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Anger and Forgiveness"Are You There Alone?"10 Good Questions about Life and DeathA Casebook of Ethical Challenges in NeuropsychologyA Companion to BioethicsA Companion to BioethicsA Companion to GenethicsA Companion to GenethicsA Companion to Muslim EthicsA Cooperative SpeciesA Critique of the Moral Defense of VegetarianismA Delicate BalanceA Fragile LifeA Life for a LifeA Life-Centered Approach to BioethicsA Matter of SecurityA Mirror Is for ReflectionA Mirror Is for ReflectionA Natural History of Human MoralityA Philosophical DiseaseA Practical Guide to Clinical Ethics ConsultingA Question of TrustA Sentimentalist Theory of the MindA Short Stay in SwitzerlandA Tapestry of ValuesA Very Bad WizardA World Without ValuesAction and ResponsibilityAction Theory, Rationality and CompulsionActs of ConscienceAddiction and ResponsibilityAddiction NeuroethicsAdvance Directives in Mental HealthAfter HarmAftermathAgainst AutonomyAgainst BioethicsAgainst HealthAgainst MarriageAgainst Moral 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in Children and AdultsFat ShameFatal FreedomFellow-Feeling and the Moral LifeFeminism and Its DiscontentsFeminist Ethics and Social and Political PhilosophyFeminist TheoryFinal ExamFirst Do No HarmFirst, Do No HarmFlashpointFlesh WoundsForced to CareForgivenessForgivenessForgiveness and LoveForgiveness and ReconciliationForgiveness and RetributionForgiveness is Really StrangeFoucault and the Government of DisabilityFoundational Issues in Human Brain MappingFoundations of Forensic Mental Health AssessmentFree WillFree Will And Moral ResponsibilityFree Will and Reactive AttitudesFree Will, Agency, and Meaning in LifeFree?Freedom and ValueFreedom vs. InterventionFriendshipFrom Darwin to HitlerFrom Disgust to HumanityFrom Enlightenment to ReceptivityFrom Morality to Mental HealthFrom Silence to VoiceFrom Valuing to ValueFrontiers of JusticeGender in the MirrorGenetic PoliticsGenetic ProspectsGenetic ProspectsGenetics of Original SinGenetics of Original SinGenocide's AftermathGetting 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DeliberationPatient Autonomy and the Ethics of ResponsibilityPC, M.D.Perfecting VirtuePersonal AutonomyPersonal Autonomy in SocietyPersonal Identity and EthicsPersonalities on the PlatePersonhood and Health CarePersons, Humanity, and the Definition of DeathPerspectives On Health And Human RightsPharmaceutical FreedomPharmacracyPharmageddonPhilosophy and This Actual WorldPhilosophy of BiologyPhilosophy of Technology: The Technological ConditionPhysician-Assisted DyingPicturing DisabilityPilgrim at Tinker CreekPlaying God?Playing God?Political EmotionsPornlandPowerful MedicinesPractical Autonomy and BioethicsPractical EthicsPractical Ethics for PsychologistsPractical RulesPragmatic BioethicsPragmatic BioethicsPragmatic NeuroethicsPraise and BlamePreferences and Well-BeingPrimates and PhilosophersPro-Life, Pro-ChoiceProcreation and ParenthoodProfits Before People?Progress in BioethicsProperty in the BodyProzac As a Way of LifeProzac on the CouchPsychiatric Aspects of Justification, Excuse 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Beloved SelfThe Best Things in LifeThe Big FixThe Bioethics ReaderThe Biology and Psychology of Moral AgencyThe Blackwell Guide to Medical EthicsThe Body SilentThe BondThe Book of LifeThe Burden of SympathyThe Cambridge Companion to Virtue EthicsThe Cambridge Companion to Virtue EthicsThe Cambridge Textbook of BioethicsThe Case against Assisted SuicideThe Case Against PerfectionThe Case Against PunishmentThe Case for PerfectionThe Case of Terri SchiavoThe Challenge of Human RightsThe Character GapThe Code for Global EthicsThe Colonization Of Psychic SpaceThe Commercialization of Intimate LifeThe Common ThreadThe Connected SelfThe Constitution of AgencyThe Creation of PsychopharmacologyThe Criminal BrainThe Decency WarsThe Difficult-to-Treat Psychiatric PatientThe Disability PendulumThe Disability Rights Movement: