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Anger and Forgiveness"Are You There Alone?"10 Good Questions about Life and DeathA Casebook of Ethical Challenges in NeuropsychologyA Companion to BioethicsA Companion to BioethicsA Companion to GenethicsA Companion to GenethicsA Companion to Muslim EthicsA Cooperative SpeciesA Critique of the Moral Defense of VegetarianismA Delicate BalanceA Life for a LifeA Life-Centered Approach to BioethicsA Matter of SecurityA Natural History of Human MoralityA Philosophical DiseaseA Practical Guide to Clinical Ethics ConsultingA Question of TrustA Sentimentalist Theory of the MindA Short Stay in SwitzerlandA Very Bad WizardA World Without ValuesAction and ResponsibilityAction Theory, Rationality and CompulsionActs of ConscienceAddiction and ResponsibilityAddiction NeuroethicsAdvance Directives in Mental HealthAfter HarmAftermathAgainst AutonomyAgainst BioethicsAgainst HealthAgainst Moral ResponsibilityAgency and AnswerabilityAgency and ResponsibilityAgency, Freedom, and Moral ResponsibilityAging, 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Whose Property?Our Daily MedsOur Faithfulness to the PastOur Posthuman FutureOut of EdenOut of Its MindOut of the ShadowsOverdosed AmericaOxford Handbook of Psychiatric EthicsOxford Textbook of Philosophy of PsychiatryPassionate DeliberationPatient Autonomy and the Ethics of ResponsibilityPC, M.D.Perfecting VirtuePersonal AutonomyPersonal Autonomy in SocietyPersonal Identity and EthicsPersonhood and Health CarePersons, Humanity, and the Definition of DeathPerspectives On Health And Human RightsPharmacracyPharmageddonPhilosophy and This Actual WorldPhilosophy of BiologyPhilosophy of Technology: The Technological ConditionPhysician-Assisted DyingPicturing DisabilityPilgrim at Tinker CreekPlaying God?Playing God?Political EmotionsPornlandPowerful MedicinesPractical Autonomy and BioethicsPractical EthicsPractical Ethics for PsychologistsPractical RulesPragmatic BioethicsPragmatic BioethicsPragmatic NeuroethicsPraise and BlamePreferences and Well-BeingPrimates and PhilosophersPro-Life, 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Fiends, Perverts, and PedophilesSex OffendersSexual DevianceSexual EthicsSexual PredatorsSexualized BrainsShaping Our SelvesShock TherapyShould I Medicate My Child?ShunnedSick to Death and Not Going to Take It AnymoreSickoSide EffectsSidewalk StoriesSister CitizenSkeptical FeminismSocial Inclusion of People with Mental IllnessSocial JusticeSociological Perspectives on the New GeneticsSome We Love, Some We Hate, Some We EatSovereign VirtueSpiral of EntrapmentSplit DecisionsSticks and StonesStories MatterSubjectivity and Being SomebodySuffering, Death, and IdentitySuicide ProhibitionSurgery JunkiesSurgically Shaping ChildrenTaking Morality SeriouslyTaming the Troublesome ChildTechnology and the Good Life?TestimonyText and Materials on International Human RightsThe Aims of Higher EducationThe Almost MoonThe Altruistic BrainThe American Psychiatric Publishing Textbook of Forensic PsychiatryThe Animal ManifestoThe Art of LivingThe Autonomy of MoralityThe Beloved SelfThe Best Things in 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Mark of ShameThe Meaning of NiceThe Medicalization of SocietyThe Merck DruggernautThe Mind Has MountainsThe Modern Art of DyingThe Modern SavageThe Moral ArcThe Moral BrainThe Moral Demands of MemoryThe Moral FoolThe Moral MindThe Moral Psychology HandbookThe Moral, Social, and Commercial Imperatives of Genetic Testing and ScreeningThe Most Good You Can DoThe Myth of ChoiceThe Myth of the Moral BrainThe Nature of NormativityThe New Disability HistoryThe New Genetic MedicineThe New Religious IntoleranceThe Offensive InternetThe Origins of FairnessThe Oxford Handbook of Animal EthicsThe Oxford Handbook of Ethics at the End of LifeThe Perfect BabyThe Philosophy of NeedThe Philosophy of PornographyThe Philosophy of PsychiatryThe Politics Of LustThe Portable Ethicist for Mental Health Professionals The Power of Religion in the Public SphereThe Price of PerfectionThe Price of TruthThe Problem of PunishmentThe Prosthetic ImpulseThe Psychology of Good and EvilThe Psychology of Good and EvilThe PsychopathThe Purity MythThe Pursuit of PerfectionThe Relevance of Philosophy to LifeThe Right Road to Radical FreedomThe Right to