautious in drawing general conclusions from her case.
About Face is lucidly written and quickly draws the reader into the lives of its subjects. It gives us access to a hidden side of blindness, autism and neurologic illness, and underscores that there is much beneath the visible surface that warrants telling. Cole treats his subjects with admirable respect and his case studies emphasize the importance of establishing an environment of trust and sympathy in which subjects feel free to tell their experiences. For this he is to be highly commended.