From Charity to ConfrontationThe Domain of ReasonsThe Double-Edged HelixThe Duty to ProtectThe Emotional Construction of MoralsThe End of Ethics in a Technological SocietyThe 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PornographyThe Philosophy of PsychiatryThe Politics Of LustThe Portable Ethicist for Mental Health Professionals The Power of Religion in the Public SphereThe Price of PerfectionThe Price of TruthThe Problem of PunishmentThe Prosthetic ImpulseThe Psychology of Good and EvilThe Psychology of Good and EvilThe PsychopathThe Purity MythThe Pursuit of PerfectionThe Relevance of Philosophy to LifeThe Right Road to Radical FreedomThe Right to Be ParentsThe Righteous MindThe Root of All EvilThe Routledge Handbook of Philosophy of Animal MindsThe Routledge Handbook of Philosophy of EmpathyThe Rules of InsanityThe Second SexismThe Second-Person StandpointThe Silent World of Doctor and PatientThe Sleep of ReasonThe Social Psychology of Good and EvilThe Social Psychology of MoralityThe Social Psychology of MoralityThe Speed of DarkThe Stem Cell ControversyThe Stem Cell ControversyThe Story of Cruel and UnusualThe Story WithinThe Stubborn System of Moral ResponsibilityThe Suicide TouristThe Terrible GiftThe Theory of OptionsThe Therapy of DesireThe Trauma of Psychological TortureThe Trauma of Psychological TortureThe Triple HelixThe Trolley Problem MysteriesThe Trouble with DiversityThe Truth About the Drug CompaniesThe Ugly LawsThe Varieties of Religious ExperienceThe Virtue of Defiance and Psychiatric EngagementThe Virtues of FreedomThe Virtues of HappinessThe Virtuous Life in Greek EthicsThe Virtuous PsychiatristThe Voice of Breast Cancer in Medicine and BioethicsThe War Against BoysThe War for Children's MindsThe Whole ChildThe Woman RacketThe Worldwide Practice of TortureTherapy with ChildrenThieves of VirtueThree Generations, No ImbecilesTimes of Triumph, Times of DoubtTolerance Among The VirtuesTolerance and the Ethical LifeTolerationToxic PsychiatryTrauma, Truth and ReconciliationTreatment Kind and FairTrusting on the EdgeTry to RememberUltimate JudgementUnborn in the USA: Inside the War on AbortionUndermining ScienceUnderstanding AbortionUnderstanding CloningUnderstanding EmotionsUnderstanding EvilUnderstanding Kant's EthicsUnderstanding Moral ObligationUnderstanding Physician-Pharmaceutical Industry InteractionsUnderstanding TerrorismUnderstanding the GenomeUnderstanding the Stigma of Mental IllnessUnderstanding Treatment Without ConsentUnhingedUnprincipled VirtueUnsanctifying Human Life: Essays on EthicsUnspeakable Acts, Ordinary PeopleUp in FlamesUpheavals of ThoughtUsers and Abusers of PsychiatryValue-Free Science?Values and Psychiatric DiagnosisValues in ConflictVegetarianismViolence and Mental DisorderVirtue EthicsVirtue, Rules, and JusticeVirtue, Vice, and PersonalityVirtues and Their VicesVoracious Science and Vulnerable AnimalsVulnerability, Autonomy, and Applied EthicsWar Against the WeakWar, Torture and TerrorismWarrior's DishonourWeaknessWelfare and Rational CareWhat are you staring at?What Genes Can't DoWhat Have We DoneWhat Is a Human?What Is Good and WhyWhat Is Good and WhyWhat Is the Good Life?What Price Better Health?What Should I Do?What We Owe to Each OtherWhat Would Aristotle Do?What's Good on TVWhat's Normal?What's Wrong with Children's RightsWhat's Wrong with Homosexuality?What's Wrong With Morality?When Is Discrimination Wrong?Who Holds the Moral High Ground?Who Owns YouWho Qualifies for Rights?Whose America?Whose View of Life?Why Animals MatterWhy Animals MatterWhy Does Inequality Matter?Why I Burned My Book and Other Essays on DisabilityWhy Not Kill Them All?Why Punish? How Much?Why Some Things Should Not Be for SaleWisdom, Intuition and EthicsWithout ConscienceWomen and Borderline Personality DisorderWomen and MadnessWondergenesWould You Kill the Fat Man?Wrestling with Behavioral GeneticsWriting About PatientsYou Must Be DreamingYour Genetic DestinyYour Inner FishYouth Offending and Youth Justice Yuck!