Be ParentsThe Righteous MindThe Root of All EvilThe Rules of InsanityThe Second SexismThe Second-Person StandpointThe Silent World of Doctor and PatientThe Sleep of ReasonThe Social Psychology of Good and EvilThe Social Psychology of MoralityThe Social Psychology of MoralityThe Speed of DarkThe Stem Cell ControversyThe Stem Cell ControversyThe Story of Cruel and UnusualThe Story WithinThe Stubborn System of Moral ResponsibilityThe Suicide TouristThe Terrible GiftThe Theory of OptionsThe Therapy of DesireThe Trauma of Psychological TortureThe Trauma of Psychological TortureThe Triple HelixThe Trolley Problem MysteriesThe Trouble with DiversityThe Truth About the Drug CompaniesThe Ugly LawsThe Varieties of Religious ExperienceThe Virtue of Defiance and Psychiatric EngagementThe Virtues of HappinessThe Virtuous Life in Greek EthicsThe Virtuous PsychiatristThe Voice of Breast Cancer in Medicine and BioethicsThe War Against BoysThe War for Children's MindsThe Whole ChildThe Woman RacketThe Worldwide Practice of TortureTherapy with ChildrenThieves of VirtueThree Generations, No ImbecilesTimes of Triumph, Times of DoubtTolerance Among The VirtuesTolerance and the Ethical LifeTolerationToxic PsychiatryTrauma, Truth and ReconciliationTreatment Kind and FairTrusting on the EdgeTry to RememberUltimate JudgementUnborn in the USA: Inside the War on AbortionUndermining ScienceUnderstanding AbortionUnderstanding CloningUnderstanding EmotionsUnderstanding EvilUnderstanding Moral ObligationUnderstanding Physician-Pharmaceutical Industry InteractionsUnderstanding TerrorismUnderstanding the GenomeUnderstanding the Stigma of Mental IllnessUnderstanding Treatment Without ConsentUnhingedUnprincipled VirtueUnsanctifying Human Life: Essays on EthicsUnspeakable Acts, Ordinary PeopleUp in FlamesUpheavals of ThoughtUsers and Abusers of PsychiatryValue-Free Science?Values and Psychiatric DiagnosisValues in ConflictVegetarianismViolence and Mental DisorderVirtue EthicsVirtue, Rules, and JusticeVirtue, Vice, and PersonalityVirtues and Their VicesWar Against the WeakWar, Torture and TerrorismWarrior's DishonourWeaknessWelfare and Rational CareWhat Genes Can't DoWhat Have We DoneWhat Is a Human?What Is Good and WhyWhat Is Good and WhyWhat Is the Good Life?What Price Better Health?What Should I Do?What We Owe to Each OtherWhat Would Aristotle Do?What's Good on TVWhat's Normal?What's Wrong with Children's RightsWhat's Wrong with Homosexuality?What's Wrong With Morality?When Is Discrimination Wrong?Who Holds the Moral High Ground?Who Owns YouWho Qualifies for Rights?Whose America?Whose View of Life?Why Animals MatterWhy Animals MatterWhy I Burned My Book and Other Essays on DisabilityWhy Not Kill Them All?Why Punish? How Much?Why Some Things Should Not Be for SaleWisdom, Intuition and EthicsWithout ConscienceWomen and Borderline Personality DisorderWomen and MadnessWondergenesWould You Kill the Fat Man?Wrestling with Behavioral GeneticsWriting About PatientsYou Must Be DreamingYour Genetic DestinyYour Inner FishYouth Offending and Youth Justice Yuck!
In a recent Letter from
America, Alistair Cooke commented on the controversy surrounding President
Bushs decision to allow limited federal funding for research on stem cells.
The irony, Cooke remarked, was that despite all the fuss 99% of people dont
even know what a brain stem is. A brain stem is, of course, nothing to do with
a stem cell, even though some stem cells come from brains. Truly ignorance is
widespread, when even those who remark on it simultaneously exemplify it.
Ignorance of matters scientific
is widespread, but if the editors of this volume, and many people besides, are
correct, this ignorance is especially dangerous with regard to genetics.
Genethics is a contraction of genetic ethics; the ethics of genetic
research and its spin- offs. As we enter in what has been called the century
of the gene, when genetics will open possibilities never before imagined, and
carry risks of equally astounding proportions, such an ethics is of enormously
important. Our growing knowledge of genetics gives us the power to design
future generations. Every new advance in medicine has seen its advocates
accused of playing god, but with the genome mapped, we will no longer play
god, we will be as gods. We shall create life in whatever image we choose.