In Two Minds is an excellent
casebook of tough ethical problems in mental health. It aims to provide a thorough discussion of a number of
perspectives on a variety of cases.
There are fourteen main cases discussed, with several other shorter
examples scattered through the book.
The first section, consisting of two chapters, sets out the tools of
the trade, explaining some of the basics of philosophy and the particular
approach the authors take. Their
central claim is that issues of value are pervasive in psychiatry, and thus
psychiatric ethics has a broader scope than more traditional medical ethics. They organize their cases around the stages
of the clinical process: the proper scope of psychiatry, diagnosis, etiology,
treatment, prognosis, and teamwork and the organization of services. The final chapters look at teaching and
research ethics. The book includes some
comical cartoons to illustrate some of the main points, and there is a reading
guide to the literature at the end of each chapter. Each case has a commentary
by a practitioner as well as its own list of articles and books referred to in
its discussion. The authors emphasize
the importance of understanding the point of view of patients, and steer
between the extremes of a rigid medical model and a radical
antipsychiatry. They do not insist on
any particular methodology, but rather are inclined to use whatever approach
might be helpful in a given situation.
They often argue that conceptual analysis can be a helpful tool in
understanding the issues at hand.
Given that this is really the only
book of cases in psychiatric ethics that is currently in print, it has no
serious competition. It sets a high
standard for any future competitors, in its broad ranging discussion of the
philosophical issues raised by clinical experience. It is worth listing the cases:
35-year-old solicitor with a ten-month-old baby who
previously had postnatal depression and now wants to put her baby up for
53-year-old man with a learning disability with fecal
impaction due to chronic self-neglect.
42-year-old man with hallucinations, delusions and
strong suicidal feelings who says he has nothing to live for.
35-year-old woman with a history of repeated hospital admissions
who makes it very difficult for people to help her.
Middle-aged African-American lawyer whose religious
experience may be interpreted as psychosis.
42-year-old woman who is depressed and suicidal but
refuses admission to hospital.
27-year-old woman with genetic disorder who acquires an
odd belief about her psychotherapists sexual attitudes towards her.
38-year-old man with history of inveterate drug and
alcohol abuse becomes the principal carer for his three daughters.
69-year-old woman with Alzheimers disease who refuses
help from social services but is a burden to her neighbors.
15-year-old boy requests genetic testing for
54-year-old man who is depressed and suicidal is due to
be released from hospital but he may be a danger to his sons.
Man in his early forties with paranoid schizophrenia
and a history of indecent assaults who is reluctant to continue with his
79-year-old man with Alzheimers disease; should he be
allowed to return home after being hit by a car?
15-year-old boy suffers repeated psychotic breakdowns
but his father refuses treatment for him.
The cases are described in good detail for a page or two and
then the subsequent discussion takes several more pages. Naturally, one of the central themes is the
competency and autonomy of an individual and the rights of psychiatrists to
impose treatment. They raise a wealth
of important considerations, including the definition of mental disorder, the
responsibility of agents for their actions, the criteria for rationality, the
scientific basis of psychiatry, the rights of patients, the notion of the
patients true wishes, the dangers in predicting dangerous behavior, and the
responsibilities of research scientists towards their subjects. The authors bring in not only ethical
theory, but also philosophy of mind, personal identity, methodological
considerations, and epistemology.
Strangely, there is almost no discussion of the nature of freedom of the
will and the question of whether alcoholics and drug users are responsible for
their actions. This is a missed
opportunity, and is especially odd given that Fulford has elsewhere argued that
the best way to understand mental illness is a failure of action, and one of
his central examples concerns addiction.
Nevertheless, through their sustained argument throughout the book, the
authors succeed in their aim to show that psychiatric ethics as they practice
it is philosophically richer and more challenging than traditional medical
ethics, although they dont give any reason to suppose that medical ethics
could not be more philosophically interesting.
(Indeed, since the authors are also co-editors of Healthcare Ethics
and Human Values: An Introductory Text with Readings and Case Studies
(2002), it is likely they believe that medical ethics can become
There are however, some significant
limitations to this text. Most
obviously, it is very much devoted to a British context. The authors are British and all the
practitioner commentaries are by British clinicians. When legal issues are raised, the only law
covered, with a couple of exceptions, is British. This makes the book far less useful to a wider international
readership, and it all but rules it out as a possible textbook for teaching
psychiatric ethics in North America or the rest of the world. It also means that it does not deal with
some of the problems that are specific to the US. It is striking that the book includes no cases that concern the
ethical quandaries faced by psychiatrists when trying to get the best care for
patients with no or inadequate coverage from health insurance or managed care
providers. Indeed, with only fourteen
main cases covered, the book leaves many kinds of difficult cases
undiscussed. There are no cases of
children with depression, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, or conduct
disorders with schools or parents demanding that they be placed on medication,
or refusing to allow them to be treated.
Neither does the book include sustained discussion of patients
threatening their doctors with violence, nor of doctors becoming sexually or
romantically involved with their patients.
While some of the cases are of parents who may be unable to carry out
their parental responsibilities or may even be a threat to their children, none
of them includes sexual abuse.
Another limitation of the book is
that while it provides excellent discussion of its cases covering both the
philosophical issues and the practical details, its less clear whether readers
will find it easy to use the book as a manual to help find the correct answer
to difficult cases. Of course, this may
be asking too much of a casebook. As
much as readers may wish for an algorithm for deciding the right course of
action given any ethical dilemma, this is simply not possible in most
cases. The philosophical issues are
simply too complex and our ethical knowledge is too uncertain for simple
answers to be available. Nevertheless,
the authors could have provided more in the way of a decision-making framework
to help clinicians work through difficult cases. Furthermore, it would be helpful to not only discuss the
philosophical complexities, but the difficulty of acting in the face of the uncertainty
of philosophical knowledge and the contingency of philosophical beliefs. One of the central problems in real life
cases is how to proceed when those responsible for decision-making consider the
facts with great care, deliberate long and hard about what to do, and yet still
disagree amongst themselves about what is best.
Even with these limitations, In
Two Minds is still an excellent resource for those interested in
psychiatric ethics. It is the natural
choice for a textbook for courses on this topic in Britain, and it could be
used for similar courses in the US and other countries if it were supplemented
by other readings or information relevant to the country in question. Highly recommended.
2002 Christian Perring. All rights reserved.
Ph.D., is Chair of the Philosophy Department at Dowling College, Long Island.
He is editor of Metapsychology Online Review. His main research is on
philosophical issues in psychiatry. He is especially interested in exploring
how philosophers can play a greater role in public life, and he is keen to help
foster communication between philosophers, mental health professionals, and the