The range of essays, all
commissioned for this volume, collected here testifies to the significance of
the genetic revolution. At least, that is the impression created by so many
essays by so many distinguished contributors. Here philosophers, scientists
(including such important researchers as Ian Wilmut and Richard Dawkins),
bioethicists and lawyers consider the implications of genetic research for
medicine, for public policy, even for arcane philosophical problems. Any
scientific research program that raises so many ethical issues must be of the
first importance. Our growing knowledge of genetics, and ability to detect the
markers for disorders which are wholly or (more usually) partially genetic
means that around the genome cluster a number of ethical issues. Research in
genetics raises ethical issues to do with animal experimentation (addressed
here by Bernard Rollin), informed consent (Søren Holm), new privacy questions
(Madison Powers), and so on.
However, though there is no doubt
that these questions arise in distinctive ways when the focus is genes, these
are very much standard issues in bioethics; for the most part, it is a matter
of applying analyses already developed elsewhere to a new subject matter. In
contrast, there are the entirely new issues raised for the first time by our
knowledge of genetics. Genetics gives us the key to our uniqueness, our
personal identity. Or does it? Carol Rovane addresses the question of personal
identity, and asks whether genetics will contribute anything to its resolution.
Her answer is almost certainly not, not unless some extravagant speculations of
Colin McGinn turn out to be correct. Similarly deflationary is Mary Anne
Warrens contribution, in which she asks whether genes might be morally
considerable entities in their own right, and answers in the negative.
In many ways, then, this volume
serves, perhaps despite the intentions of most of the contributors, to demonstrate
that, far from requiring a revolution in philosophical thinking, the issues
raised by genetic require careful analysis using, for the most part, tools we
already have. This is not to deny that genetic research raises new problems.
Human societies have long practiced a crude form of eugenics, in which disabled
infants, or those of the wrong sex, are exposed at birth. Knowledge of the
genome allows us to intervene before
the creation even of the embryo. The question of the permissibility of such
selection is addressed by several contributors to this volume. Also new is the
question of whether genetic material ought to be patentable, which question is
also addressed by several contributors. Even these, however, are not radically
new questions, but variations on ethical issues that have been with us for
Though a careful reading of the
more thoughtful contributions might serve to dampen the enthusiasm for the
gene, the overall impression caused by the accumulation of so many essays, by
so many well-known thinkers, is surely that the genetic revolution is as
significant as its hype would have us believe.
Yet understanding the real significance of genetics, curing that
ignorance of which Alistair Cooke complained and which he inadvertently exemplified,
requires that its limits be clearly comprehended. Nowhere in this volume does
the phrase norm of reaction appear. The norm of reaction of a particular
genotype (the genetic constitution of an individual) is the range of phenotypes
(actual individuals with all their properties) it will give rise to across a
range of environments. A plant with a particular genotype might flourish in one
environment and wilt in another, while another of the same species might fare
well in the second but not the first. This demonstrates not only that the
environment and not just genes is important in defining the properties of all
organisms, but also that there is no such thing as the best genotype, only
better and worse genotypes for particular environments. Given that complex
characteristics are almost always the product of a combination of genes and the
environment, given also that there are very few single gene diseases, we can
intervene in the health of human beings, and in altering their phenotypical
properties, as effectively, and probably more easily, at the environmental
level as at the genetic.
Though this volume contains many
valuable contributions by distinguished authors, I fear that it will do little
to combat the real ignorance of genetics that is prevalent. Indeed, by
suggesting, albeit implicitly, that genetics has an importance beyond its true
significance, it may actually contribute to reinforcing that ignorance. But
genetic ignorance really matters; not only because it leaves us unable to make
informed decisions about research funding, health policies, and the other ways
in which genetics touches our lives, but, more importantly because it
discourages us from paying attention to our environments, to boosting
intelligence through education, to cutting crime by improving the life
prospects of the underclass, and so on. All this suggests that the editors of
this volume have paid too little attention to the one ethical question which is
indeed unique to genetics: the ethics of suggesting, even by omission, that
genes determine who we are and what we may become.
Link: Publishers web
page for book, with Table of Contents.
2002 Neil Levy
Dr Neil Levy is a fellow of the Centre for Applied Philosophy
and Public Ethics at Charles Sturt
University, Australia. He is the author of two mongraphs and over a dozen
articles and book chapters on Continental philosophy, ethics and political
philosophy. He is currently writing a book on moral relativism.